BOOK SIX:  The Acadian Immigrants of Louisiana

 

INTRODUCTION

BOOK ONE:        French Acadia

BOOK TWO:        British Nova Scotia

BOOK THREE:     Families, Migration, and the Acadian "Begats"

BOOK FOUR:      The French Maritimes

BOOK FIVE:         The Great Upheaval

BOOK SEVEN:     French Louisiana

BOOK EIGHT:      A New Acadia

BOOK NINE:        The Bayou State

BOOK TEN:          The Louisiana Acadian "Begats"

BOOK ELEVEN:  The Non-Acadian "Cajun" Families of South Louisiana

BOOK TWELVE:  Acadians in Gray

 

The Acadians Immigrants of Louisiana

The fate of an Acadian family during Le Grand Dérangement was determined largely by how long its members had settled in the colony, and where they settled in greater Acadia.  Generally, the older the family, the more dispersed it became by 1755, and the more scattered it was then the more scattered it would become in the decades that followed.  This held true for many of the Acadian families that settled in Louisiana.  From February 1764 into the early 1800s, nearly 2,900 individuals bearing over 150 Acadian surnames made their way to the lower Mississippi valley from every corner of the Acadian diaspora:  21 from Georgia in 1764; 600 from Halifax and French St.-Domingue in 1765; 600 more from Maryland in 1766, 1767, 1768, and 1769; nearly 1,600 from France in 1785; 18 from Île St.-Pierre in 1788; and dozens more from Canada, the French Antilles, and Haiti via Cuba into the early 1800s.  Every Acadian family, large or small, had its own special tale to tell of how it had endured the Great Upheaval before it finally found refuge in Louisiana.340 

Allain

By 1755, descendants of Louis Allain, the blacksmith and sawmill owner, and Marguerite Bourg could be found not only in the Annapolis River valley, where Louis had done so well, but also at Minas, Petitcoudiac in the trois-rivières area, and on Île St.-Jean. 

When the British rounded up the Acadians at Chignecto and the trois-rivières in the fall of 1755, Pierre Allain's oldest son Louis le jeune and his wife Anne, daughter of Jacques Léger and Anne Amireau, fled from Petitcoudiac north to the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore, present-day eastern New Brunswick where they took refuge with other Acadians.  They ended up at Restigouche, at the head of the Baie des Chaleurs.  When the British attacked the French stronghold in the summer of 1760, Louis le jeune and his family escaped another roundup.  After the war, his descendants could be found at Bouctouche, Miramichi, Néguac, and Caraquet in present-dayeastern New Brunswick.  Pierre's third son Benjamin and his wife Marie-Rose, daughter of Joseph Bugeaud and Marie-Josèphe Landry, escaped the British at Minas in 1755 and also fled northward.  When the British struck Restigouche in the summer of 1760, Benjamin was serving as a captain in the Acadian militia.  He and his family also escaped the roundup that summer and settled at present-day Carleton on the Gaspé peninsula, east of Restigouche, where they remained.  Pierre's youngest son Jean-Baptiste, only age 14 in 1755, escaped the British roundup at Minas and took refuge in Canada.  He married Marguerite dite La Branche, daughter of Pierre Cormier and Marie Cyr of Chignecto, at Bécancour, across the St. Lawrence from Trois-Rivières in Canada, in January 1762.  In the decades following Le Grand Dérangement, some of Jean-Baptiste's descendants moved downriver to St.-Ours on the lower Richelieu northeast of Montréal.  Typical of most, if not all, Acadian families, these Acadiennes of Canada lost touch with their Cadien cousins hundreds of miles away, and until the Acadian reunions of the twentieth century, may even have forgotten the others existed. 

Pierre's second son, Pierre, fils, married to Catherine, daughter of Jacques Hébert and Marguerite Landry of Grand-Pré, was not as lucky as his brothers.  The British captured him and his family at Minas and deported them to Maryland.  For a dozen years, Pierre and his family endured life among Englishmen who, despite their colony's Catholic roots, did not care much for the French "papists" who had been thrust upon them.  In July 1763, British authorities counted Pierre, fils and his family at Baltimore.  When word reached the Acadians in Maryland that they would be welcome in Spanish Louisiana, where many other Acadians had gone, they pooled their meager resources to charter ships that would take them to New Orleans.  Pierre Allain had no close relatives in Louisiana, nor did his wife, but life had to be better there than in a British colony where they were treated like pariahs.  In April 1767, as part of the second contingent of Maryland Acadians to head to the Spanish colony, the Allains booked passage on the English ship Virgin with 200 other Acadians.  With Pierre went a precious package, still carefully hidden, that he and other Minas exiles had carried with them for a dozen years.199

Arbour

Living in territory controlled by France, Acadians on Île St.-Jean and Île Royale escaped the British roundup in Nova Scotia during the fall of 1755.  Their respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  After the fall of the French fortress at Louisbourg in July 1758, the victorious British rounded up most of the Acadians on the big islands and deported them to France: 

Jacques Arbour crossed on the transport Duke William, which left the Maritimes in September and reached St.-Malo the first of November.  The ship evidently suffered a mishap during the crossing.  Of the 346 deportees aboard the vessel, 148 died at sea.  Jacques was one of the lucky survivors.  One wonders how, or if, he was kin to the other Arbours. 

Guillaume Arbour, born in c1749, and Chrysostôme Arbour, born in c1750, were deported to Cherbourg in Normandy, where Chrysostôme died in December 1758, probably from the rigors of the voyage; he was only 8 years old.  Guillaume died in January 1759; he was only 10 years old.  The priest or priests who recorded their burials did not give the boys' parents' names, so one wonders if they were grandsons of Pierre dit Carrica of Île St.-Jean or younger brothers of Canadian François, fils.    

François Arbour, fils, born in Canada in c1743, may have been deported to France from one of the Maritime islands in 1758, or he may have gone there on his own during the final months of the war with Britain.  He worked as a caulker in the mother country and married Marie, daughter of Acadians Joseph Henry and Christine Pitre, at Le Havre in November 1765.  The priest who recorded his marriage noted that both of François's parents were deceased at the time of the wedding and that he had resided at Le Havre for a year and a half.  François, fils and Marie had at least five children in France, all sons, the first three born probably at Le Havre:  François-Henry in c1767; Jean-Louis-Firmin, called Louis, in c1770; and Frédéric-Édouard in c1772.  In the early 1770s, François, fils, Marie, and their three sons became part of a resettlement scheme in the Poitou region in which French authorities attempted to settle Acadians on marginal land owned by a nobleman near the city of Châtellerault.  François, fils and Marie had another son, Louis-Nicolas, at Archigny, Poitou, in June 1774.  Despite the retreat of most of the Acadians in Poitou to Nantes in late 1775 and early 1776, François, fils and Marie remained at Archigny, where yet another son, Louis-Joseph, was baptized in June 1778.  Son Louis-Nicolas died at Archigny, age 9, in December 1782.  By September 1784, François, fils and his family had joined the Acadians at Nantes.  Youngest son Louis-Joseph died probably at Nantes in late 1784 or early 1785.  

When in the early 1780s the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France the chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana, François Arbour, fils and his family agreed to take it.200

Arcement

When the British deported the Acadians of Nova Scotia in the autumn of 1755, Pierre-Claude Arcement, wife Marie-Josèphe Thériot, and their children, still on Île St.-Jean, were living in territory controlled by France.  Their respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  After the fall of the French fortress at Louisbourg in July 1758, the British rounded up most of the Acadians on Île St.-Jean and deported them to France.  Pierre-Claude Arcement's son Pierre, age 25, his wife Marie Hébert, age 23, their infant son Pierre, fils, and Marie's sister Anne Hébert, crossed on the British transport Supply, which left the Gut of Canso in late November and reached St.-Malo in early March 1759.  They all survived the crossing.  Pierre's sister Geneviève, age 35, husband Amand Pitre, age 35, and eight of their children, ages 12 to 3, also crossed on Supply, but they were not as lucky.  Three of their children, ages 12, 4, and 3, died at sea, and a daughter, age 8, died in April 1759 probably from the rigors of the crossing.  One wonders what happened to Pierre and Geneviève's parents and their other siblings, some of whom may have remained at L'Assomption, Pigiguit, when the rest of the family moved to Île St.-Jean in 1750. 

Pierre and Marie settled at St.-Suliac, near St.-Malo, where seven more children were born to them in the next dozen years:  Marguerite-Ludivine in September 1760, Marie-Josèphe in October 1762, Charles-Suliac in August 1764, Tranquille-François in June 1766, Victoire-Hélène in March 1768, Perrine-Madeleine in May 1770, and Guillaume-Romain in January 1772.  Two more daughters--Julie-Céleste, born in c1773, and Françoise in c1776--were born to them elsewhere in France. 

Pierre's sister Geneviève, husband Amand Pitre, and their four surviving children also settled at St.-Suliac, where another daughter, Marguerite-Tarsille, was born in February 1761.  In the early 1770s, Amand and Geneviève were part of a settlement scheme in the Poitou region that failed after two years of effort.  In March 1776, they followed dozens of their fellow Acadians to the port city of Nantes, where they subsisted on government hand outs and on what work they could find there.  Geneviève died at Nantes sometime in the late 1770s or early 1780s.

When in the early 1780s the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France the chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana, Pierre Arcement and his family agreed to take it.  So did Pierre's widowed brother-in-law, Amand Pitre, and four of his children.201

Arosteguy

The Acadians at Chignecto were the first to endure a disruption of their lives.  In the spring and summer of 1750, Canadian soldiers, assisted by Mi'kmaq warriors led by Abbé Le Loutre, burned Acadian homesteads in the British-controlled area east of Rivière Missaguash, forcing the habitants to move to the French-controlled area across the river.  Pierre Arosteguy, wife Marie Robichaud, and their family may have been among the refugees who re-settled on the west side of the Beauséjour ridge.  After yet another war erupted between Britain and France in 1754, the Chignecto Acadians were caught in the middle of it.  When British and New England forces attacked Fort Beauséjour in June 1755, Chignecto Acadians were serving in the fort as militia.  They, too, along with the French troupes de la marine, became prisoners of war when the fort surrendered on June 16.  

Lieutenant-Governor Lawrence was so incensed to find so-called French Neutrals fighting with French regulars at Beauséjour that he ordered his officers to deport the Chignecto Acadians to the southernmost British colonies on the Atlantic seaboard.  The fate of many Chignecto Acadians was exile to Georgia or South Carolina, but some families eluded the British roundup.  They made the long, hard journey north to the St. Lawrence Valley or at least to the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore in present-day northeastern New Brunswick.  Pierre Arosteguy and his family evidently were among those Chignecto Acadians who escaped the British in 1755 but were forced by circumstances in the early 1760s to surrender to their British tormentors.  Pierre, wife Marie, and five of their children were among the 370 Acadians being held at Fort Cumberland in August 1763.  The cold irony is that Fort Cumberland was located on the Beauséjour ridge, where the Arosteguys had been living in 1755.  Pierre, fils evidently married Isabelle Comeau, a fellow Acadian, during Le Grand Dérangement

Now that the war with Britain had finally ended, the Acadians being held at Fort Cumberland faced a hard dilemma.  The Treaty of Paris of February 1763 stipulated in its Article 14 that persons dispersed by the war had 18 months to return to their respective territories.  However, British authorities refused to allow any of the Acadian prisoners in the region to return to their former lands as proprietors.  If Acadians chose to remain in, or return to, Nova Scotia, they could live only in small family groups in previous unsettled areas or work for low wages on former Acadian lands now owned by New England "planters."  If they stayed, they must also take the hated oath of allegiance to the new British king, George III, without reservation.  They would also have to take the oath if they joined their cousins in Canada.  After all they had suffered on the question of the oath, few self-respecting Acadians would consent to take it if it could be avoided.  Some Halifax exiles chose to relocate to Miquelon, a French-controlled island off the southern coast of Newfoundland.  Others considered going to French St.-Domingue, where Acadian exiles in the British colonies already had gone, or to the Illinois country, the west bank of which still belonged to France, or to French Louisiana, which, thanks to British control of Canada, was the only route possible to the Illinois country for Acadian exiles.  Whatever their choice, they refused to remain in L'Acadie.  So they gathered up their money and their few possessions and prepared to leave their homeland.  Of the 600 who left Halifax in late 1764 bound for Cap-Français, St.-Domingue, seven were Arosteguys.189

Arseneau

By 1755, descendants of Pierre Arseneau, the coastal pilot, and his two wives, Marguerite Dugas and Marie Guérin, could be found not only at the family's home base in the Chignecto area, but also in the French Maritimes, especially at Malpèque on the northwestern shore of Île St.-Jean. 

The Arceneaus who remained at Chignecto were the first to endure a disruption of their lives.  In the spring and summer of 1750, Canadian soldiers, assisted by Abbé Le Loutre and his Mi'kmaq warriors, burned Acadian homesteads in the British-controlled area east of Rivière Missaguash, forcing habitants there to move to the French-controlled area west of the river.  Arseneaus probably were among the refugees.  After yet another war erupted between Britain and France in 1754, the Chignecto Acadians were caught in the middle of it.  When British and New England forces attacked Fort Beauséjour in June 1755, Chignecto Acadians served in the fort as militia.  They, too, along with the French troupes de la marine, became prisoners of war when the fort surrendered on June 16.  Governor Lawrence was so incensed to find so-called French Neutrals fighting with French regulars at Beauséjour that he ordered his officers to deport the Chignecto Acadians to the southernmost British colonies on the Atlantic seaboard.  

Chignecto Arseneaus who escaped the British roundup in Nova Scotia in 1755 hurried north to the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore.  Some moved on to Canada.  Paul Arseneau lost two of his sons--Félix, age 6; and Jean-Baptiste, age 1--in a smallpox epidemic that struck the Acadians at Québec in the fall and winter of 1757-58.  Other members of  the family congregated at Restigouche at the head of the Baie des Chaleurs.  Still others escaped to French-controlled Île-St. Jean, where their cousins had lived for decades.  Their respite from British oppression there was short-lived, however.  After the fall of the French fortress at Louisbourg in July 1758, the British rounded up most of the habitants on the Maritime islands and deported them to France.  Most of the Arseneaus on Île St.-Jean, living at Malpèque on the island's remote northwest coast, escaped the redcoasts and joined their cousins on the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore. 

A few Arseneaus on the island could not get away.  Anne-Marie, daughter of Pierre Arseneau and Marguerite Cormier and wife of François Vécot of Boucherville, Canada, was counted with her family on the south bank of Rivière-du-Nord-Est, in the middle of the island, in August 1752.  In September 1758, the British deported them to St.-Malo, France, aboard the British transport Duke William.  Four of Anne-Marie's five children died aboard ship.  The crippled vessel arrived at St.-Malo on 1 November 1758.  One record notes that Anne-Marie "died in the roadstead at St.-Malo," so she almost made it to the mother country.  She was only 32 years old.  Her husband died on November 4, just three days after the ship made port.  Only son François Vécot, fils, age 13, survived the ordeal.  Marie-Madeleine, daughter of Pierre Arseneau and Anne Boudrot of Havre-St.-Pierre, Île St.-Jean, and widow of Jean Delaunay of Lacasse, Brittany, was deported to Cherbourg in 1758 but moved on to St.-Malo in August 1759.  She lived at St.-Cast, Corseul, and again at St.-Cast, suburbs of St.-Malo, and died at St.-Cast in October 1763, in early 40s.  Jean, fils, son of Jean Arseneau and Marie Lamy, a day laborer, married Élisabeth, daughter of Frenchmen Barthélemy Sansovoine and Anne Pasquier of St.-Martin de Péré, at Notre-Dame, Rochefort, in May 1771; Jean, fils's brothers Pierre, André, and Élie witnessed the marriage. 

Some of the Arseneaus in France, eager to return to their homes in North America, chose to settle on the French-controlled islands of St.-Pierre and Miquelon, off the southern coast of Newfoundland.   This choice, however, for many Acadians, proved to be a troublesome one.  Louise, daughter of Abraham Arseneau and Jeanne Gaudet and widow of Jean Vigneau dit Maurice, remarried to Joseph Dugas, fils, widower of Marguerite LeBlanc, at Chédabouctou, Nova Scotia, in October 1762.  The marriage was "reinstated" at Notre-Dame-des-Ardiliers, on Île Miquelon, in May 1766.  Marie-Madeleine, daughter of François Arseneau, and husband Jean dit Jeannotte Bourg, were counted on the island in 1767.  Overcrowding soon led the French to send many Acadians on the small island back to the mother country.  Louise and husband Joseph crossed to France on the schooner La Creole and reached St.-Malo in November 1767, but they refused to stay.  They returned to St.-Pierre and Miquelon the following March.  Jean Arseneau, wife Madeleine Boudrot, and their family also went to France in 1767.  They settled at Belle-Île-en-Mer, off the southern coast of Brittany, with other Acadians.  Jean drowned probably off the island in September 1768.  His family chose to remain in France.  Son Basile, now a sailor, married Anne, daughter of Joseph Bourgeois and Marguerite Hébert of Notre-Dame, Île Miquelon, at St.-Jean church, La Rochelle, in April 1780.  Meanwhile, in 1778, during the American war for independence, France joined the Americans against their old enemy, Britain.  The redcoats promptly captured St.-Pierre and Miquelon and deported the Acadians there to La Rochelle.  After reaching the port, Louise Arseneau and husband Joseph Dugas, fils returned to St.-Malo aboard the brigantine La Jeannette in November 1778.  This time they stayed.  They settled at St.-Servan, near St.-Malo, where Louise died in June 1779, age 63.  Pierre Arseneau and his wife Théotiste Bourgeois of Chignecto also had come to France by a circuituous route.  As a teenager, Pierre, with younger brother Jean-Baptiste, escaped the British roundup at Chignecto in 1755, sought refuge on the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore, and married Théotiste at Restigouche in July 1760.  Soon after their marriage, the British attacked Restigouche, defeated the French and Acadians there, captured 300 Acadian refugeess, including the newlyweds, and held them as prisoners in Nova Scotia for the rest of the war.  After the war finally ended, Pierre and Théoitiste chose to join their fellow Acadians on Île Miquelon in c1764.  They may have gone to France in 1767 and returned to the island.  They were there in 1778 when the British captured the island and deported the Acadians to La Rochelle.  Pierre, Théotiste, and their family were still at La Rochelle when their daughter Marie-Anne was born in St.-Jean Parish in February 1779.  Marie-Anne died two months later.  Their daughter Judith, called Julie, was born in St.-Jean Parish in March 1781 and died at La Rochelle in March 1782.  Pierre also died there that year.  Three of his older children--Marie-Scholastique, Pierre, and Charles--refused to remain in the mother country.  They returned to North America and settled on the îles-de-la-Madeleine in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.  When, in the early 1780s, the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France the chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana, none of the Arceneaus still in France took up the offer to go there. 

In North America, Arseneaus who escaped the British roundup of 1758 headed to Restigouche, at the head of the Baie des Chaleurs, where they joined their Chignecto cousins already there.  After the fall of Québec in September 1759, the British attacked Restigouche in the summer of 1760, defeated the French regulars and Acadian militia, captured 300 Acadian refugees, many of whom had served in the militia, and dragged them off to prisoner-of-war compounds in British Nova Scotia.  A hand full of Arseneaus were among the captured, but most of them escaped this latest roundup and moved to the north shore of the Baie des Chaleurs or to Île Miscou at the entrance to the bay.  After the war, especially after 1766, Arseneaus could be found in Canada at Québec City; on the upper St. Lawrence at Lotbinière, Bécancour, St.-Jacques-de-l'Achigan, L'Assomption, and Montréal; at St.-Pierre-de-Sorel, St.-Ours, and St. Antoine-de-Chambly on the lower Richelieu; on Île d'Orléans and at Rimouski on the lower St. Lawrence; on the îles-de-la-Madeleine in the Gulf of St. Lawrence; at Carleton and Bonaventure in Gaspésie; at Caraquet, Cocagne, and Grande-Digue along the eastern New Brunswick shore; at Louisbourg and Chéticamp on Cape Breton Island; and at Windsor, formerly Pigiguit, in Nova Scotia.  Some of them managed to return to St. John's Island, which the British renamed Prince Edward Island.  Typical of most, if not all, Acadian families, these Acadiennes of Canada lost touch with their Cadien cousins hundreds of miles away, and until the Acadian reunions of the twentieth century, may even have forgotten the others existed. 

Not all of the Chignecto Arseneaus who had taken refuge at Restigouche escaped the British roundup there.  When the war finally ended, the Arseneaus being held in the prison compounds of Nova Scotia faced a hard dilemma.  The Treaty of Paris of February 1763 stipulated in its Article 14 that persons dispersed by the war had 18 months to return to their respective territories.  However, British authorities refused to allow any of the Acadian prisoners in the region to return to their former lands as proprietors.  If Acadians chose to remain in, or return to, Nova Scotia, they could live only in small family groups in previous unsettled areas or work for low wages on former Acadian lands now owned by New England "planters."  If they stayed, they must also take the hated oath of allegiance to the new British king, George III, without reservation.  They would also have to take the oath if they joined their cousins in Canada.  After all they had suffered on the question of the oath, few self-respecting Acadians would consent to take it if it could be avoided.  Some Halifax exiles, including one of family of Arseneaus, chose to relocate to Miquelon, a French-controlled island off the southern coast of Newfoundland.  Others considered going to French St.-Domingue, where Acadian exiles in the British colonies already had gone, or to the Illinois country, the west bank of which still belonged to France, or to French Louisiana, which, thanks to British control of Canada, was the only route possible to the Illinois country for Acadian exiles.  Whatever their choice, they refused to remain in L'Acadie.  So they gathered up their money and their few possessions and prepared to leave their homeland.  Of the 600 who left Halifax in late 1764 bound for Cap-Français, St.-Domingue, at least 18 were Arseneaus.202

Aucoin

By 1755, descendants of Martin Aucoin, père and Marie Gaudet could be found at Rivière-aux-Canards, Grand-Pré, Pigiguit, and Cobeguit in the Minas Basin; Chignecto; Petitcoudiac in the trois-rivières area; and on Île St.-Jean.  Le Grand Dérangement of the 1750s scattered this large family even farther. 

The Acadians at Chignecto and in the trois-rivières were the first to fall into the hands of the British, who exiled them to several of their Atlantic seaboard colonies.  In the fall of 1755, the British deported Alexis, son of Martin Aucoin III of Petitcoudiac, to South Carolina, while other Aucoins from the Chignecto/trois-rivières area escaped the British roundup.  Alexis's younger Jean-Baptiste died in c1760 while in exile.  His widow, Marie-Anne Saulnier of Petitcoudiac, remarried to a Canadian widower at St.-Thomas-de-Montmagny, on the St. Lawrence below Québec, in October 1762.  Her Aucoin children likely remained in Canada.  Pierre, son of René Aucoin, Pierre's wife Marguerite Dupuis, and their family found refuge at Restigouche, at the head of the Baie des Chaleurs.  An Aucoin family from Minas--that of Alexis's son Pierre and Pierre's wife Isabelle Breau--also escaped the round up of 1755.  Pierre died probably in Canada in c1757, and his widow remarried to fellow Acadian Alexandre Guilbeau of Annapolis Royal, widower of Marguerite Girouard, at St.-Pierre-des-Becquets, on the upper St. Lawrence below Trois-Rivières, in November 1759.

Minas Aucoins who did not escape the round up in the fall of 1755 ended up in Pennsylvania.  The Aucoins who were shipped to Virginia that fall endured a fate worse than most of the their fellow Acadians deported from Minas.  In mid-November, when five transports appeared unexpectedly at Hampton Roads, the Virginia governor, Robert Dinwiddie, protested their deportation to his colony without his consent.  Many of the exiles died on the filthy, crowded ships anchored in Hampton Roads while the Virginia authorities pondered their fate.  Acadians from one vessel were moved up to Richmond, two of the vessels were unloaded at Hampton, and two more at Norfolk.  A hand full of young Acadians managed to slip away and trek overland through fields and forests and over the mountains, to French Canada, but most of the exiles remained in Virginia.  Finally, in the spring of 1756, Virginia's House of Burgesses made its decision ... the Acadians must go!  In May, the first shipment of Acadians in hired vessels left for England, and in two weeks all of them had gone--299 to Bristol, 250 to Falmouth, 340 to Southampton, and 336 to Liverpool--1,225 of the original 1,500.  Their ordeal only worsened in the English ports, where they were treated like common criminals and where many died of smallpox.  Aucoins were held at Liverpool, Bristol, and Gloucester. 

In 1763, after the war with Britain had finally ended, Acadians being held in the British seaboard colonies were allowed to leave, but not before colonial officials counted them and discerned their intentions.  In June, colonial officials in Pennsylvania counted several Aucoins still in the colony.  They included Olivier Aucoin l'aîné of l'Assomption, Pigiguit, his second wife Marguerite Daigre, and three of their children; Olivier Aucoin le jeune, son of Paul, Olivier's wife Anne Dupuis, and five children; Siméon Aucoin, his wife Isabelle, and their child; and Pierre Aucoin's unnamed widow with her seven children.  Instead of moving to Canada, they moved down to Maryland and joined their fellow Acadians there.  When over 600 of Maryland Acadians emigrated to Louisiana in the late 1760s, no Aucoins joined them.  Surrounded by fellow exiles and French expatriates, they settled at Frenchtown in Baltimore, where their transition from Acadien to Americain went faster for them than for their cousins who had gone on to Spanish Louisiana.  In a generation or so, the family's name in Baltimore no longer was Aucoin but Wedge.  Meanwhile, in August 1763, colonial officials in South Carolina counted Aucoins among the Acadians "who desire to withdraw under the standard of their king his very Christian Majesty."  They included Madeleine Aucoin, wife of Jean Olivau, and their 20-year-old daughter; Anne Aucoin, wife of Pierre Bourgeois, and their 22-year-old son; and 28-year-old Élisabeth Aucoin, perhaps Anne's younger sister.  One wonders to which French-controlled territory these Aucoins emigrated. 

Alexis Aucoin, who had been exiled to South Carolina, chose to take his family to Canada, where they joined some of his Aucoin kinsmen.  Alexis remarried to Thècle, daughter of Canadians Simon Leureau and Marguerite Loignon, at Ste.-Famille, Île d'Orléans, below Québec, in February 1763.  He and his family settled on Île d'Orleans and Rivière-du-Loup on the St. Lawrence below Québec, at St.-Joseph-de-Beauce on Rivière Chaudière south of Québec, and at Yamachiche on the north shore of Lac St.-Pierre above Trois-Rivères.  Typical of most, if not all, Acadian families, these Acadiennes of Canada lost touch with their Cadien cousins hundreds of miles away, and, until the Acadian reunions of the twentieth century, may even have forgotten the others existed. 

Aucoins from Atlantic seaboard colonies went also to French St.-Domingue, today's Haiti, where, beginning in the early 1760s, they provided cheap labor in the construction of a new French naval base at Môle St.-Nicolas on the north shore of the island.  When the opportunity came in the mid- and late 1760s to follow hundreds of their fellow Acadians to Spanish Louisiana, most of the Aucoins chose to remain in the sugar colony.  Jean-Marie, son of Jean-Charles Aucoin, a carpenter, and Françoise Lapierre, was born at Môle St.-Nicolas in June 1776.  Jean-Charles died there January 1778, no age given.  Meanwhile, Pierre, fils, son of Pierre Aucoin and Madeleine Le Prince of Grand-Pré and a grandson of Michel Aucoin, fils, died at Môle St.-Nicolas in March 1776; he was only 25 years old.  Michel, son of Pierre Aucoin and Marguerite Dupuis of Rivière-aux-Canards, was an exception.  As an infant, he was taken to one of the British Atlantic colonies in 1755 and then to St.-Domingue probably in the early 1760s.  In 1769, now 14 years old, he took the ship Le Americain from Cap-Français to St.-Malo, France, which he reached the first of October.  He lived with cousin Jean Aucoin at nearby St.-Servan for the next several years, where he took up the woodworking trade as a joiner.  Later in the decade he moved south to Nantes, on the other side of Brittany, where he married Marie-Rose, called Rosalie or Rose, daughter of fellow Acadians Jean De La Forestrie and his first wife Marie-Madeleine Bonnière of Île St.-Jean, in Ste.-Croix Parish in July 1779; Michel was age 24 when he married.  Rosalie gave him three daughters at several parishes in or around Nantes:  Marie-Françoise was born at Ste.-Croix in April 1780; Louis-Adélaïde at St.-Nicolas in September 1781 but died at at age 1 at Chantenay, a suburb of Nantes, in September 1782; and Rose-Adélaïde, called Rosalie, was born at Chantenay in April 1784. 

Meanwhile, the Aucoins who had moved to Île St.-Jean before Le Grand Dérangement or who had fled there from Chigecto and Cobeguit during the British roundup in Nova Scotia were living in territory controlled by France, so they remained unmolested.  Their respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  After the fall of the French fortress at Louisbourg in July 1758, the British swooped down on the Maritime islands and rounded up the Acadian habitants there.  Some of the Acadians escaped from Île St.-Jean and made their way north to Canada, but the great majority of them, including the Aucoins, were rounded up and deported to France: 

Anne Aucoin, age 40, husband Ambroise Dupuis, age 40, and their seven children, ages 16 to 2; Antoine Aucoin, age about 75, wife Anne Breau, age 64, and son Antoine, fils, age 30; Marie Aucoin, age 40, husband Grégoire Maillet, age 32, and seven of their children crossed on the British transport Tamerlane, which reached St.-Malo in mid-January 1759.  All survived the crossing except two of the Maillet children, who died at sea; however, Marie died at St.-Malo in April, probably from the rigors of the crossing.  Four childless couples--Michel Aucoin, age 27, and his Élisabeth, or Isabelle, Hébert, age 21; François Bourg, age 20, and wife Anne Aucoin, age 20; Jean Bourg, age 23, and his wife Marie Aucoin, age 25; and Joseph Bourg, age 22, and wife Marguerite Aucoin, age 23--crossed on one or more of the five British transports that left the Gut of Canso in late November and reached St.-Malo in late January 1759.  They all survived the crossing.  But the difficult crossing devastated many Aucoin families.  René dit Renauchon Aucoin, wife Madeleine Michel, and all of their children perished aboard the British transport Duke William which sank in a storm off the coast of England on its way to St.-Malo.  Isabelle Amireau, age 50, widow of Antoine Aucoin and mother of Michel, crossed on one of the Five Ships with four of her unmarried Aucoin children.  Three of them--Chrysostôme, age 18; Françoise, age 15, and Hélène, age 12--survived the crossing, but daughter Ursule, age unrecorded, died at sea.  Michel Aucoin, age 50, and wife Marie-Josèphe Henry, age 50, crossed with five unmarried daughters on one of the Five Ships.  They, along with three of their daughters--Marie-Josèphe, age 27; Geneviève, age 15; and Élisabeth or Isabelle, age 14--survived the crossing, but, with two of their other daughters--Marguerite, age 22; and Osite, age 10--Michel and Marie-Josèphe died at St.-Malo within weeks of their arrival, probably from the rigors of the crossing.  Their married daughter Madeleine, age 22, and husband Olivier Thibodeau, age 27, also crossed on one of the Five Ships.  The couple lost an 18-month-old son at sea, and Madeleine died along with their weeks-old son soon after reaching St.-Malo.  Joseph Aucoin, age 38, who crossed on one of the Five Ships, lost his wife Anne Blanchard and two of his children--Radégonde, age 5; Joseph, age 2--in the crossing, and daughter Osite, age 8 months, died in a hospital at St.-Malo in April.  Alexis Aucoin, age 42, wife Hélène Blanchard, age 40, and seven of their children crossed on one of the Five Ships.  Hélène and four of their children--Pierre, age 17; Joseph, age 16; Fabien, age 13, and Hélène, age 10--survived the crossing, but Alexis and three of their children--Marguerite, age 9; Marie, age 11; and Théodore, age 6--either died at sea or in a St.-Malo hospital soon after reaching the port city.  Marie Aucoin, husband Chérubin Breau, and five of their children crossed on one of the Five Ships.  Marie, Chérubin, and all of their children except 15-year-old Marie-Osite Breau either died at sea or in a hospital at St.-Malo.  Anne Aucoin, age 54, wife of Pierre Henry, also 54, lost her husband and four of their seven children aboard one of the Five Ships. 

Island Aucoins who survived the crossing did their best to create a life for themselves in the teeming suburbs of St.-Malo.  Antoine, père did not live long in the mother country; he died at St.-Suliac, south of St.-Malo, in June 1759, six months after he reached France.  Wife Anne Breau died at St.-Suliac three weeks later.  Their son Antoine, fils married fellow Acadian Françoise Hébert, widow of Élie LeBlanc, at St.-Suliac in January 1760.  She gave him at least four children there:  Marguerite-Françoise, born in July 1761 but died at age 1 1/2 in February 1763; Pierre-Joseph-Antoine was born in January 1765; François-Charles in November 1767 but died at Senillé, Poitou, age 7, in July 1774; and Louis-Jean was born at St.-Suliac in January 1770.  Michel, son of Antoine Aucoin and Isabelle Amireau, and his bride Élisabeth Hébert also settled in the St.-Malo area.  A childless couple when they arrived in France, Michel and Élisabeth had at least 14 children at St.-Énogat, now Dinard, southwest of St.-Malo:  Joseph Michel was born in May 1760, Jean-Charles in July 1761, Françoise in February 1763 but died the following September, Marie-Josèphe was born in March 1764, Anne-Théodose in May 1765, François-David in August 1766 but died at age 2 1/2 in March 1769, Grégoire-Alexis was born in October 1767, Michel-Pierre in February 1769, Pierre-Paul in July 1770, Isabelle in July 1772, François-Étienne in December 1773, Jeanne in April 1778 but died at age 9 months in February 1779, Florianne-Marguerite was born in November 1780, and Constant-Jean-Baptiste in October 1782.  They also lived at St.-Lunaire, west of St.-Énogat.  Michel's younger sister Hélène married Alexis-Grégoire, son of fellow Acadians Alexis Doiron and Marguerite Thibodeau of l'Assomption, Pigiguit, at St.-Énogat in May 1767.  She gave him at least three children there.   One wonders what was the fate of Michel and Hélène's brother Chrysostôme, who was age 18 when he arrived at St.-Malo.  Did he die from the rigors of the crossing?  Did he create a family of his own in the St.-Malo area?  And what of Chrysostôme's younger sister Françoise, who was 15 when she reached the mother country?  Alexis Aucoin, père's son Joseph of Cobeguit, who lost his wife Anne Blanchard and all three of their children in the crossing from Île St.-Jean, promptly remarried to Anne, daughter of fellow Acadians Jean Hébert and Claire Dugas and widow of Jean Blanchard, at Ploubalay, southwest of St.-Malo, in November 1759.  Anne gave him 11 more children:  Joseph-Yves was born at Ploubalay in November 1760 but died at La Haute-Marchandais, near St.-Malo, at age 22 in July 1783; Pierre-Alexis was born at Ploubablay in May 1762; Anne-Marie at Villou in April 1764; Jean-Charles at Tréméreuc, southeast of Ploubalay, in July 1766; Françoise-Marie in June 1768 but died the following December; François-Malo was born in November 1769; Gabriel-Guillaume in March 1772; Marie-Madeleine at La Marchandais in August 1774; Françoise-Victoire at Tréméreuc in May 1777; Julie-Marie-Françoise at La Haute Marchandais in February 1780 but died at age 1 1/2 in September 1781; and Hyacinthe-Laurent was born in April 1785.  In June 1760, Alexis Aucion, fils's widow, Hélène Blanchard, remarried to Paul, son of Joseph Dugas and Claire Bourg of Cobeguit and widower of Marguerite-Marie Boudrot, at Ploubalay; she gave him two more daughters.  Her older Aucoin sons, Pierre and Joseph, created families of their own at Tréméreuc.  Oldest son Pierre married Hélène, daughter of fellow Acadians Jean Hébert and Claire Dugas, at Ploubalay in May 1763.  At least four children were born to them at Tréméreuc:  Victoire-Hélène was born at Villou near Tréméreuc in March 1764, Pierre-Joseph at Tréméreuc in May 1766, Anne-Angélique in January 1769, Jean-Joseph in May 1771, and François-Alexis in April 1774.  They also lived at Ploubalay and at St.-Coulomb, northeast of St.-Malo.  Younger brother Joseph married Marie-Josèphe Hébert, his older brother's younger sister.  Marie-Josèphe gave Joseph at least 10 children at Tréméreuc:  Alexis-Joseph was born in April 1765, Pierre-Jean at La Croix in May 1766, Charles-Étienne at Tréméreuc in October 1767 but died at age 10 in November 1777, Fabien-Isaac was born in May 1769, Marie-Madeleine-Julienne in September 1770 but died at age 7 in November 1777 three days before brother Charles-Étienne, Mathurin-Jean was born in April 1772, Joseph-Marie in April 1775, Anne-Marguerite in December 1776 but died at age 11 months in November 1777, Malo-Jean was born in February 1778, and Malo-Dieutonne at Villou in March 1780 but died at age 1 in May 1781.  Like their Pierre and Hélène, Joseph and Marie-Josèphe also lived at Ploubalay and St.-Coulomb.  Pierre and Joseph's youngest brother Fabien did not marry until his early 30s, when he was no longer living at St.-Malo.  He married Marguerite, daughter of fellow Acadians Charles Dupuis and Marie Trahan, at St.-Similien, Nantes, May 1776.  They were that rare Acadian couple who had no children.  Marie-Josèphe, age 32, oldest daughter of Michel Aucoin and Marie-Josèphe Henry, married Germain, son of fellow Acadians Joseph Blanchard and Anne Dupuis of Cobeguit and widower of Marguerite Bourg, at Langrolay, south of St.-Malo, in March 1762; Germain had lost his first wife, along with five of their six children, during or soon after the crossing from Île St.-Jean aboard one of the Five Ships.  Marie-Josèphe gave him four more children, including a set of twins; all four of them died in infancy.  Marie-Josèphe younger sister Geneviève married Paul, son of fellow Acadian Pierre Daigre and Anne-Marie Breau, at Pleudihen, south of St.-Malo, in April 1761; Geneviève was age 20 when she married.  She gave Paul nine children, four of whom did not survive childhood.  Their youngest sister Élisabeth, or Isabelle, married Jean, son of sister Marie-Josèphe's husband Germain Blanchard and his first wife Marguerite Bourg, at Pleudihen in July 1765; Élisabeth was age 21 when she married.  She gave Jean four chlildren, most of whom survived childhood.  They also lived at St.-Suliac and Langrolay. 

Island Aucoins also ended up in other French ports, including Cherbourg in Normandy; Boulogne-sur-Mer in Picardy; Calais in Artois; and on Île d'Aix, south of La Rochelle, off the coast of Aunis.  But not all of them remained in the community where they landed.  Pierre-Fiacre Aucoin, age 29, reached Cherbourg in late 1758 or early 1759 but promptly sailed on to St.-Malo, which he reached in late February.  He lived at St.-Servan for only a few weeks and then returned to Cherbourg by 9 March 1759, where he evidently remained.  One wonders what happened to him there.  Sylvain Aucoin, père of Cobeguit and Île St.-Jean died at Cherbourg in November 1759; he was 48 years old.  His daughter Cécile by wife Catherine Amireau, married Jean-Baptiste, son of fellow Acadians Jean dit Petit-Jean La Gerne and Josèphe Hébert of Pigiguit and Île St.-Jean, at Très-Ste.-Trinité, Cherbourg, in October 1759, but Cécile died in November, age 21.  Cécile's brother Sylvain, fils, widower of Rose Henry, married Marie, daughter of fellow Acadians Paul dit Le Grand Paul Doiron and Marguerite Michel of Pigiguit and Île St.-Jean and widow of Bonaventure Thibodeau, at Très-Ste.-Trinité in February 1760.  Claude Aucoin died at Cherbourg in August 1759, age 31.  Pierre Aucoin of Île St.-Jean died at Cherbourg in August 1759; he was 34 years old.  Alexis Aucoin, père, called Lexy by the recording priest, third son of family progenitor Martin, père, had settled at Cobeguit before moving on to Île St.-Jean to escape the British roundup in the Minas Basin; Alexis died in St.-Nicolas Parish, Boulogne-sur-Mer, in December 1759; he was 75 years old.  Son François, age 34, wife Élisabeth Blanchard, age unrecorded, and their son Charles, age 11, also landed at Boulogne-sur-Mer.  Daughter Marie-Josèphe was born at Boulogne-sur-Mer in 1759 soon after their arrival.  Wife Élisabeth died in the Picardy port in May 1761.  Son Charles, who became a seaman, did not remain at Boulogne-sur-Mer.  He married Madeleine, daughter of fellow Acadians Charles LeBlanc and his first wife Anne Boudrot, in Ste.-Croix Parish, Nantes, in November 1776.  Their son Joseph-Marie was born at nearby Chantenay in January 1778.  Charles died by September 1783, when his widow Madeleine LeBlanc remarried to Frenchman François Mancel of Lucerne and Chantenay.  Charles's younger sister Marie-Josèphe married Jean, son of François Mancel and her former sister-in-law Madeleine LeBlanc, at St.-Martin-de-Chantenay in January 1783; Marie-Josèphe was 24 years old at the time of her marriage.   Jean Aucoin and Marie-Jeanne Theriot had at least two children in St.-Nicolas Parish:  Marie-Françoise was born in March 1761, and Jean-Charles in November 1762 but died the following February.  Paul Aucoin, age 47, wife Marie LeBlanc, age 45, and at least six of their children--Marie-Josèphe, age 15; Marguerite-Suzanne, age 14; Joseph, age 10; Tarsille, age 9; Marie-Madeleine, age 6; and Louis-Paul, age 5--crossed from Île St.-Jean to Boulogne-sur-Mer.  Youngest son Louis-Paul died at Boulogne-sur-Mer in July 1761, only 7 years old.  Paul and Marie's oldest surviving daughter Marie-Joséphe, age 21, married cousin Anselme, 21-year-old son of fellow Acadians Honoré Landry and Hélène LeBlanc, at St.-Nicolas in October 1764.  Paul, Marie, and their unmarried children--Marguerite-Suzanne, Joseph, Tarsille, and Marie-Madeleine--did not remain at Boulogne-sur-Mer.  In May 1766, they sailed aboard the brigantine Le Hazard to St.-Malo and settled at nearby Pleudihen and St.-Suliac.  Joseph married Élisabeth, daughter of fellow Acadians François Henry and Marie Dugas, at St.-Suliac in May 1770.  Daughter Marie-Josèphe was born probably at St.-Suliac in c1771, and Isabelle-Jeanne at Village aux Nonnains, near St.-Suliac, in July 1773.  One wonders what happened to Joseph's sisters Marguerite-Suzanne, Tarsille, and Marie-Madeleine.  Did they follow brother Joseph to Poitou in the early 1770s with dozens of other Acadians from the teeming port cities?  Chérubin Aucoin, son of Alexis, was living at Boulogne-en-Mer in 1767; Chérubin did not marry.  His older brother François took his family to Île d'Aix, south of La Rochelle, in 1767.  Marie-Barbe, daughter of Hyacinthe Aucoin (the recording priest called him Joachim, navigateur; he was a son of Alexis Aucoin of Minas) and Marie-Barbe-Antoinette Laidez of Calais, was born at Calais in April 1766; Hyancinthe was one of the few Acadians who settled at Calais. 

In the spring of 1763, after prolonged negotiations between the French and British governments, the Acadians in England were repatriated to France.  Most of the repatriated Aucoins settled in the St.-Malo area, where they added substantially to the number of their kinsmen already there.  Charles Aucoin's widow Anne-Marie Dupuis and her unmarried children--Madeleine, age unrecorded, Charles, fils, age 16, and Félicité, age 14--along with married daughter Marie, age 26, wife of Michel LeBlanc, and their 4-year-old daughter, arrived at St.-Malo aboard La Dorothée in late May 1763.  Charles, fils and Félicité did not marry in France.  One wonders what became of sister Marguerite.  Also aboard La Dorothée was their brother Alexandre, age 23, wife Rosalie Thériot, also 23, who he had married in England in c1761, and their year-old daughter Marie-Geneviève.  Alexandre and Rosalie settled at nearby St.-Servan and at Plouër, south of St.-Malo, where nine more children were born to them:  Marie-Élisabeth at St.-Servan in May 1764; Marie-Madeleine in March 1766 but died at age 5 at Lannoie, near Plouër, in March 1771; Jean-Baptiste-Fabien was born at St.-Servan in March 1768; twins Françoise-Théotiste and Noël-Alexandre at Lannoie in December 1770 but Noël died at Lannoie, age 15 months, in May 1772, and Françoise at St.-Servan, age 11, in February 1779; Perrine-Marie was born at La Caillibotais, near Plouër, in August 1773; Marguerite-Josèphe at St.-Servan in April 1775 but died the following October; Marie-Jeanne was born in March 1777; and Marguerite-Josèphe in October 1783 but died in May 1785, age 1 1/2.  They also had a son named Mathurin, born probably at St.-Servan in c1781.  Alexandre's older brother Olivier, age 36, wife Marguerite Vincent, son Firmin, age 12, and daughter Marie, age 10, arrived at St.-Malo aboard L'Ambition on 23 May 1763.  Marguerite died by November 1765, when Olivier remarried to Cécile, daughter of fellow Acadians Pierre Richard and Cécile Granger, at St.-Servan.  Cécile gave him four more daughters at St.-Servan:  Natalie-Marie was born Sepember 1766; Marguerite-Geneviève in July 1768; Marie-Cécile in September 1770; and Élisabeth-Anne or Anne-Élisabeth in November 1772 but died at St.-Léger Chauvigny, Poitou, age 2, in September 1774.  Son Pierre-Charles was born at Chauvigny in December 1774.  After the family retreated from Poitou to Nantes in March 1776, another son, Olivier-Louis, was born at Chantenay, near Nantes, in August 1777 but died there at age 2 in October 1779.  Olivier's son Firmin by his first wife became a sailor; he married Marguerite, daughter of fellow Acadians Alexandre Bourg and Marguerite-Josèphe Hébert of Cobeguit, at St.-Jacques, Nantes, in May 1778.  Their son Firmin-Louis was born there in February 1779.  Olivier's daughter Marie by his first wife also retreated with the family from Poitou to Nantes and married there soon after they reached the port city.  Joseph Aucoin, age 63, seventh son of family progenitor Martin, père, Joseph's wife Anne Trahan, age 69, and two of their unmarried daughters--Anne, age 26, and Marie-Madeleine, age 22--reached St.-Malo aboard La Dorothée.  They settled at Plouër.  Joseph and Anne's married daughter Marie, wife of Victor LeBlanc and Grégoire Maillet, had come to St.-Malo from Île St.-Jean in 1759 with her second husband but had died from the rigors of the crossing.  Another married daughter, Marguerite, age 35, husband Pierre Duon, age 43, who was widower of Marguerite's cousin Angélique Aucoin, and four of their children, ages 16 to 1, the two youngest Pierre's children by Marguerite, crossed to St.-Malo aboard La Dorothée.  They also settled at Plouër, where Marguerite gave Pierre at least two more sons.  Joseph and Anne's son Claude, age 35, wife Marie-Josèphe Saulnier, age 25, and their 5-year-old son Jean-Baptiste, also reached St.-Malo aboard La Dorothée.  They had at least seven more children at Plertuit, south of St.-Malo, and Plouër:  Perpétué was born at La Moysias near Pleurtuit in June 1763 (so Marie-Josèphe had been pregnant on the crossing from England); Charles-Joseph at Plouër in September 1765; Anne-Anastasie in September 1767; Pierre-Jean in May 1769 but died at La Metrie Pommerais, near Plouër, age 4, in October 1773; Mathurin-Casimir was born in March 1771; Marie-Gertrude in December 1772; and François-Augustin in October 1779 but died at Sous-Banniene, near Plouër, 6 days after his birth.  Claude and Marie-Josèphe's son Jean-Baptiste, now age 26, married Marie, daughter of fellow Acadians Jacques Forest and Marguerite Comeau, at St.-Servan in April 1784.  Their daughter Marie-Jeanne was born at St.-Servan in February 1785.  Jean-Baptiste Aucoin, age 42, wife Marguerite Thériot, age 34, and two children--Marie, age 5, and Simon, age 2--reached St.-Malo aboard La Dorothée.  They had at least five more children at Plouër:  Jean-Baptiste was born in May 1764; Rose-Madeleine in January 1766; Rose-Anastasie in May 1768; Anne-Julienne in April 1771 but died at La Frenelais, age 1, in August 1772; and Pierre-Firmin was born in May 1774.  Joseph Aucoin, age 39, his second wife Madeleine Gautrot, age 37, and two daughters from his first wife Françoise Breau--Marie-Blanche, age 15; and Marie-Anne, age 12--reached St.-Malo aboard La Dorothée.  They settled at Plouër and nearby Pleudihen.  Marie-Blanche died at Pleudihen, age 25, in July 1773; she did not marry.  One wonders what happened to younger sister Marie-Anne.  Charles Aucoin of Rivière-aux-Canards, age 39, wife Madeleine Trahan, age 32, and son Pierre, age 8, reached St.-Malo aboard La Dorothée.  Charles and Madeleine, who settled at Plouër, had no more children in France.  Son Pierre survived childhood but did not marry in the mother country, though ones suspects that, by the early 1780s, when he was in his late 20s, he had cast his eye on Marie-Josèphe, daughter of fellow Acadians Pierre Hébert and his second wife Susanne Pitre of nearby Ploubalay; Marie-Josèphe was in her early 20s at the time and also unmarried.  Simon Aucoin, age 35, wife Marie-Geneviève Thériot, age 29, and daughter Perpétué, age 3 1/2, reached St.-Malo aboard La Dorothée.  Five more daughters were born to them at Plouër:  Marie-Madeleine in April 1764 but died at du Pres, age 2, in March 1766; Marie-Élisabeth was born in May 1766; Marguerite-Geneviève in July 1768; Anne-Olive in October 1771; and Rose-Félicité in November 1773.  A younger Charles Aucoin, age 28, son of René, reached St.-Malo aboard La Dorothée, but he died at Village du Rochet, near Plouër, in December 1763, before he could start a family of his own. 

An Aucoin repatriated from England ended up Boulogne-sur-Mer but did not remain there.  Jean-Baptiste of Minas, age 49, another son of René Aucoin, reached the Picardy port in 1763 with wife Jeanne-Anne Thériot, age 40, and six children--Joseph, age 18; Élisabeth, age 15; Michel, age 13; Marguerite, age 11; Marie-Anastasie, age 4; and Marie-Françoise, age 2.  Another daughter, Anne-Félicité, was born probably at Boulogne-sur-Mer in c1765.  In May 1766, Jean-Baptiste took his family aboard the brigantine Le Hazard to St.-Malo, and they settled near their kinsmen at St.-Servan.  In May 1770, at age 9, daughter Marie-Françoise died "at the home of the incurables of Dinan," south of St.-Malo.  The family settled in Poitou in the early 1770s and then retreated with other Poitou Acadians to the port city of Nantes in March 1776.  Daughter Élisabeth married Tranquille, son of fellow Acadians Amand Pitre and Geneviève Arsement, in St.-Jacques Parish, Nantes, in August 1779.  Daughter Marie-Anastasie married cousin Joseph, son of perhaps Jean-Charles Thériot and Marie Boudrot, probably at Nantes in c1783.  In 1785, daughter Anne-Félicité would have been 19 years old and still unmarried.  One wonders what happened to Joseph, Michel, and Marguerite, who would have been ages 40, 35, and 33 in 1785.

Another Aucoin repatriated from England did not remain long in the coastal city to which he had been shipped.  Alexis Aucoin's son Alexandre of Cobeguit and second wife Élisabeth Duon of Rivière-aux-Canards, who had married at Liverpool in October 1759, arrived at Ploujean, Morlaix, in Brittany during the spring of 1763.  With them were daughters Marie-Josèphe, age 9, by his first wife, and Anne-Marie, age 2.  Another daughter, Geneviève-Nicole, was born probably at Morlaix in June 1765.  The following November, Alexandre and Élisabeth joined other Minas Acadians from England on Belle-Île-en-Mer, off the southern coast of Brittany, where French authorities hoped the exiles would bring life to the island's sandy soil.  More daughters were born to them at Calatren, Bangor, and Sauzon on the island:  Marie-Madeleine in January 1768, Marie-Félicité in February 1770, Élisabeth- or Isabelle-Josèphe in June 1772, and Anne-Augustine in July 1775.  They then left Belle-Île-en-Mer for the port city of Nantes, where Marie-Rénée was born in St.-Similien Parish in November 1778.  Alexandre died at St.-Similien in October 1780, age 55.  Daughter Marie-Josèphe, by his first wife Marie Trahan, died at St.-Similien a few weeks later; she was 28 years old and never married.  According to Acadian genealogist Bona Arsenault, Alexandre's younger brother Hyacinthe also settled on Belle-Île-en-Mer, as did Armand Aucoin, tambour [drummer] dans les troupes de Lorient, and his wife Françoise Canivet or Conivette.  Perhaps not Acadians, Armand and Françoise were living at Lorient in 1773 on the eve of their movement to Poitou.  

In the early 1770s, several Aucoin families participated in a settlement scheme in Poitou.  French authorities were tired of providing for the Acadians languishing in the port cities.  A French nobleman offered to settle them on land he owned near the city of Châtellerault.  Aucoins who went to Poitou included Amand and his wife Françoise Conivette from Lorient; Antoine, fils and his wife Françoise Hébert from St.-Suliac; Jean-Baptiste and his wife Jeanne Thériot from Boulogne-sur-Mer and St.-Servan; Joseph and his wife Élisabeth Henry; and Olivier and his second wife Cécile Richard from St.-Servan.  Sylvain Aucoin, fils died by May 1774, when his second wife, Marie Doiron, who he had married at Cherbourg in February 1760, remarried to a Moulaison from Cap-Sable at Châtellerault.  Antoine, fils and Françoise lost their 7-year-old son François-Charles at Senillé, near Châtellerault, in July 1774.  Amand and Françoise lost their 2-year-old son François-René at Châtellerault in September 1774.  Their daughter Anne-Françoise was born there in October.  Olivier and Cécile lost their 2-year-old daughter Anne-Élisabeth at St.-Léger Chauvigny, south of Châtellerault, in September 1774.  Their son Pierre-Charles was born at Chauvigny in December.  In late 1775 and 1776, after two years of effort, the Aucoins joined other Poitou Acadians in their retreat to the port city of Nantes.  Joseph and Élisabeth, who brought two daughters to Poitou, had four more children at Nantes:  Joseph-Jean was baptized in St.-Similien Parish in September 1776, François-Toussaint in October 1778, Marie-Modeste at St.-Martin-de-Chantenay in March 1781, and Victoire-Claire in June 1783.  Sadly, daughter Marie-Josèphe died at Chantenay in September 1779, age 8 1/2.  Amand and Françoise's daughter Françoise-Victoire was born at St.-Martin-de-Chantenay, near Nantes, in April 1777 but died at age 1 1/2 in September 1778.  Marie-Lucie, daughter of François Aucoin and Marguerite Giroir, died at Chantenay in November 1784; she was only 12 years old.  One wonders where she was born in c1772 and whether her parents had reached France from the Maritimes or from England. 

Olivier Aucoin's daughter Marie by his first wife Marguerite Vincent followed her father and stepmother from Poitou to Nantes in March 1776.  They settled at Réze, a suburb of the city.  In July 1777, at St.-Martin-de-Chantenay, in another Nantes suburb, Marie, age 24, married Olivier, 22-year-old son of Étienne Thériot and Hélène Landry of Minas.  Olivier, a native of Île St.-Jean, preferred to spell his surname Térriot.  His family had been deported from the Maritimes to St.-Malo aboard one of the Five Ships in November 1758.  Olivier was only 4 years old when his family settled at Pleudihen, south of St.-Malo, in January 1759.  In c1770, at age 15, he began studying for the priesthood under Abbé Jean-Louis La Loutre, who had contributed so much to the Acadians misery.  After two years of study, Olivier left his priestly studies and took up the trade of shoemaker.  He was living in St.-Sébastien Parish, Nantes, when he married Marie Aucoin.  She gave him four sons in St.-Jacques Parish:  Olivier-Marie was baptized in July 1778, Joseph-Olivier in April 1780 but died at age 1 1/2 in January 1782, Jacques-Julien was baptized at St.-Jacques in January 1782 but died the following July, and Jean-Toussaint was baptized in November 1783.  It was Olivier who assisted the eccentric Frenchman, Henri-Marie Peyroux de la Coudrenière, in coaxing hundreds of fellow Acadians to emigrate to Spanish Louisiana. 

Despite their trials and tribulations, Aucoins proliferated in the mother country.  In the early 1780s, however, when the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France a chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana, at least 93 Aucoins--including Alexandre, Antoine, two Charless, Claude, Fabien, Firmin's widow, three Jean-Baptistes, three Josephs, two Michels, Olivier, Simon, and their families--followed the entreaties of their kinsman, Olivier Térriot, and agreed to go to the Spanish colony.  But some Aucoins--including Pierre, son of Alexis, fils, and his family--chose to remain. 

Two brothers who had been deported to Virginia and England and ended up in France also chose to remain in the St.-Malo suburbs, but they did not linger there.  They followed, instead, an unusual route back to North America.  Pierre Aucoin, age 26, wife Félicité LeBlanc, age 25, who he had married in England the year before, and their infant son Anselme reached St.-Malo aboard La Dorothée in the spring of 1763 with hundreds of other exiles.  Pierre and Félicité had at least four more children in the St.-Malo suburbs:  Pierre-Simon was born at Plouër in August 1765, Jean-Victor at St.-Servan in May 1767 but died the following August, Jean-Charles was born at Plouër in February 1769 but died at age 3 in July 1772, and Marie-Félicité was born in March 1771.  Pierre's younger brother Joseph, age 21 in 1763, and his wife Marie Hébert, who he had married in England in c1762, also reached St.-Malo aboard La Dorothée.  They lived with Pierre and his growing family at Plouër until February 1767.  In 1773, while their cousins headed to the fields of Poitou, Pierre and Joseph, along with other Acadian exiles, took their families to the Isle of Jersey, one of the British-owned Channel islands off the western coast of Normandy, but they did not remain.  Returning to North America, they settled in the newly-established fishery at Chéticamp, on the western shore of Cape Breton Island, and also fished in the Baie des Chaleurs with other Acadian exiles.  In c1782, Pierre remarried to fellow Acadian Marie Doucet probably at Chéticamp.  His son Pierre, fils, by first wife Félicité, married into the Babin and perhaps into the Haché family as well in the 1790s and settled in the îles-de-la-Madeleine in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, northwest of Chéticamp.  Pierre's brother Joseph and his wife Marie, a childless couple, adopted a young Irishman, Cyriac Roach, also called Roche, who established a family of his own at Chéticamp.292

Babin

In 1755, descendants of Antoine Babin of La Chausée and Marie Mercier could be found in the Minas Basin, especially at Grand-Pré and La Famille, Pigiguit; and on Île St.-Jean.  Le Grand Dérangement of the 1750s scattered them even farther.  

A number of Babin families rounded up at Grand-Pré and Pigiguit were deported to Maryland, Virginia, and Massachusetts.  The few Minas Babins who escaped the British found refuge at Miramichi and other refugee camps on the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore, or at Restigouche at the head of the Baie des Chaleurs.  One of them, Basile, grandson of Antoine's oldest son Charles, either was captured by, or surrendered, to the British in the early 1760s and held in the prisoner-of-war compound at Halifax, where he married a Saulnier.  Some of the Babins at Restigouche escaped the British in the summer of 1760 and settled at Bonaventure in Gaspésie on the north shore of the Baie de Chaleurs, present-day Québec Province.  Meanwhile, Claude Babin of Chignecto slipped away from the British, made his way to Canada, and settled at Cap-St.-Ignace on the St. Lawrence River below Québec City.  His brother Jacques, however, was caught in the Chignecto roundup in 1755 and deported to South Carolina.  After the war with Britain ended, especially after 1766, Minas Babins, probably those who had endured exile in Massachusetts, could also be found at Deschambault on the St. Lawrence above Québec City; at Trois-Rivières, St.-Jean-Port-Joli, and St.-Roch-des-Aulnaies on the St. Lawrence below Québec City; on Rivière St.-Jean in present-day New Brunswick; and on the French island of Miquelon off the southern coast of Newfoundland.  Typical of most, if not all, Acadian families, these Acadiennes of Canada lost touch with their Cadien cousins hundreds of miles away, and, until the Acadian reunions of the mid-twentieth century, may even have forgotten the others existed. 

The Babins who were shipped to Virginia endured a fate worse than most of the other refugees deported from Minas.  In mid-November 1755, when five transports appeared unexpectedly at Hampton Roads, Virginia governor Robert Dinwiddie, protested their deportation to his colony without his consent.  Many of the exiles died on the filthy, crowded ships anchored in Hampton Roads while the Virginia authorities pondered their fate.  Acadians from one vessel were moved up to Richmond, two of the vessels were unloaded at Hampton, and two more at Norfolk.  A hand full of young Acadians managed to slip away and trek overland through fields and forests and over the mountains, to French territory, but most of the exiles remained in Virginia.  Finally, in the spring of 1756, Virginia's House of Burgesses made its decision ... the Acadians must go!  In May, the first shipment of Acadians in hired vessels left for England, and in two weeks all of them had gone--299 to Bristol, 250 to Falmouth, 340 to Southampton, and 336 to Liverpool--1,225 of the original 1,500.  Their ordeal only worsened in the English ports, where they were grossly neglected and treated like common criminals and where hundreds died of smallpox.  By 1763, more than half of them were dead.  In May of that year, after prolonged negotiations between the French and British governments, the Acadians in England, including Babins, were repatriated to France.

At least two members of the Babin family who ended up in France did not get there via Virginia and England.  Isabelle Babin, born in c1689, settled on either Île St.-Jean or Île Royale, now Cape Breton Island, in the 1750s.  She lived with her grandson, Charles Benoit.  When the British rounded up the Nova Scotia Acadians in the autumn of 1755, the Acadians on the Maritime islands remained untouched because they were living in territory controlled by France.  Their respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  After the fall of the French fortress at Louisbourg in July 1758, the victorious British swooped down on Île Royale and Île St.-Jean and deported most of the island Acadians to France.  Isabelle Babin, age 70, crossed with her grandson's family on the British transport Tamerlane, which left the Gut of Canso in late November 1758 and reached St.-Malo in mid-January 1759.  Amazingly, the tough old lady survived the terrible crossing that claimed the lives of hundreds of her fellow Acadians.  Paul, son of Pierre Babin, age 25, ended up on one of the five British transports that left the Gut of Canso in late November 1758 and reached St.-Malo in late January 1759.  He settled at Pleudihen, near St.-Malo.  In 1761, he joined the crew of the corsair Le Tigre but was captured and held in England until 1763.  He returned to Pleudihen that year and then left for the Falkland Islands aboard L'Aigle in November 1765. 

In the spring of 1763, after prolonged negotiations between the French and British governments, the Acadians in England were repatriated to France, several Babin families from Minas who had endured seven long years of captivity in the fetid ports of England were repatriated to France.  They arrived at St.-Malo in late May and settled in parishes around the city.  Marguerite Dupuis, age 60, widow of Claude Babin of Grand-Pré, reached France aboard La Dorothée with her two youngest sons, Laurent, age 24, and Jean-Charles, and 21.  They lived at St.-Servan, near St.-Malo, until the fall of 1765, when they went with other Acadian exiles to Belle-Île-en-Mer, off the southwestern coast of Brittany.  Marguerite Dupuis's older son Joseph Babin, a native of Grand-Pré, age 29 in 1763, had married Marine, daughter of Jean LeBlanc and Anne Landry, at Southampton, England, in November 1756.  Joseph, Marine, age 27, and four of their children--Joseph-Nicaise, age 6, Bonaventure, age 4, Marie-Théotiste, age 2, and newborn Marie-Victoire--also came to France aboard La Dorothée.  After a short stay at St.-Servan, they followed Joseph's mother to Belle-Île-en-Mer in the fall of 1765 but returned to St.-Servan in 1773.  They did not remain there.  Later in the decade, they, along with other Acadians in France, re-settled on the French-controlled islands of St.-Pierre and Miquelon, off the southern coast of Newfoundland.  Joseph's sister Anne, wife of Alain LeBlanc, followed her widowed mother from England to St.-Servan and then to Belle-Île-en-Mer, but they, too, left the island in 1773.  They did not return to St.-Servan, however, but followed other Acadian exiles to the Isle of Jersey in the England Channel before returning to North America.  Jean Babin of Grand-Pré, age 63 in 1763, Claude Babin's younger brother, came to France as a widower aboard La Dorothée with son Paul, age 31, and daughter Anne, age 18, and also lived at St.-Servan, where they remained.  Jean's son Simon, a native of Grand-Pré, age 28 in 1763, had married Anastasie Thériot at Southampton, England, in c1757; she was age 21 in 1763.  Simon and Anastasie followed his father and siblings to France aboard La Dorothée with three children--Anne, age 5; Marie, age 3; and Simon-Magloire, age 1.  They, too, lived at St.-Servan, where Simon and Anastasie buried at least three children:  Anne died at St.-Servan in July 1765, age 6; Anastasie-Victoire, born at St.-Servan in October 1764, died there at age 3; and Pierre-Joseph, born at St.-Servan in June 1769, died 18 days after his birth.  François-Marie, born at St.-Servan in November 1766, survived childhood.  Another, much younger Jean Babin, age 25, reached St.-Malo "from other ports" in 1763; he came alone.  He lived at Pleudihen, near St.-Malo, but moved on to Morlaix in 1764.  

Another Joseph Babin, son of Jean and Marguerite Bourg, ended up in France by a different route.  He escaped the British roundup at Ste.-Famille, Pigiguit, in 1755, at age 12 but ended up a prisoner of war at Halifax in the early 1760s.  He married Françoise, daughter of Joseph Dugas and Marguerite LeBlanc, at Notre-Dame-des-Ardiliers, Île Miquelon, in May 1766; he was age 23 and she was age 20 at the time of their marriage.  In 1778, during the American Revolution, the British, again at war with France, captured îles St.-Pierre and Miquelon and deported the Acadians there to France.  Joseph, Françoise, and four of their children--Marguerite-Françoise, age 8, Simon, age 7, Joseph, fils, age 4, and Anne-Adélaïde, age 5--left Miquelon aboard La Jeannette.  They reached St.-Malo that November and settled at nearby St.-Servan among their Babin cousins.  

In the early 1770s, Simon Babin, his wife Anastasie Thériot, and their three remaining children--Marie, Magloie, and François-Marie--were part of an attempt to settle Acadians in Poitou.  French authorities were tired of providing for the Acadians languishing in the port cities.  A French nobleman offered to settle them on land he owned near the city of Châtellerault.  Anastasie died at Châtellerault in April 1775, leaving Simon a widower.  He promptly remarried to fellow Acadian Anne Poirier, widow of Gabriel Moulaison and Joseph Granger, at Châtellerault that September.  When the Poitou venture failed after two years of effort, Simon, his new wife, his three children, and two stepchildren, retreated to the port city of Nantes with hundreds of other Poitou Acadians.  In October 1780, Simon died aboard the ship Le Prince Inzare at St.-Martin-de-Chantenay, near Nantes.  Daughter Marie married Louis-William, son of Stanislas Stebens and Anne Colcein of Boston, Massachusetts, at St.-Martin-de-Chantenay in January 1783. 

In the early 1780s, the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France the chance for a better life in faraway Louisiana.  Four of the Babins still in the mother country--François-Marie, Magloire-Simon, and Marie, children of Simon Babin, along with Marie's husband Louis-William Stebens and their three young children; and Bonaventure, son of Joseph Babin and Marine LeBlanc--agreed to take it.  At least one family remained.  Laurent, son of Claude Babin and Marguerite Dupuis, married Marie-Françoise, daughter of Martin Carrière and Jeanne-Martialle LeGoff of Le Palais, at St.-Gérard, Le Palais, in February 1766.  Between 1766 and 1773, Marie-Françoise had given him six children, two sons and four daughters, on the island.  When his brother Joseph and sister Marie left Belle-Île-en-Mer in 1773, Laurent stayed.  He was still there in 1792, when his fellow citizens elected him a municipal officer at Le Palais.  He remarried to Marie-Louise Lyot probably at Le Palais in 1797 but divorced her the following year.  He died a "rentier," or annuitant, at Le Palais in 1807, age 47.  Two of his daughters married in France.

In North America, meanwhile, Acadians being held in the prison compounds of Nova Scotia faced a hard dilemma.  The Treaty of Paris of February 1763 stipulated in its Article 14 that persons dispersed by the war had 18 months to return to their respective territories.  However, British authorities refused to allow any of the Acadian prisoners in the region to return to their former lands as proprietors.  If Acadians chose to remain in, or return to, Nova Scotia, they could live only in small family groups in previous unsettled areas or work for low wages on former Acadian lands now owned by New England "planters."  If they stayed, they must also take the hated oath of allegiance to the new British king, George III, without reservation.  They would also have to take the oath if they joined their cousins in Canada.  After all they had suffered on the question of the oath, few self-respecting Acadians would consent to take it if it could be avoided.  Some Halifax exiles chose to relocate to Miquelon, a French-controlled island off the southern coast of Newfoundland.  Others considered going to French St.-Domingue, where Acadian exiles in the British colonies already had gone, or to the Illinois country, the west bank of which still belonged to France, or to French Louisiana, which, thanks to British control of Canada, was the only route possible to the Illinois country for Acadian exiles.  Whatever their choice, they refused to remain in L'Acadie.  So they gathered up their money and their few possessions and prepared to leave their homeland.  Of the 600 who left Halifax in late 1764 bound for Cap-Français, St.-Domingue, two were young Babin sisters, daughters of Basile and his widow Nanette Saulnier

The many Babins in Maryland endured life among English colonists who did not care much for the French "papists" who had been thrust upon them.  In July 1763, after the war with Britain had finally ended, colonial officials counted nearly a dozen Babin families at Georgetown, Fredericktown, Princess Anne, Port Tobacco, Upper Marlborough, and Oxford.  These were the Babins from the Minas settlements--Grand-Pré, Rivière-aux-Canards, and Pigiguit--whom the British had deported to the colony eight years earlier.  When word reached the Acadians in Maryland that they would be welcome in Louisiana, where many of their relatives had gone, they pooled their meager resources to charter ships that would take them to New Orleans.  At least 61 of them were Babins.  They left for the Spanish colony in 1766, 1767, and 1768 and settled in a number of communities there.  Other Babins chose to remain in Maryland.  Surrounded by fellow exiles and French expatriates, some of these stay-behinds settled at Frenchtown in Baltimore, where their transition from Acadien to Americain went faster for them than for their cousins who had gone on to the Spanish colony. 

The last group of Babins to come to Louisiana--six of them--did so in a unique way.  During Le Grand Dérangement, Marine LeBlanc, wife of Joseph Babin of Grand-Pré, became a widow either in France or after her family returned to North America.  In 1788, Marine, now age 52, and five of her children were living on Île St.-Pierre, Newfoundland.  Joseph Gravois of Chignecto, probably a kinsman, was captain of the schooner La Brigite.  Marine and her five Babin children--Marie-Victoire, age 25, François-Laurent, age 22, Pierre-Moïse, age 20, Anne-Marguerite, age 18, and Mathurin-Louis, age 15--and Marine's uncle Charles Babin, age unrecorded, agreed to accompany Gravois and his family to Louisiana aboard La Brigite, which reached New Orleans in December 1788--the only group of Acadians to travel directly from greater Acadia to Louisiana and some of the last Acadians to reach the bayou country.  Anne-Marguerite married Valentin-Désiré, son of fellow Acadians Amand Richard and Marie Breaux and widower of Susanne Marique, at St.-Jacques on the river in July.  One wonders what became of her siblings. 

Another Acadian Babin came to Louisiana decades after Joseph Babin's children arrived from Île St.-Pierre.  Early in the antebellum period, in 1809, while Louisiana was still a territory of the United States, thousands of refugees from Haiti via Cuba and Jamaica arrived at New Orleans.  With them were Acadians who had left the British colonies in the 1760s and settled in the French colony of St.-Domingue, today's Haiti.  Among these refugees may have been Victoire, daughter of Chares Babin and Marie Hébert, who married Anglo American Lewis Morrow of Boston, Massachusetts, at the St. James church, St. James Parish, in September 1816.  The priest who recorded the marriage called Victoire a "nat. of St. Nicolas, Santo Domingo."  One wonders if she was the Victoire Babin who died in Ascension Parish at age 81 in September 1862.  The priest who recorded her funeral did not give her parents' names or mention a husband.203

Babineau

In 1755, descendants of brothers Nicolas and Jean Babineau dit Des Lauriers could be found at Annapolis Royal and at Petitcoudiac in the trois-rivières area west of Chignecto.  Le Grand Dérangement of the 1750s scattered them to the winds. 

Jean's daughters Marie and Marguerite, married to Claude Landry and Claude Melanson, respectively, managed to escape the British roundup at Annapolis Royal in the fall of 1755.  After a hard winter, they crossed the Bay of Fundy the following spring and made their way north to Canada.  The Babineau sisters, now in their 60s, died in late November and mid-December 1757, respectively, victims of a smallpox epidemic that struck the Acadian refugees at Québec.  Their family line died with them. 

Some of Nicolas's children and grandchildren were rounded up at Annapolis Royal in 1755 and deported to New England, but most of his descendants, like Jean's daughters, eluded the British and escaped to the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore or moved on to Canada.  The Babineaus at Petitcoudiac also eluded the British in 1755 and retreated to Cocagne, farther up the Gulf shore.  One family continued on to Canada, where they joined their cousins on the upper river at Bécancour, Pointe-du-Lac, and St.-Grégoire and Nicolet across from Trois-Rivières.  Another family returned to the Petitcoudiac, where they were rounded up by the British in the early 1760s after the fall of Québec and Montréal.  Some of them were being held prisoner at Fort Cumberland, formerly French Fort Beauséjour, at the end of the war with Britain.  Some Babineaus were still at Halifax in the late 1760s.  Others returned to the Gulf shore, where they settled at Bouctouche, Richibouctou, and St.-Louis-de-Kent in present-day eastern New Brunswick, and at Carleton on the north shore of the Baie des Chaleurs in Gaspésie, present-day Québec Province.  A cousin took a different but not unusual route to Canada.  At age 30, Nicolas's grandson René, fils had married Marguerite, daughter of Abraham Bourg and Marie Dugas, at Annapolis Royal in January 1755, on the eve of Le Grand Dérangement.  The British deported the newlyweds to New England the autumn after their marriage.  Marguerite died in one of the New England colonies by May 1759, when René, fils remarried to Madeleine, daughter of Jacques Michel and Jeanne Breau.  When the war with Britain finally ended, René, fils and Madeleine chose to join their cousins in Canada.  They settled at Beauport, near Québec City.  René, fils drowned at Beauport in December 1775, age 50.  Typical of most, if not all, Acadian families, these Acadiennes of Canada lost touch with their Cadien cousins hundreds of miles away, and until the Acadian reunions of the mid-twentieth century, may even have forgotten the others existed. 

The Babineaus deported to New England included two sisters, Marie-Marguerite, called Marguerite, and Madeleine, daughters of Joseph Babineau dit Des Lauriers of Annapolis Royal.  The sisters used the surname Des Lauriers, not Babineau.  Marguerite married Charles, son of Alexandre Comeau and Marguerite Doucet of Annapolis Royal, probably in Connecticut in c1758.  They, along with their parents, were among the refugees from Connecticut who went to French St.-Domingue, today's Haiti, in the early 1760s.  Their marriage was blessed at La Mirebalais, St.-Domingue, in September 1764.  Their children Joseph, age 5, and Anne, age 2, were baptized at La Mirebalais that same month.  Joseph died on the day of his baptism.  Their son Pierre, perhaps Joseph's twin, died at age 5 in October.  A year later, Charles and Marguerite had a second Joseph, born at La Mirebalais in November 1766.  Evidently Joseph did not survive infancy.  Meanwhile, Marguerite's father Joseph died at Le Mirebalais in January 1765, age 65. 

Charles, son of Clément, married Marguerite, daughter of René Doucet and Marie Broussard, at Annapolis Royal in January 1745 but lost her either before or during Le Grand Dérangement. According to Acadian genealogist Bona Arsenault, Charles and Marguerite had four children, all born at Annapolis Royal:  Jean-Baptiste, born in c1745; Marie-Josèphe in c1746; Charles, fils in c1749; and Marguerite in c1753.  Charles and his family escaped the British roundup at Annapolis in 1755, spent a terrible winter on the Bay of Fundy, crossed the bay the following spring, and escaped to the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore.  By the end of the decade, Charles was at Restigouche, at the head of the Baie des Chaleurs, where he remarried to Anne, daughter of Joseph Guilbeau dit L'Officier and Marguerite Michel of Annapolis Royal, in February 1760.  British forces captured Charles and Anne with 300 other Acadians at Restigouche in the summer of 1760, and they ended up as prisoners in Nova Scotia during the last years of the war with Britain.  Charles's first son by his second wife, Charles-Dominique, was born at Fort Edward, overlooking the old Acadian settlement at Pigiguit, in c1761.  British authorities counted Charles and Anne at Halifax in August 1763.  Only one child was still with them, Charles-Dominique, who would have been two years old, so Charles's children by his first wife, who would have been 18, 17, 14 and 10 in 1763, either had died during Le Grand Dérangement or, less likely, had gone off on their own.  Anne gave him another son, Julien-Joseph, probably at Halifax in 1764. 

The war against Britain finally over, Charles and Anne faced a hard dilemma.  The Treaty of Paris of February 1763 stipulated in its Article 14 that persons dispersed by the war had 18 months to return to their respective territories.  However, British authorities refused to allow any of the Acadian prisoners in the region to return to their former lands as proprietors.  If Acadians chose to remain in, or return to, Nova Scotia, they could live only in small family groups in previous unsettled areas or work for low wages on former Acadian lands now owned by New England "planters."  If they stayed, they must also take the hated oath of allegiance to the new British king, George III, without reservation.  They would also have to take the oath if they joined their cousins in Canada.  After all they had suffered on the question of the oath, few self-respecting Acadians would consent to take it if it could be avoided.  Some Halifax exiles chose to relocate to Miquelon, a French-controlled island off the southern coast of Newfoundland.  Others considered going to French St.-Domingue, where Acadian exiles in the British colonies already had gone, or to the Illinois country, the west bank of which still belonged to France, or to French Louisiana, which, thanks to British control of Canada, was the only route possible to the Illinois country for Acadian exiles.  Whatever their choice, they refused to remain in L'Acadie.  So they gathered up their money and their few possessions and prepared to leave their homeland.  Of the 600 who left Halifax in late 1764 bound for Cap-Français, St.-Domingue, three were Babineaus. 

Charles and his young sons were only the first of the Babineaus to go to Louisiana.  In late 1766 or 1767, after their father's death, Marie-Marguerite Babineau dit Des Lauriers, her husband Charles Comeau, their daughter Anne, and Marguerite's sister Madeleine, left La Mirebalais, French St.-Domingue, and made their way to New Orleans--among the few Acadian refugees who emigrated to the Spanish colony directly from the French West Indies.204

Barrieau

In 1755, the descendants of Nicolas Barrieau and Matine Hébert could be found on the Maritime islands of Île St.-Jean and Île Royale, including Île Madame, off the southern coast of Île Royale.  Le Grand Dérangement of the 1750s scattered this family to the winds, but not at first. 

The British roundup in Nova Scotia in the fall of 1755 touched none of the Maritime Acadians.  Nevertheless, Nicolas's son Antoine and his family left Île St.-Jean in the early- or mid-1750s and moved on to Canada.  For those who remained on the Maritime islands, their respite from British oppression was short-lived.  After the British captured the French fortress at Louisbourg in July 1758, they swooped down on both Île Royale and Île St.-Jean and rounded up the Acadians there.  Most of the remaining Barrieaus--children of Nicolas, fils and Jacques--escaped the British and followed their kinsmen to the St. Lawrence valley, where they waited out the war against Britain.  After the war, these descendants of Nicolas Barrieau could be found in present-day Québec Province at La Prairie south of Montréal; Champlain above Trois-Rivières; St.-Francois- and St.-Joseph-de-Beauce on Rivière Chaudière in the interior south of Québec; St.-Charles-de-Bellechasse, Château-Richer, and St.-Thomas-de-Montmagny on the St. Lawrence below Québec; Baie-St.-Paul on the northern shore of the lower St. Lawrence; and St.-Joachim, far down on the southern shore at the northern edge of the Gaspé Peninsula.  Typical of most, if not all, Acadian families, these Acadiennes of Canada lost touch with their Cadien cousins hundreds of miles away, and until the Acadian reunions of the mid-twentieth century, may even have forgotten the others existed. 

Other Barrieaus living on the Maritime islands, mostly the children of Nicolas, père's youngest son Pierre, were rouned up in 1758 and deported to France.  Pierre, who would have been age 51, died aboard La Picotte during the voyage to France.  His daughter Marie-Blanche, age 23, wife of Charles Daigre, age 25, lost her husband and both of her children--a son, age 3, and a daughter, age 15 months--aboard one of the five British transports that left Chédabouctou Bay in late November 1758 and reached St.-Malo in late January 1759.  Marie-Blanche's 13-year-old sister Pélagie, who sailed with them, survived the voyage.  Pierre's other unmarried children--Jean-Baptiste, age 25 in 1758; Agathe, age 24, Olivier, age 21; Anne or Anastasie, age 17; Euphrosine, age 12; and Thérèse, age unrecorded--survived deportation to Cherbourg, France, in late 1758.  In July 1759, they reached St.-Malo from Cherbourg and settled at Pleudihen south of the Breton port.  Jean-Baptiste married Marie, daughter of Jean Daigre and Marie Breau, at Pleudihen, near St.-Malo, in June 1764, and started a large family.  Seven of their children were born at Mordreaux, near Pleudihen:  Jacques-Alain in October 1765, Jean-Pierre in June 1767 but died at age 3 1/2 months the following October, Jean-Marie was born in May 1769, Marie-Rose in September 1770 but died three months later in January 1771, Perinne was born in January 1772, and twins Charles-Pierre and Anne-Jeanne in November 1773, but Charles-Pierre died the day after his birth and Anne-Jeanne 10 days later.  Jean-Baptiste's sister Agathe had married Isidore Daigre either at Pigiguit or on Île St.-Jean in c1750, but evidently he had died before the British round up of 1758.  She remarried to Anselme, son of fellow Acadians Jean Landry and Madeleine Melanson, at Pleudihen in February 1765.  Sister Pélagie married Marin, son of fellow Acadians Étienne Boudrot and Marie-Claire Aucoin, at Pleudihen in May 1765.  Euphrosine married François, fils, son of fellow Acadians François Boudrot and Anne-Marie Thibodeau and widower of Marguerite Landry, at Pleudihen in April 1768.  Anastasie married Joseph, fils, son of fellow Acadians Joseph Dugas and Anne-Marie Hébert and widower of Anastasie Henry, at Pleudihen in May 1770.  The fate of their sister Thérèse is unrecorded.  Olivier evidently signed up for naval or privateer service against the British, was captured, and held prisoner in England. 

In November 1764, at least one Barrieau refugee from Île St.-Jean chose to accompany other Acadians aboard the ship Deux Frères from Boulogne-sur-Mer to French Guiane on the northern coast of South America.  He did not last long in the tropical colony.  Jean Bariault "of Acadie" died in St.-Joseph Parish, Sinnamary, in March 1765, age 24. 

In the early 1770s, Jean-Baptiste and at least three of his sisters and their families signed on to a new settlement in the Poitou region.  French authorities were tired of providing for the Acadians languishing in the port cities.  A French nobleman offered to settle them on some marginal land he owned near the city of Châtellerault.  The Acadians tried mightily to bring life to the rocky soil on the nobleman's estate.  Jean-Baptiste and Marie had a son, their eighth child, François, baptized at the church in Châtellerault in January 1775.  When the Poitou venture failed in 1775, Jean-Baptiste, his sisters, and their families retreated with their fellow Acadians to the port city of Nantes, where they subsisted on government handouts and lived as best they could.  Jean-Baptiste and Marie had two more sons, children nine and ten, during their stay in St.-Jacques parish, Nantes:  Joseph-Marie, baptized at St.-Jacques in July 1778, died at age 11 days and was buried at St.-Jacques; and Louis-Constant, baptized in the same church in July 1779, died at age 3 1/2 years in July 1783 and also was buried at St.-Jacques.  Sister Euphrosine's husband François Boudrot, fils died probably at Nantes by June 1784, when she remarried to Charles, son of fellow Acadians Joseph Broussard and Ursule LeBlanc and widower of Bonne-Jacqueline-Françoise Castel, at St.-Martin-de-Chantenay, near Nantes.  

Meanwhile, in 1763, Jean-Baptiste's younger brother Olivier was released from prison in England and settled near his siblings at Pleudihen.  There he married Anastasie, daughter of fellow Acadians Jean Boudrot and Agathe Thibodeau, in February 1764.  Their daughter Anne-Marie-Josèphe was born at Mordreaux, near Pleudihen, in April 1765.  Anastasie died at Hotel-Dieu, St.-Malo, in February 1766; she was only 20 years old.  Olivier remarried to Élisabeth, daughter of fellow Acadians Pierre Landry and Anne Thériot, at St.-Servan, near St.-Malo, in May 1768.  She gave him three more children in France, all of them born at St.-Servan:  Charles-Olivier in March 1769, Jean-Baptiste in March 1771, and Joseph-Marie in September 1773 but died 10 days after his birth.  When Olivier's older brother and sisters headed to the Poitou region in the early 1770s, Olivier followed other Acadian refugees to the Isle of Jersey, a British possession in the English Channel.  He returned to North America by 1774, when he settled at Bonaventure and Carleton on the Baie des Chaleurs in present-day Québec Province.  But his siblings remained in France.  

In the early 1780s, the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France the chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana.  The Barrieaus still languishing at Nantes--Jean-Baptiste, his wife, and four children; and his sisters Agathe, Anastasie, Euphrosine, and Pélagie and their families--agreed to take it.  They booked passage on four of the Seven Ships from France that reached New Orleans in 1785.205

Bastarache

In 1755, descendants of Jean Bastarache dit Le Basque and Agathe Vincent were still living in the Annapolis River valley.  Le Grand Dérangement of the 1750s scattered this family to the far-flung edges of French America. 

Jean and Agathe's grandson Pierre Bastarache, fils was exiled to South Carolina in the fall of 1755 but escaped and made his way back through the North American wilderness to his family in greater Acadia.  After the war with Britain ended in 1763, he and his family joined fellow exiles on Baie Ste.-Marie in Nova Scotia.  Jean Bastarache, fils's son Anselme took his family to Yamachiche, on the St. Lawrence above Québec.  Other Bastaraches could be found at St.-Philippe-de-Laprairie, south of Montréal; at St.-Charles-sur-Richelieu, on that river east of Montréal; and at Bouctouche, on the eastern shore of today's New Brunswick.  Some of Jean's brother Michel dit Le Basque's descendants settled at Tracadie, on the upper eastern shore of New Brunswick.  

Just before and during Le Grand Dérangement, two of Jean, fils's daughters married Moutons from Chignecto:  Anne married Salvator, and Marie-Modeste married Salvator's brother Louis.  A third daughter, Isabelle, seems to have followed her older sisters into exile at Restigouche at the head of the Baie des Chaleurs.  After the British broke up the Acadian refuge there in late 1760, the Bastarache sisters probably went to Halifax while their husbands were being held as prisoners of war in Fort Edward, Nova Scotia, formerly Pigiguit.  Isabelle married Jean dit Neveu, a cousin of her Mouton brothers-in-law, at Halifax.  After the war ended and they were released from Fort Edward, the Mouton brothers probably went to Halifax to rejoin their families, and from there they journeyed to Louisiana

In July 1766, Jean-Baptiste, called Jean, son of François-Marie Bastarache of Annapolis Royal, with Henry Claude and his wife Félicité Hébert, arrived at Champflore, Martinique, in the French Antilles.  Jean-Baptiste's older sister Jeanne, her husband Pierre Hébert, and five of their children also came to the island that month.  Jeanne did not remain there, however.  She died at St.-Philippe-de-Laprairie, near Montréal, in September 1782, age 68.190

Belliveau

In 1755, descendants of Antoine Belliveau and André Guyon could be found at Annapolis Royal, Chignecto, and on Île St.-Jean.  They were especially numerous in the Annapolis valley.  Le Grand Dérangement of the 1750s scattered them even farther.

Some Annapolis Belliveaus escaped the British roundup in late 1755 and made their way north to Rivière St.-Jean and then east to the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore.  Some ended up at Restigouche, at the head of the Baie des Chaleurs.  There they managed to elude a second British roundup in late 1760 and moved even farther north, to Canada.  Other Annapolis Belliveaus fell into British hands and were deported to Massachusetts and North Carolina.  

A British transport sailing from the Annapolis Basin to North Carolina in early December 1755, the Pembroke, under command of a Captain Milton and seven officers and crewmen, carried 232 Acadians but did not make it to its destination.  Soon after it left the basin, the ship fell into the hands of exiles led by 58-year-old Charles Belliveau, a pilot and ship's carpenter.  He and his compatriots sailed the Pembroke first to Baie Ste.-Marie, where they hid for a month, and then crossed the Bay of Fundy to the mouth of Rivière St.-Jean in January 1756.  In early February, they fought off a British attack in the lower St.-Jean, burned the vessel, and retreated upriver to the Acadian settlement at Ste.-Anne-du-Pay-Bas, today's Fredericton, New Brunswick, where they spent the rest of the winter.  That summer, food having run low in the St.-Jean settlements, the Belliveaus and other Pembroke passengers made their way north to Québec, while others--including Charles's daughter Marguerite and her husband, surgeon Philippe de St.-Julien Lachaussée, whom she had married on Rivière St.-Jean--went to the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore, where they lingered at Miramichi and Restigouche.  Charles Belliveau, who had gone north to Canada, died at Québec in January 1758, age 60, perhaps in a smallpox epidemic that struck the Acadian refugees in the area that fall and winter.  

Some of the Chignecto Belliveaus escaped the British roundup of 1755 and moved north to the St. Lawrence valley.  However, at least two Belliveau families at Chignecto were transported to South Carolina, and one ended up in Massachusetts with their cousins from the Annapolis valley.  After the war ended in 1763, Belliveaus exiled to Massachusetts joined their cousins in present-day Québec Province, where they settled at Trois-Rivière; at Bécancour, Maskinongé, St.-Grégoire-de-Nicolet, and Nicolet between Trois-Rivières and Montréal; at St.-Jacques-de-L'Achigan, St.-Sulpice, and L'Assomption near Montréal; and at Grande-Rivière on the southern shore of the Gaspé Peninsula.  Members of the family also settled at Memramcook in present-day New Brunswick; at Rustico on Prince Edward Island; at Pubnico, Grosse-Coques, Ste.-Anne-du-Ruisseau-de-l'Anguille, and at St.-Bernard and Pointe-de-l'Église, now Church Point, on St. Mary's Bay in Nova Scotia.  One community along the eastern shore of St. Mary Bay's became L'Anse-aux-Belliveau, now Belliveau Cove.  

Belliveaus on Île St.-Jean in 1755--Jean, père's youngest son Louis and his family at Tracadie--were living on an island controlled by France, so they escaped the fate of their cousins in British Nova Scotia.  However, when the British captured the French fortress at Louisbourg in July 1758, these Belliveaus, also, were subjected to British repression.  Louis and his family were among the island Acadians who escaped the British roundup.  By the 1760s, they had made their way to Miquelon, a French-controlled island off the southern coast of Newfoundland, where French officials counted them in 1767.  Louis died on Miquelon in December 1775, age 65.  Another war with Britain--the American Revolution, in which France came in as an ally of the Americans--resulted in British deportation of the Acadians on Île Michelon to La Rochelle, France, in 1778.  Belliveaus were among them.  Two of Louis's children--Athanase, age 30; and Catherine, widow of Michel Doucet, age 40--died at La Rochelle in July and August 1779.  Louis's widow Louise Haché dit Gallant also died there, the following October.  Louis's daughter Rose married Pierre Le Clair of Île Miquelon, widower of Anne Comeau, at St.-Nicholas, La Rochelle, in January 1782.  When, in the early 1780s, the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France the chance for a new life in their Mississippi-valley colony, some of the Belliveaus likely had returned to North America before the Spanish made the offer, or those still in the mother country chose to remain in France.  No Belliveau can be found on the passenger lists of the Seven Ships expeditions of 1785.  One of Louis's daughters, Anne, died at Memramcook, southeastern New Brunswick, in 1820. 

Only one Belliveau, Pierre dit Bideau, seems to have made it to Louisiana.  Judging by his dit, Pierre may have been a descendant of Charles dit Bideau of Annapolis Royal, one of Jean, père's sons by his first wife.  Sadly, the date of Pierre dit Bideau's arrival in Louisiana, the place of exile from whence he came, where he settled in the colony, and who he married there, if he married at all, remain a mystery.  What is certain is that no line of this old Acadian family was established in the Bayou State.193

Benoit

By 1755, descendants of Martin Benoit dit Labrière and Marie Chaussegros had set down roots in nearly a dozen settlements in greater Acadia:  at Annapolis Royal; Rivière-des-Habitants, Rivière-aux-Canards, Grand-Pré, Pigiguit, and Cobeguit in the Minas Basin; Memramcook in the trois-rivières area west of Chignecto; and at Anse-au-Matelot and Grande-Ascension on Île St.-Jean, and Pointe-à-la-Jeunesse, Rivière-des-Habitants, and Baie-des-Espagnols on Île Royale in the French Maritimes.  Le Grand Dérangement of the 1750s scattered them even farther. 

When the British rounded up the Acadians at Pigiguit in the fall of 1755, René, the one son of Pierre Benoit l'aîné who did not leave Pigiguit ended up in Massachusetts, as did some of his nieces and nephews, including Alexis Benoit and his wife Hélène Comeau.  Other Benoits at Pigiguit found themselves on transports bound for Maryland, and one of them may have gone to Virginia.  Benoits at Annapolis Royal and Memramcook sought refuge along the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore or moved on to the St. Lawrence valley.  But the majority of Martin dit Labriere's descendants, who had moved to the French Maritimes before Le Grand Dérangement, escaped the British roundup in Nova Scotia in the fall of 1755. 

Their respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  The fall of the French fortress at Louisbourg in July 1758 gave the victorious British easy access to the remaining Acadian communities in the region.  Later that year, British forces rounded up most of the Acadians on the Maritime island and deported them to France.  Among them were dozens of Benoits.  Three Benoit families--those of Paul, age 54, and Abraham, age 49, sons of Pierre le jeune; and Olivier, age 41, son of Jean--did not make it to France.  They perished with hundreds of other Acadians when two of the British transports bound for St.-Malo, the Violet and the Duke William, sank in an Atlantic storm in mid-December.  Marie-Josèphe Thériot, widow of Jean Benoit, took her four sons aboard another transport named Duke William, which suffered a shipboard mishap on the way to St.-Malo, where it arrived the first of November.  Marie-Josèphe died at sea, but her Benoit sons--Joseph, age 27, a carpenter; Jean-Louis, age 18, a sailor; Baptiste, age 19, also a sailor; and Paul, age 15--reached St.-Malo.  Sadly, youngest son Paul died four days after the Duke William reached port, probably from the rigors of the crossing.  Charles Benoit, age 36, his second wife Marie Girouard, age 27, Charles's brother Pierre, nephew Augustin Benoit, age 17, and niece Osite Pitre, also crossed on Duke William.  Pierre and Osite died at sea, but Charles, Marie, and Augustin made it to St.-Malo, though, in Charles's case, just barely.   Madeleine Benoit, widow of Jean-Baptiste Marcadet, took four children with her aboard Duke William:  Madeleine, age 18, and Lucas and Modeste, ages unrecorded, survived the crossing, but Louison, whose age also was unrecorded, died at sea.  Madeleine died in a hospital at St.-Malo soon after the ship reached port the first of November.  Son Lucas Marcadet was granted permission soon after arrival to continue on to Rochefort, so he must have been at least a teenager.  Charles Benoit, age 47, wife Marie-Madeleine Thériot, age 47, and their four unmarried children--Françoise, age 18; Judith, age 14; Jean-Charles, age 11; and Pierre, age 7--along with Élisabeth LeJuge, Charles's 70-year-old mother, crossed on the British transport Tamerlane, which left the Maritimes in late November and reached St.-Malo in mid-January 1759.  Every member of the family survived the voyage except for young Pierre, who died at sea.  However, mother Élisabeth, weakened no doubt by the rigors of the crossing, died at Châteauneuf, near St.-Malo, in July 1759, six months after she reached the port.  Anne Benoit, age 21, and husband Charles LeBlanc, age 22, also survived the crossing to St.-Malo aboard Tamerlane; they brought no children.  Marguerite Benoit, wife of Étienne Hamet, age 59, died along with their three children, ages 14, 12, and 10, aboard one of the five British transports that left the Maritimes in late November and reached St.-Malo in late January.  Marie Benoit, wife of Charles Dugas, lost her husband and two of their 10 children aboard one of the Five Ships.  Augustin Benoit, age 32, crossed with wife Marguerite Lejeune, age 28, and three children--Marguerite, age 8, Simon, and Élisabeth, called Aizahy, ages unrecorded--on the British transport Supply, which left the Maritimes in late November 1768, took refuge in an English port in late December, and did not reach St.-Malo until early March 1759.  All three of Augustin's children died at sea.  The voyage and the rigors of childbirth proved fatal to wife Marguerite, who was pregnant when she made the crossing.  She died at Châteauneuf in May, after giving birth to daughter Perrine-Jeanne at St.-Suliac, near St.-Malo.  Perrine-Jeanne lived only 6 days, and then Augustin was alone.  Anne Benoit, age 31, wife of Pierre Hébert, age 27, lost one of her two children--daughter Élisabeth, age 1--in a hospital at St.-Malo two months after they reached the French port aboard Supply.  Françoise Benoit, age 37, wife of Jean Bourg, age 43, crossed with seven of their children on Supply.  Françoise, Jean, and son Théodore, age 5, died in the hospital at St.-Malo in June and July 1759, several months after completing the crossing, leaving the other six children, ages 18 to 7, as parentless orphans. 

The Benoits who survived the crossing did their best to create a life for themselves in the teeming suburbs of St.-Malo, but not all of them stayed there.  After they reached the Breton port, brothers Joseph, a carpenter, and Jean-Louis and Baptiste, sailors, moved on to Lorient, on the other side of Brittany.  Jean-Louis, evidently while pursuing his trade, died on the island of Guadaloupe in March 1764.  Charles, son of Pierre Benoit and Élisabeth LeJuge, and his wife Marie-Madeleine Thériot lived at Châteauneuf, south of St.-Malo, where Charles died in January 1760, age 50.  Daughter Judith, age 15, died at Châteauneuf the following March.  Meanwhile, daughter Françoise married Honoré, son of fellow Acadians Ignace Carret and Cécile Henry, at nearby St.-Servan in March 1759.  Marie-Madeleine, who did not remarry, took son Jean-Charles to St.-Servan, where he married Anne-Marie, daughter of fellow Acadians Jean-Baptiste Haché dit Gallant and Anne Olivier, in January 1770.  Jean-Charles and Anne-Marie had at least one child at St.-Servan:  Jean-Marie was born  in November 1770.  The younger Charles Benoit, husband of Marie Girouard, also did not last long in France.  He and Marie lived on the Rue des Bouchers in St.-Suliac, near St.-Malo, after they disembarked from Duke William.  Charles did not recover from the rigors of the crossing; he died in late November 1758 in the port's Hotel-Dieu, age 36.  Marie Girouard's fate is difficult to ascertain.  Augustin, son of Claude Benoit, who had crossed with his Uncle Charles and Aunt Marie on Duke William, was only a teenager when he reached St.-Malo in late 1758.  At age 19, he married Françoise, daughter of fellow Acadians Pierre Thériot and Marguerite Guérin, at St.-Servan in February 1760.  They had at least half a dozen children, not all of them born in France:  Nicolas-Jean-Sébastien, called Sébastien, was born at St.-Servan in November 1760.  In 1763, Augustin and Françoise, with little Sébastien in tow, signed on with other Acadians to a risky venture--a long, arduous voyage aboard the ship L'Aigle to Îles Malouines, today's Falkland Islands, near the southern tip of South America.  There, three more children were born to them:  François in c1764, Adélaïde in c1765, and Anne in c1767.  By the time of Anne's birth, the family had enough of the desolate islands.  They returned to St.-Malo in April 1768 and settled again at St.-Servan, where two more daughters were born to them:  Louise-Marie in October 1769, and Anne-Marie in January 1773.  Daughter Anne died at St.-Servan in September 1772, age 5.  The other Augustin, son of Pierre Benoit, who had lost his entire family on the terrible crossing in 1758, lived at Châteauneuf from 1759 to 1760.  In April 1760, he embarked on the corsair Le Hercules and fell into the hands of the British, who held him as a prisoner in England until the war ended in 1763.  Back in France, he moved to St.-Servan and created a second family when he remarried to Marie-Madeleine, daughter of fellow Acadians Jean Gautrot and Euphrosine Labauve of Grand-Pré, in July 1763.  Augustin and Marie-Madeleine had at least six children at St.-Servan, half of whom died young:  Mathurin was born in May 1764, François-Jean-Baptiste in October 1765, Jean-Marie-Augustin in January 1767 but died at age 2 in December 1768, Marie-Jeanne was born in January 1769 but died at age 15 months in March 1770, Françoise-Apollonie was born in October 1770 but died at age 2 in September 1772, and Victoire-Marie was born in November 1772.  Grégoire, son of another Claude Benoit, was 14 years old when he landed with relatives at Rochefort in October 1759.  Later that year, he followed them to Megrit, near St.-Malo, and then to nearby St.-Servan, where he married Marie-Rose, daughter of fellow Acadians Jean Carret and Rose Trahan, in February 1770.  Grégoire and Marie-Rose had two children at St.-Servan:  Joseph-François in October 1771 but died at age 1 in December 1772; and Jean-Marie was born in September 1773.  Grégoire's younger brother Daniel also followed his relatives to Megrit and then to St.-Servan, where he married Henriette, daughter of fellow Acadians François Legendre and Marguerite Labauve, in February 1768.  They had two children at St-Servan:  Daniel-Henry in October 1769, and Jeanne-Eléonore-Anastasie in January 1772 but died seven months later. 

Island Benoits ended up in ports other than St.-Malo, including Boulogne-sur-Mer, La Rochelle, and Rochefort.  Grégoire, Daniel, and Marguerite, ages 14, 11, and 5, children of Claude Benoit and Élisabeth Thériot, reached Rochefort with the family of brother-in-law Yves Crochet, husband of their older sister Pélagie, in October 1759, but they soon moved on to St.-Malo.  Catherine Benoit, widow of François LePrince, died at Boulogne-sur-Mer in January 1760; she was 74 years old.  Élisabeth Benoit, wife of Jean Foretier, died at St.-Louis, Rochefort, in November 1760; she was only 33 years old.  Marie-Marthe Benoit of Cobeguit and Louisbourg, widow of carpenter Jean Clément, married Nicolas-Gabriel Gerbert or Albert of Île d'Oléron and widower of Marie Garsant, at St.-Louis, Rochefort, in January 1761.  The priest who recorded the marriage noted that Nicolas had lived at Louisbourg and had resided at Rochefort for 10 years before the marriage.  Joseph, son of Claude Benoit, described as a "Canadian who died in England in the service of the King," was "buried" at St.-Nicolas, Boulogne-sur-Mer, in March 1763.  He was only 23 years old.  He may have been one of the young Acadians who signed up to serve on a French corsair soon after they reached France and paid dearly for it.  Marie Benoit, widow of Jacques Catron, married labourer à bras Pierre, fils, son of Pierre Renard or Renaud and Suzanne Barillon of Thonny-Routonne, Saintonge, at Notre-Dame, Rochefort, in June 1764.  Jacques Benoit, a journalier du port, widower of Angélique Blay, married Suzanne Sicard, widow of Pierre Gainault, at Notre-Dame, Rochefort, in April 1773.  Marie-Anne Benoit, wife of Antoine Giroir, died at St.-Nicolas, La Rochelle, in February 1782; she was only 40 years old. 

One Acadian Benoit, Lazare, reached St.-Malo in 1763, perhaps one of the hundreds of Acadian exiles held in England repatriated to France in the spring of that year.  If so, Lazare, born perhaps at Pigiguit in c1736, would have been exiled to Virginia in the fall of 1755 and sent on to England the following spring.  After he reached France, he lived at St.-Servan, probably still a bachelor in his late 20s.  He refused to remain in the mother country.  In 1764, he returned to North America with other Acadian exiles and settled on Île Miquelon, a French-controlled island off the southern coast of Newfoundland.  He then disappears from the historical record.  One wonders how he was related to the other Acadian Benoits. 

In the early 1770s, Benoits still in the St.-Malo area chose to take part in another settlement venture, this one in the Poitou region southeast of St.-Malo.  French authorities were tired of providing for the Acadians languishing in the port cities.  A French nobleman offered to settle them on land he owned near the city of Châtellerault.  Among them were four Benoit families from St.-Servan:  Augustin and second wife Marie-Madeleine Gautrot; Grégoire and wife Marie-Rose Carret; Brother Daniel and wife Henriette Legendre; and Jean-Charles and wife Anne-Marie Haché.  Sadly, Daniel and Henriette's son Daniel-Henry died at Châtellerault, age 4 1/2, in June 1774.  But the Benoits also welcomed more children into their families.  Marie-Madeleine gave Augustin another son in Poitou:  Joseph-Marie was born at Châtellerault in November 1774.  Marie-Rose gave Grégoire another daughter:  Marie-Rose was born at Châtellerault in May 1775.  Anne-Marie gave Jean-Charles another son:  Paul-Frédéric was born at Châtellerault in October 1775.  But after a couple of years of effort the venture failed.  From October 1775 through March 1776, dozens of Poitou Acadians retreated in four convoys to the port city of Nantes.  Most of the Benoit families were among them.  The exception was Anne Benoit, who had come to Cenan, Poitou, in 1773 with her second husband Jean-Baptiste Hébert, a son by her first husband Pierre Hébert, a son by her current husband, and a stepdaughter, who married a local Frenchman at Cenan in October 1776.  Anne's second husband died there in June 1778, and her older son married there to a fellow Acadian in January 1779.  The older son's wife died nine months later, and he, Anne, and her younger son moved on the Nantes during the early 1780s. 

At Nantes, the Benoits lived as best they could on government handouts and on what work they could find there.  Again, the Benoits welcomed more children into their families.  Marie-Madeleine gave Augustin another son at Nantes:  Jean-Marie-Augustin was born in St.-Similien Parish in June 1777 but died a few days later.  Marie-Rose gave Grégoire two more sons:  Donatien was born at Nantes in c1777; and Rémond-Grégoire at St.-Martin-de-Chantenay, near Nantes, in July 1783.  Anne-Marie gave Jean-Charles two more children:  François-René was born in c1778, and Sophie-Renée in c1783.  Daniel and Henriette's daughter Henriette-Renée was born at St.-Martin-de-Chantenay, near Nantes, in June 1778.  And tragedy struck another family again:  Augustin, son of Pierre, died at St.-Similien in September 1783, age 55. 

When, in the early 1780s, the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France the chance for a better life in faraway Louisiana, dozens of Benoits agreed to take it.  Like the majority of their fellow Acadians in France, Jean-Charles, Sébastien, François-Jean-Baptiste, brothers Grégoire and Daniel, and cousin Marie-Marthe, took up the offier.  So did twice-widowed Anne Benoit, her older Hébert son, now remarried, and her younger Hébert son.  However, some Benoits remained in France, especially the ones who had taken French spouses.  There were exceptions.  Anne-Marie, youngest daughter of Augustin Benoit and Françoise Thériot, married, at age 27, Joseph, son of fellow Acadians Jean-Baptiste Vigneau and Anne Lefergue of îles St.-Pierre and Miquelon, at Ingouville, Le Havre, in May 1800.  Joseph was a sailor.  The priest who married them noted that Anne-Marie had been "deported from Isles of St.-Pierre et Miquelon," but he gave no date.  Anne-Marie had been only age 12 when older brother Sébastien and other relatives emigrated to Louisiana in 1785, so the rest of her family likely had stayed.

Acadian Benoits also appeared in the French Antilles during Le Grand Dérangement.  Orphan sisters Anne and Élisabeth, born in Massachusetts, where their parents, Alexis Benoit and Hélène Comeau, had been exiled in 1755, may have gone to French St.-Domingue, today's Haiti, with other Acadians from New England in the early 1760s.  If so, they moved on to Louisiana by 1775, when Élisabeth married a Dupuis on the river above New Orleans, and Anne married a widowed son of Joseph Broussard dit Beausoleil in Attakapas, west of the Atchafalaya Basin.  Jean-Louis Benoit, a 24-year-old sailor, son of Jean of Île Royale, died "in the home of Mr. Pécou, master surgeon, at Petit-Bourg, Guadeloupe, in March 1764.  Clément Benoit, arpenteur du roi, or land surveyor for the King, and his wife Catherine Eveillard, were living at Petit-Bourg, Guadeloupe, when their daughter Marie-Louise died at age 4 months in April 1764.  They were still there in January 1768, when another daughter was born to them.  Joseph Benoit of Louisbourg, perhaps also a sailor, died at Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe, in April 1764; he was only 26 years old.  Catherine-Josèphe, daughter of Jean Benoit of Cobeguit and wife or widow of Germain Thériot, died at Fort-Royal, Martinique, in November 1766; she was 55 years old.  Anne, daughter of Jean Benoit of Cobeguit and widow of Gabriel Darein, ended up at Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe, where she married Jean, fils, son of Jean Maillard and Marie Baja of Petit-Loupy, Lorraine, in April 1768; Jean, fils was a merchant.  Jacques, son of Jean Benoit and Marie Bertin, born at Blaye, near Bordeaux, a master blacksmith, married Marie-Élisabeth, called Élisabeth, daughter of fellow Acadians Zacharie Richard and Delle Blanchard, at Le Mouillage, Martinique, in February 1771; Élisabeth had been born in Acadia.  She and Jean, fils were still at Le Mouillage when their son Pierre was born in December 1789. 

Back in North America, several Benoit families escaped the 1758 roundup on the Maritime islands and eluded the tenacious redcoats.  After the war with Britain finally ended, these Benoits settled at Arichat on Île Madame, off the southern coast of Cape Breton Island; at Petit-Bras d'Or and D'Escousse on Cape Breton; and on Île St.-Pierre, an island retained by France off the southern coast of Newfoundland.  Some of the Benoits on Île St.-Pierre came there from exile in France.  In the 1790s and early 1800s, Benoits from Cape Breton and Île St.-Pierre moved north to Newfoundland, where they settled in the Codroy Valley, at Baie d'Espoir, and especially on Baie St.-George.  Some of these Newfoundland Benoits married Anglophone wives and anglicized their surname to Bennett.  Others retained the French spelling of their name, which sometimes appears in the records as Benoite.  The Benoits who left New England after the war chose to go to Canada, where they settled above Québec City at Trois-Rivières, St.-Michel-d'Yamaska, and Yamachiche, and on the lower Richelieu east of Montréal at Chambly and St.-Ours.  Typical of most, if not all, Acadian families, these Acadiennes of Canada lost touch with their Cadien cousins hundreds of miles away, and until the Acadian reunions of the twentieth century, may even have forgotten the others existed. 

Meanwhile, the Benoits from the Minas Basin who had been exiled to Maryland endured life among English colonists who, despite their colony's Catholic roots, did not care much for the French "papists" who had been thrust upon them.  In August 1763, a few months after the war with Britain finally ended, colonial authorities counted one Benoit family, a couple of Benoit wives, and half a dozen Benoit orphans at Port Tobacco on the lower Potomac River, all of them refugees from Pigiguit.  Pierre-Olivier, called Olivier, Benoit was counted with his wife Susanne Boudrot, their son Jean-Charles, and daughters Marie and Madeleine (called Marguerite by the British scribe).  Also in the same small community were Olivier's brother Jean-Baptiste's widow Anne Trahan, now the wife of Louis Latier; Olivier's nieces Marguerite, Marie-Anne, and Marie-Rose Benoit ; and orphans Anne and Natalis, probably Nathalie, Benoit.  Marie Benoit, wife of Jean-Charles Breau of Pigiguit, also was at Port Tobacco with her husband, two children, and a Boudrot orphan.  Étienne, orphan son of Claude Benoit of Pigiguit, also may have been living with Marie and the Breaus.  Having heard good reports from their kinsmen in Louisiana who had gone there in 1765, hundreds of Maryland Acadians, first in June 1766 and again in April 1767, hired their own vessels, filled them with their families, and headed for New Orleans via Cap-Français, French St.-Domingue.  The Benoits were not among them.  Not until December 1767 did any of them book passage for the Spanish colony, this time with the large extended family at Port Tobacco led by Alexis and Honoré Breau of Pigiguit.  Nearly a year later, in January 1769, Olivier Benoit, his wife and children, and his former sister-in-law Anne Trahan and her family, including her Benoit daughters, booked passage from Port Tobacco on the English schooner Britannia bound for the lower Mississippi.207

Bergeron

By 1755, descendants of Barthélemy Bergeron dit d'Amboise and Geneviève Serreau de Saint-Aubin could be found on Rivière St.-Jean.  Le Grand Dérangement of the 1750s scattered them to the winds. 

According to Acadian genealogist Bona Arsenault, all three of Barthélemy Bergeron dit d'Amboise, père's sons were captured by British forces during Le Grand Dérangement, held as prisoners at Halifax with their families, made their way to Louisiana via Cap-Français, French St.-Domingue, in 1765, and were thus among the earliest Acadians to reach that colony.  But other sources tell a different story.  Oldest son Barthélemy dit d'Amboise, fils may have been captured by British forces and held in Nova Scotia, but the genealogists at the Acadian Memorial in St. Martinville, Louisiana, do not list him as one of the Acadians who reached Louisiana.  Eight of his children, including four sons, did go to the Mississippi Valley colony, but Barthélemy, fils did not.  Barthélemy, fils's younger brother Michel dit de Nantes also may have fallen into the hands of the British and been held in Nova Scotia, but the Acadian Memorial does not list him either as one of the refugees who reached Louisiana.  Six of his sons--Pierre dit Nantes, François, Michel, fils, Simon, Joseph dit d'Ambroise, and Étienne dit d'Ambroise--evidently were captured by the British on the river in 1758 and held as prisoners of war in Nova Scotia until the end of the war, when they chose to go to Canada.  Three of Michel dit de Nantes's daughters--Anne-Marie, Geneviève, and Marie--chose to go, instead, to Louisiana in 1764-65.  Barthélemy, fils and Michel dit de Nantes's youngest brother Augustin also went to Louisiana, with his wife and the family of his son Jean-Baptiste dit d'Amboise.  Two of Augustin's other sons, Pierre and Charles-André, evidently escaped the British in 1758 and sought refuge at Miramichi on the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore before moving on to Canada.   

The Bergerons who did not go to Louisiana settled along the upper St. Lawrence River at Bécancour, St.-Grégoire-de-Nicolet, Nicolet, Gentilly, Trois-Rivières, and Yamachiche; at L'Îsle-Verte, Kamouraska, St.-Anne-de-la-Pocatière, and Cacouna in the lower St. Lawrence valley; and on the north shore of the Baie des Chaleurs at Carleton, Bonaventure, New-Carlisle, Paspébiac, and Percé in present-day Québec Province.  Typical of most, if not all, Acadian families, these Acadiennes of Canada lost touch with their Cadien cousins hundreds of miles away, and until the Acadian reunions of the twentieth century, may even have forgotten the others existed. 

The Bergerons who emigrated to Louisiana came from the prisoner of war camps in Nova Scotia.  When the war against Britain finally ended, the Acadians at Halifax faced a hard dilemma.  The Treaty of Paris of February 1763 stipulated in its Article 14 that persons dispersed by the war had 18 months to return to their respective territories.  However, British authorities refused to allow any of the Acadian prisoners in the region to return to their former lands as proprietors.  If Acadians chose to remain in, or return to, Nova Scotia, they could live only in small family groups in previous unsettled areas or work for low wages on former Acadian lands now owned by New England "planters."  If they stayed, they must also take the hated oath of allegiance to the new British king, George III, without reservation.  They would also have to take the oath if they joined their cousins in Canada.  After all they had suffered on the question of the oath, few self-respecting Acadians would consent to take it if it could be avoided.  Some Halifax exiles chose to relocate to Miquelon, a French-controlled island off the southern coast of Newfoundland.  Others considered going to French St.-Domingue, where Acadian exiles in the British colonies already had gone, or to the Illinois country, the west bank of which still belonged to France, or to French Louisiana, which, thanks to British control of Canada, was the only route possible to the Illinois country for Acadian exiles.  Whatever their choice, they refused to remain in Acadie.  So they gathered up their money and their few possessions and prepared to leave their homeland.  Of the 600 who left Halifax in late 1764 bound for Cap-Français, St.-Domingue, at least 29 were Bergerons.208

Bernard

By 1755, descendants of René Bernard, père and Madeleine Doucet could be found mostly at Chignecto, where René himself had settled.  Le Grand Dérangement of the 1750s scattered them to the winds.   

The fate of an Acadian family during Le Grand Dérangement depended largely on where they settled in greater Acadia.  Years before the great upheaval in the rest of Nova Scotia, the Acadians at Chignecto were the first to endure a disruption of their lives.  In the spring and summer of 1750, Canadian soldiers, assisted by Abbé Le Loutre and his Mi'kmaq warriors, burned Acadian homesteads in the British-controlled area east of Rivière Missaguash, forcing the habitants to move to the French-controlled area west of the river.  Bernards probably were among the refugees.  After yet another war erupted between Britain and France in 1754, the Chignecto Acadians were caught in the middle of it.  When British and New England forces attacked Fort Beauséjour in June 1755, Chignecto Acadians, pressured by the French, served in the fort as militia.  They, too, along with the French troupes de la marine, became prisoners of war when the fort surrendered on June 16.  Governor Lawrence was so incensed to find so-called French Neutrals fighting with French regulars at Beauséjour that he ordered his officers to deport the Chignecto Acadians to the southernmost British colonies on the Atlantic seaboard.  That fall, the British transported at least two Bernard families to South Carolina with hundreds of other Chignecto Acadians.  One family was headed by René, père's youngest son Michel, who sailed on the British transport Dolphin.  By August 1763, when colonial officials counted Michel and his third daughter Madeleine, now age 21, still in South Carolina, Michel had remarried to Anne Babineau.  One wonders if, the following year, Michel took his family to French St.-Domingue with other Acadians from the seaboard colonies.  

Most of the Bernards at Chignecto escaped the British roundup and fled up the coast to the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore.  There, they found refuge at Miramichi and at Restigouche, at the head of the Baie des Chaleurs, while others moved on to Canada, with tragic results.  René, père's granddaughter Anne, wife of Jean-Baptiste Bourgeois, died at Québec in mid-June 1757, perhaps soon after she arrived in the Canadian capital by ship from Miramichi; she was age 40.  Her father René dit Renochet and his younger brother Jean-Baptiste, René, père's first and third sons, died at Québec the following November and December, ages 67 and 61, respectively, victims, perhaps, of a smallpox epidemic that struck the Acadian refugees at Québec and the surrounding area that fall and winter.  Also a likely victim of the epidemic was Renochet's wife and Anne's mother, Anne Blou, who died at Québec in early December, age 60.   After Le Grand Dérangement, many descendants of René, père could be found in the St. Lawrence valley at Lotbinière between Québec and Trois-Rivières, at Bonaventure on the Gaspé peninsula near Restigouche, and along Baie Ste.-Marie on the southwest coast of Nova Scotia.  Typical of most, if not all, Acadian families, these Acadiennes of Canada lost touch with their Cadien cousins hundreds of miles away, and until the Acadian reunions of the mid-twentieth century, may even have forgotten the others existed. 

Several of René, père's descendants ended up in France.  Marie-Blanche, called Blanche, and Marie-Madeleine, daughters of René Bernard III and Marguerite Hébert, born probably at Chignecto, followed their family to Île St.-Jean, today's Prince Edward Island, by the mid-1750s.  Living in territory controlled by France, the Bernards and other island Acadians escaped the British roundup in Nova Scotia in the fall of 1755.  Their respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  In late 1758, after the fall of the French fortress at Louisbourg, victorious British forces swooped down on Île St.-Jean and deported most of the Acadians there to France.  Blanche, Marie-Madeleine, and probably their parents ended up at Cherbourg in Normandy.  At age 18, Marie-Madeleine married Charles, son of fellow Acadians Joseph Henry and Christine Pitre and widower of Françoise-Josèphe Thériot, in January 1761; her mother was dead by then.  Marie-Madeleine's daughter Marie-Madeleine Henry was born the following January, and Rose-Anastasie in c1771.  After moving on to Le Havre, sister Blanche, age 24, married Jean-Baptiste, son of fellow Acadians Paul dit Le Grand Paul Doiron and Marguerite Michel of Pigiguit and Île St.-Jean, in January 1766.  Their father René III died between April 1764 and January 1766, place unrecorded.  In the early 1770s, Blanche and Jean-Baptiste, as well as Charles and Marie-Madeleine, became part of the settlement venture in Poitou which collapsed after two years of fruitless labor on a French nobleman's marginal lands in the region.  Marie-Madeleine gave birth to daughter Cécile in Poitou in April 1774, soon after she and Charles arrived there, and to Ursule in c1775.  In late 1775, the sisters and their families, along with hundreds of other Poitou Acadians, retreated to the port city of Nantes, where they subsisted as best they could on government handouts and what little work they could find.  In the early 1780s, when the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France the chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana, Blanche and Jean-Baptiste agreed to take it.  Marie-Madeleine, unfortunately, could not make that decision; she had died at Paimboeuf, the port of Nantes, in September 1780, age 37.  However, three of her Henry daughters--Marie-Madeleine, age 23 in 1785; Rose-Anastasie, age 14; and Ursule, age 10--followed their father and stepmother to Louisiana. 

Two of René Bernard, père's grandsons--Pierre, born in c1731, married to Marguerite Arseneau; and Michel le jeune, born in c1734, still a bachelor, both sons of Jean-Baptiste--escaped the British roundup at Chignecto with their parents and siblings.  Unlike the rest of their family, who went on to Canada, Pierre and Michel remained at Restigouche, which the British attacked in the summer of 1760.  After defeating the French and Acadians, the redcoats rounded up 300 refugees and carried them off to prison compounds in Nova Scotia.  Pierre and his family may have been among them.  His brother evidently escaped the British raiders that summer; according to genealogist Bona Arsenault, Michel Bernard married Marie, daughter of fellow Acadians Joseph dit L'Officier Guilbeau and Madeleine Michel of Annapolis Royal, at Restigouche in January 1761.  The British either captured them later, or, more likely, Michel and Marie followed her family to Nova Scotia.  They, too, ended up in the Halifax prison.  An unidentified author in an October 2005 article found in Janet Jehn's Acadian Genealogy Exchange asserts:  "The major portion of the Bernard families of Louisiana comes from two brothers, Michel and Pierre Bernard, who arrived on the Mississippi shores about 1762 from Ristigouche at the top of the Baie des Chaleurs, where they fled after the deportation of 1755.  They probably sailed on one of the fishing boats that some Acadians of that time built and owned."  Again, we have a family historian who claims that members of his family reached Louisiana before other Acadians did, in this case 1762, two years before the first documented Acadians reached "the Mississippi shores" in February 1764.  The problem with this family historian's assertion is one of simple physics:  people cannot be in two places at the same time.  Brothers Pierre and Michel, their wives and children could not have been in Louisiana in 1762 when they were counted among the Acadian prisoners at Halifax in August 1763.  

The Bernard brothers of Chignecto did not reach Louisiana on a fishing boat in 1762.  When the war with Britain finally ended in early 1763, Pierre and Michel, still prisoners in Nova Scotia, faced a hard dilemma.  The Treaty of Paris of February 1763 stipulated in its Article 14 that persons dispersed by the war had 18 months to return to their respective territories.  However, British authorities refused to allow any of the Acadian prisoners in the region to return to their former lands as proprietors.  If Acadians chose to remain in, or return to, Nova Scotia, they could live only in small family groups in previous unsettled areas or work for low wages on former Acadian lands now owned by New England "planters."  If they stayed, they must also take the hated oath of allegiance to the new British king, George III, without reservation.  They would also have to take the oath if they joined their cousins in Canada.  After all they had suffered on the question of the oath, few self-respecting Acadians would consent to take it if it could be avoided.  Some Halifax exiles chose to relocate to Miquelon, a French-controlled island off the southern coast of Newfoundland.  Others considered going to French St.-Domingue, where Acadian exiles in the British colonies already had gone, or to the Illinois country, the west bank of which still belonged to France, or to French Louisiana, which, thanks to British control of Canada, was the only route possible to the Illinois country for Acadian exiles.  Whatever their choice, they refused to remain in L'Acadie.  So they gathered up their money and their few possessions and prepared to leave their homeland.  Of the 600 who left Halifax in late 1764 bound for Cap-Français, St.-Domingue, eight of them belonged to the families of the two Bernard brothers and another was a female relative.209

Bertaud/Berteau

In 1758, after the fall of the French fortress at Louisbourg that July, the victorious British rounded up most of the Acadian families on Île St.-Jean and deported them to France.  The crossing took a heavy toll on the Bertaud dit Montaury family.  Marguerite Montaury, age 38, husband Pierre Gallon, age 48, and all of their children, at least five of them, perished aboard the British transport Violet, which sank in a mid-Atlantic storm in mid-December.  But others made the crossing without mishap.  Marguerite's older brother Jacques dit Montaury, wife Madeleine Quimine, and their children--Grégoire, Jean-Baptiste, Louis, Jacques-Aubin, Joseph, and Marie-Rose--made the crossing aboard the British transport Supply, which left the Gut of Canso in late November, was driven by a North Atantic storm to Bineford, England, and did not reach St.-Malo until the second week of March 1759.  Marguerite and Jacque's youngest sister Marie-Josèphe and her husband Pierre Longuépée also made the crossing from Île St.-Jean aboard Supply

The island Acadians did their best to make a life for themselves in the teeming suburbs of St.-Malo.  Jacques and his family resided at St.-Servan, near St.-Malo, from 1759 to 1763.  Soon after reaching France, son Jacques-Aubin died at St.-Servan in May 1759, age 4, and infant son Joseph, who had been born on the crossing to St.-Malo, died at age 5 months also in May.  In 1763, after the war with Britain finally ended, Jacques and his family left France for Île St.-Pierre, a French-controlled island off the southern coast of Newfoundland.  In 1778, during the American Revolution, British forces captured the island and deported the Acadians there to France.  Evidently Jacques's son Grégoire, who called himself Grégoire Berteau, and Grégoire's wife Françoise Blin, were among the Acadians deported back to France.  Their daughter Antoinette-Françoise was born in St.-Nicolas Parish, La Rochelle, in November 1782.  Meanwhile, from 1759 to 1772, Jacque's sister Marie-Josèphe and her family resided at Bonnaban, near St.-Malo, then at LaGouesnière and St.-Servan, where seven children were born to them.  According to Acadian genealogist Bona Arsenault, François Bertho, born in c1758, sans doute son of Jacques dit Montaury and Madeleine Quimine of Île St.-Jean, married Marie-Josèphe, daughter of Acadians Joseph Poirier and Ursule Renaud of Chignecto and Île St.-Jean, at Belle-Île-en-Mer, France, in 1781.  Their daughter Marie-Anne was born at Le Palais on the island in September 1782.  The priest who recorded her baptism called the father Fancion, not François, Berteau.  According to Arsenault, François's wife died at Le Palais in 1789, so he and his family remained in the mother country after the majority of the Acadians there resettled in Louisiana.  Interestingly, François and his family do not appear in any of the volumes of Albert J. Robichaux's study of the Acadians in France.  Evidently Jacques's sister Marie-Josèphe and her family also remained in France. 

Antoine Berteau dit Lyonnais, fils, no kin to the Bertauds of Île St.-Jean, and his wife Marguerite Lejeune also ended up in France, perhaps with the other exiles of 1758.  Their son Jean-Baptiste was born in St.-Sauveur Parish, La Rochelle, in March 1768.  The priest who recorded the boy's baptism called Antoine, fils a marin de Louisbourg.  Daughter Marguerite-Antoinette was born in St.-Nicolas Parish, La Rochelle, in January 1781, and son Pierre-Thomas in December 1783.  The priest who recorded Pierre-Thomas's baptism noted that Antoine and Marguerite were from Miquelon, the French-controlled island next to Île St.-Pierre.  Arsenault also gives them daughters Marguerite, born in 1762; Antoinette in 1764; and Adélaïde in 1771; and sons Guillaume, born in 1770; and Antoine III in 1773.  

Acadian Berteaus ended up on at least two French-controlled islands in the Caribbean.  Marie-Gabriel, daughter of the deceased Pierre Berteau, menuisier gagiste, and Élisabeth Girouard, was born at Fort Royal, Martinique, in March 1775.  Thérèse Berteau, wife of Étienne Fontenelle of Île Royale and Inganiche, died at Port-Louis, Guadeloupe, in May 1760.

Spanish officials counted Pierre, son of François Berteau and Louise Ernaudine of Nantes, France, at Cabahannocer on the river above New Orleans in April 1766.  In his household lived a woman, a girl, and one slave.  Pierre remained at Cabahannocer and remarried to two Acadians from the Savoie and Bourgeois families there.  His being at Cabahannocer in April 1766 implies that he was an Acadian who had come to Louisiana with 600 other exiles from Halifax via Cap-Français, St.-Domingue, in 1765.  However, when one considers his birth at Nantes in c1738  (based on the age given in the Cabahannocer census of January 1777), one suspects that he was a French immigrant, not an Acadian, who chose to live away from the bustle of New Orleans.337

Bertrand

Descendants of François Bertrand and Ozanne Chevros of Plaisance, Newfoundland, were among the earliest settlers of the French colony of Île Royale.  They were still on the island in 1755.  Meanwhile, descendants of Claude Bertrand and Catherine Pitre, probably not kin to their aristocratic namesakes on Île Royale, were widespread across greater Acadia.  In 1755, they could be found at Annapolis Royal, Chepoudy in the trois-rivières area west of Chignecto, at Minas, Pobomcoup, and on French-controlled Île St.-Jean.  Le Grand Dérangement of the 1750s scattered these families even farther. 

Claude Bertrand's son Jean l'aîné and some of his family escaped the British roundup at Chepoudy in the fall of 1755 and fled north to Canada.  Jean l'aîné died at Québec in late December 1757, victim, perhaps, of the smallpox epidemic that struck the Acadian refugees there that fall and winter.  After the war with Britain ended, Jean l'aîné's descendants could be found in the upper St. Lawrence valley at Lavaltrie between Trois-Rivières and Montréal, and at Ste.-Thérèse near Montréal.  Pierre Bertrand, born in c1725, perhaps one of Claude's grandsons, ended up as a widower on Île St.-Pierre, a French-controlled island off the southern coast of Newfoundland.  Typical of most, if not all, Acadian families, these Acadiennes of Canada and the Maritimes region lost touch with their Cadien cousins hundreds of miles away, and until the Acadian reunions of the mid-twentieth century, may even have forgotten the others existed. 

When the British rounded up the Acadians in Nova Scotia in the fall of 1755, descendants of Claude Bertrand on Île St.-Jean, living in territory controlled by France, escaped the fate of their kinsmen on the Bay of Fundy.  Their respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  After the fall of the French fortress at Louisbourg in July 1758, the victorious British swooped down on the Maritime islands, rounded up most of the Acadians there, and transported them to France.  This likely included descendants of François Bertrand, still on Île Royale. 

Claude Bertrand's older daughter Marie, her second husband Jean Le Breton, and their children were deported aboard the British transport Violet with 400 other Acadians.  On 13 December 1758, the Violet sank in a mid-Atlantic storm on the way to France; all of the Acadians aboard were lost, including Marie Bertrand and her family.  Marie's younger sister Angélique, wife of Toussaint Blanchard, survived the crossing on another vessel, but they did not remain in France.  They were counted on Île Miquelon, a French-controlled island off the southern coast of Newfoundland, in 1767, but French officials, to relieve overcrowding on the island, evidently returned them to France.  Angélique died at the Hôpital de St.-Pol-de-Léon in Brittany in January 1768, in her early 70s.  Her brother Jacques, his wife Madeleine Moulaison, and their daughter Marie-Anne also survived the crossing to France in 1758 and also died there.  Jacques died in c1766, in his early 60s, place unrecorded.  Madeleine, age 72, and Marie-Anne, age 40, died at Monthoiron, Poitou, in August 1782, only six days apart.  Marie, daughter of Pierre Bertrand and Marie-Josèphe Moulaison of Pobomcoup and niece of Marie, Angélique, and Jacques, married Jean-Baptiste, fils, son of fellow Acadians Jean-Baptiste Lamoureaux dit Rochefort and Marie-Claire Potier, at Très-Ste.-Trinité, Cherbourg, in October 1763.  Marie's brother Pierre-Jacques, who was in his late 20s in 1758, became a manual laborer and a sailor in France and married Catherine, daughter of fellow Acadians Charles Bourg and Marguerite Landry, at Très-Ste.-Trinité, Cherbourg, in February 1764.  Son Ambroise-Bénoni was born at Le Havre in October 1766, Jean-Augustin in Cherbourg in September 1769, and daughter Marie-Catherine in January 1772.  A few years later, Pierre-Jacques and Catherine were part of the failed attempt to settle Acadians from the port cities on a French nobleman's land in the Poitou region.  After two years of effort, they retreated with other Poitou Acadians to the port city of Nantes, where they subsisted on government handouts or whatever work they could find there.  More children were born to them there, and two of them died:  François was baptized at St.-Jacques in November 1776 but died the following January; Adélade was baptized in December 1777; another François was born in c1779 but died at age 3 in September 1782; Louis was baptized in September 1782; and Anne-Madeleine in March 1785.  Pierre-Jacques and Marie's first cousin Eustache, son of the Jean Bertrand l'aîné who had fled from Chepoudy to Québec, worked as a ship's carpenter in France.  He married Marguerite, daughter of fellow Acadians Benjamin Landry and Marguerite Babin, at Très-Ste.-Trinité, Cherbourg, in March 1764.  Son Jean-Baptiste-Léonor or Léonor-Jean-Baptiste was born in Le Havre in April 1786 but died at Cherbourg, age 6 1/2 months, the following November; daughter Geneviève-Adélaïde was born at Cherbourg in May 1770; Marie-Geneviève in October 1772; and Marie-Louise in c1773 or 1774.  They, too, were part of the venture in Poitou, where daughter Marguerite-Lucie was baptized at Archigny in October 1774.  They also retreated to Nantes, where two more children were born to them and they buried at least three:  Marie-Louise died at Chantenay, age 22 months, in August 1776; Guillaume-Eustache was born in c1776 but died at age 1 in May 1777; and Charles was baptized in July 1780 but died at age 18 months in April 1782.  Jean Bertrand, a day-laborer and sailor and probably a cousin of Marie, Pierre-Jacques, and Eustache, took his wife Marguerite Blanchard and two of their children--Jean-Nicolas, called Nicolas and Colas, born probably at Cherbourg in c1765; and Marie-Modeste in October 1769--to Poitou and then to Nantes.  Jean died at St.-Martin-de-Chantenay, near Nantes, in November 1781; he was only 50 years old.  Daughter Marie-Modeste also may have died at Nantes.  Son Jean-Nicolas, when he was old enough, worked as a sailor and, when he could, watched after his widowed mother.  

In the early 1780s, the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France the chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana.  Pierre-Jacques, Eustache, and their families, and Jean-Nicolas and his widowed mother, agreed to take it.  However, Pierre-Jacques's sister Marie and her husband Jean-Baptiste Lamoureaux dit Rochefort, fils, chose to remain in France.

Meanwhile, Michel Bertrand, who had worked as a master carpenter at Louisbourg, Île Royale, before Le Grand Dérangement, ended up at Pointe-à-Pitre on the island of Guadeloupe, where he married Marie-Anne, daughter of Pierre Despres, a master fisherman, and Marie-Anne Groutelle, in July 1769.  Michel died in August, soon after his marriage; he was only 30 years old. 

Only one descendant of François Bertrand of Île Royale seems to have emigrated to Louisiana.  Jean-Thomas, son of Jean and Marie Le Borgne de Bélisle, was born at Havre-la-Baleine, Île Royale, in c1741.  Still in his teens, he likely was deported to France with some of his kinsmen in late 1758.  Sometimes in the late 1700s, he found his way to New Orleans, evidently with a wife named Bernarda.210

Billeray

When the British rounded up the Acadians in Nova Scotia in the fall of 1755, the Acadians on Île St.-Jean were safe for now because they lived in territory controlled by France.  Their respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  After the fall of the French fortress at Louisbourg in July 1758, the victorious British gathered up most of the Acadians on Île St.-Jean and deported them to France later in the year. 

Joseph Billeray, wife Brigitte Forest, and their two children, Jeanne and Charles, were torn from their home on the island and thrown aboard one of the five British transports that left the Gut of Canso in late November 1758.  The ship reached St.-Malo in late January 1759.  Every member of the family survived the terrible crossing that took the lives of scores of their fellow Acadians, but daughter Jeanne must have been weakened by the ordeal; she died in May 1759 probably in a St.-Malo hospital.   Joseph and Brigitte joined other Acadians in the St.-Malo suburb of Pleurtuit, where more children were born to them:  Marie-Jeanne in July 1759, Joseph-Jean or Jean-Joseph in November 1761, and Anne-Brigitte in June 1764.   In 1765, Joseph took his family to Belle-Île-en-Mer, off the southwest coast of Brittany, where they joined over 300 other Acadians in a venture they hoped would provide them independence from the government handouts on which they had subsisted at St.-Malo.  They lived in the village of Kervarigeon, in the parish of Bangor, where, in February 1767, Joseph and Brigitte recounted their respective family genealogies for French authorities.   They also lost two children at Kervarigeon.  Anne-Brigitte died at age 18 months in November 1765, soon after they reached the island.  Joseph-Jean died at age 4 in c1769.  Two years later, in c1771, wife Brigitte Forest died, leaving Joseph with two children--Charles, then 16, and daughter Marie-Jeanne, now 12.  Joseph remarried to Marie Thomas at Bangor in c1771 and fathered more children:  Marie-Marthe, born in c1772; Louise in c1774; and Joseph-Clément in c1779.  Nicholas, the "natural" son of Louise Billeray, was born in c1800.  Joseph, meanwhile, died on Belle-Île-en-Mer in c1779, in his early 50s.  His daughter Marie-Jeanne married Frenchman François Le Sommer of Grandchamp probably on Belle-Île-en-Mer.  The record is not clear on how long Marie-Jeanne Billeray remained on the island.  What is known is that her husband died before August 1785.  

When, in the early 1780s, the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France the chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana, the Billerays of Belle-Île-en-Mer did not heed the call, except for one.  Marie-Jeanne, still in her late 20s, became a young widow by 1785.  She evidently agreed with her Forest kin that going to Louisiana was a good thing.  Her stepmother, brother Charles, and their half-siblings, however, remained on Belle-Île-en-Mer, where French officials counted them in 1792, during the French Revolution.194

Blanchard

In 1755, descendants of three family progenitors bearing this name--Jean Blanchard, married to Radegonde Lambert; François dit Gentilhomme Blanchard and his two wives Anne Corne and Marguerite Carret; and Toussaint Blanchard and Angélique Bertrand, neither of them kin to one another--could be found at Annapolis Royal, Minas, Cobeguit, Petitcoudiac in the trois-rivières area, and on Île Royale and Île St.-Jean.  Le Grand Dérangement of the 1750s scattered these families even farther.

Blanchards at Petitcoudiac and Annapolis Royal escaped the British roundup in Nova Scotia in the autumn of 1755 and found refuge on the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore or in Canada.  Charles, son of Guillaume Blanchard, a descendant of Jean, died at Québec in late December 1757, age 60, a victim, perhaps, of the smallpox epidemic that struck the Acadian refugees in Canada that fall and winter.  Charles's nephew René, fils died at Québec in January 1758, age 33, another victim, perhaps, of the epidemic.  

Other Blanchards did not get away.  Two of Jean's descendants, probably from Petitcoudiac, ended up in faraway South Carolina but made their way back to greater Acadia by boat.  Several Blanchard cousins at Minas, including René, fils, his wife, one of his daughters, and his sons Joseph and Anselme, were deported to Maryland.  They were held at Baltimore.  Two Blanchard sisters from Minas, with their husbands and children, were transported to Virginia.  There they endured a fate worse than their other fellow exiles deported from Minas.  In mid-November, when five transports appeared unexpectedly at Hampton Roads, the Virginia governor, Robert Dinwiddie, protested their deportation to his colony without his consent.  The following spring, they were shipped off to England, where they were grossly neglected and treated like common criminals and where hundreds of them died of smallpox.  By 1763, more than half of them were dead.  In May of that year, after prolonged negotiations between the French and British governments, the Acadians in England were repatriated to France.  Meanwhile, Blanchards from the Annapolis valley were deported to Pennsylvania, New York, and Massachusetts.  A colonial record dated 6 May 1756 notes that a Blanchard family was among the "French neutrals sent by Gov. Lawrence from Nova Scotia to New York" and parcelled out to five counties in the Manhattan area.  Colonial authorities sent Joseph Blanchard and his family of eight to Bushwick, Queens County, on Long Island. 

The Blanchards on Île St.-Jean, living in territory controlled by France, enjoyed a short respite from the clutches of the British, and then Le Grand Dérangement caught up to them with terrible consequences.  After the fall of the French stronghold at Louisbourg in July 1758, British forces swooped down on the island, rounded up most of its Acadian habitants, and deported them to France.  Étienne Blanchard, age 30, sailed alone aboard the British transport Tamerlane, which reached St.-Malo in mid-January 1759.  He survived the ordeal but died at the Widow Launay's home at Bassablons, a suburb of St.-Malo, the following April, likely from the rigors of the crossing.  Many other Blanchards perished on, or as a result of, the crossing to France.  Most of the island Blanchards crossed aboard one of the five British transports that left the Gut of Canso in late November 1758 and reached St.-Malo in late January 1759:  Pierre Blanchard, married to Françoise Breau, died with his wife.  Pierre and Françoise's unmarried son Charles, age 21, also died on the voyage, but a 10-year-old orphan, Ignace Hamon, traveling with them, survived the crossing.  Daughter Hélène Blanchard, age 40, wife of Alexis Aucoin, survived the crossing, but her husband and three of their seven children perished in the ordeal.  Charles's older brother Pierre Blanchard, fils, age 37, crossed with wife Marie-Madeleine Hébert, age 31, and two sons--Jean-Pierre, age 8; and Ambroise, age 4.  Only Marie-Madeleine survived the crossing.  Two entire Blanchard families, headed by brothers, failed to survive deportation aboard the Five Ships, and the rest of their extended family fared almost as badly.  Alexis Blanchard, age 33, died in a St.-Malo hospital in early February soon aftter reaching the port.  All three of his children--Simon, age 4; Isabell-Geneviève, age 3; and Marie-Anne, age 1--died at sea.  Alexis's wife Marie Pitre, age 34, was pregnant during the voyage.  She gave birth to daughter Nicole at St.-Malo in early February.  The baby died at the port's Hòtel-Dieu a week later, and Marie died the same day.  Alexis's younger brother Jean, age 32, died either on the voyage or soon after reaching St.-Malo.  His three children--Anne-Josèphe, age 6; Jean-Grégoire, age 5; and Marie, age 1--died at sea.  His wife Françoise Moyse, age 32, also was pregnant during the voyage and gave birth to son Jean-Antoine at St.-Malo in mid-February, soon after reaching the port.  The baby died a day after his birth, and Françoise died a week later.  Joseph Blanchard, age 64, and wife Anne Dupuis, age 60, of Cobeguit--Alexis and Jean's parents--both died at sea, but their three unmarried sons--François, age 28; Charles, age 26; and Bénoni, age 18--survived the crossing.  In March 1759, less than two months after reaching St.-Malo aboard one of the Five Ships, Germain Blanchard, age 36, one of Joseph and Anne's older sons, had seen buried at sea or dead in local hospitals his wife Marguerite Bourg and five of his children--Ambroise, age 9; Charles, age 8; Marguerite, age 5; Marie, age 2; and Perrine, a newborn, who died soon after the ship reached port.  Only oldest son Jean, age 13, was left to him.  Germain's younger brother Joseph, fils, age 34, married to Marguerite-Geneviève Pitre, age 36, also died in the hospital at St.-Malo after burying four of his five children--Guillaume, age 11; Michel, age 8; Joseph-Mathurin, age 6, and Marguerite-Modeste, age 3--at sea.  Only wife Marguerite-Geneviève and son François-Xavier, age 12, survived the crossing.  Germain et al.'s first cousin Joseph Blanchard, age 28, and wife Anne-Symphorose Hébert, age 19, survived the crossing.  They brought no children with them.  Niece Marie Blanchard, age 13, came along and she, too, survived the crossing.  However, Joseph's mother, Élisabeth Dupuis, and Anne's brother Charles Hébert, age 22, died at sea.  Françoise Hébert, age 25, widow of Joseph Blanchard, died at sea, but her daughter Marie-Josèphe Blanchard, age 3, survived the crossing.  Pierre Blanchard died along with two of his children--Jean-Pierre, age 8; and Ambroise, age 4--and an orphan, six-year-old Joseph Hamon.  Only wife Madeleine Hébert, age 29, survived the crossing.  Jean Blanchard and his three-year-old son Jean, fils, died on the crossing.  Only wife Anne Hébert, age 21, and Joseph Blanchard, a relative, survived.  Madeleine Blanchard, wife of Pierre Hébert, died along with her two children.  Angélique Blanchard, age 53, wife of François Naquin, age 54, died with her husband and five of their seven children either at sea or in a St.-Malo hospital soon after they reached the port.  Anne Blanchard, wife of Joseph Aucoin, age 38, died with their three children.  Only Joseph survived the crossing.  Anne-Marie Blanchard, age 23, crossed with husband Pierre Robichaux, age 28.  Anne-Marie died at St.-Malo in late May, no doubt from the rigors of the voyage.  Madeleine Blanchard, age 30, wife of Pierre Hébert, age 23, died along with two of their young children.  Only Pierre survived the crossing.  Another Madeleine Blanchard, age 21, and husband Charles Bourg, also 21, survived the crossing.  Marie-Josèphe Blanchard, age 40, crossed with husband Jean Moyse, age 46, and their five children.  Jean, Marie-Josèphe, and three of their children survived the crossing, but their two youngest daughters died at sea. 

Island Blanchards who survived the crossing to St.-Malo created, or recreated, families of their own in the Breton port.  Germain, oldest surviving son of Joseph Blanchard and Anne Dupuis of Cobeguit, remarried to Marie-Josèphe, daughter of fellow Acadians Michel Aucoin and Marie Henry, at Langrolay, south of St.-Malo, in March 1762.  Marie-Josèphe gave him four more children at St.-Malo:  twins Julienne-Françoise and Jeanne-Françoise were born at Langrolay in March 1763 but lived for only two days; Marie-Jeanne was born at nearby Pleudihen in March 1764; and Marie-Jeanne at La Gravelle in November 1765 but lived for only four days.  Of five children, only Germain's son Jean from his first wife survived childhood.  Jean married Élisabeth, another daughter of Michel Aucoin and Marie Henry and his stepsister, at Pleudihen in July 1765.  Élisabeth gave him four children in the suburbs of St.-Malo:  Jean-Marie, born at Morveux in September 1766, was baptized at Pleudihen; François-Jean was born at Morveux in May 1768 but died at La Gravelle in January 1778, age 10; Marguerite-Françoise was born at Morveux in January 1772; and Jacques-Joseph at La Gravelle in December 1773 but baptized at Pleudihen.  Germain's younger brother François worked as a laborer and ploughman at St.-Malo.  He married Hélène-Judith, daughter of fellow Acadians Honoré Girouard and Marie-Josèphe Thériot, at Pleslin, a suburb of St.-Malo, in October 1763.  Hélène-Judith gave him at least three children at nearby St.-Suliac:  Françoise-Hélène in May 1765; Eudoxe-Marie-Gillette in September 1769; and Rose-Anne in January 1773.  Germain and François's younger brother Charles worked as a shoemaker in the French port.  He married Marguerite-Josèphe, daughter of fellow Acadians Pierre Dugas and Isabelle Bourg, at St.-Suliac in January 1762.  Marguerite-Josèphe gave him four children there:  Suliac-François, born in August 1764; Rose-Anne in c1765 but died in September 1773; Charles-Pierre-Marc was born in March 1768; and Marie-Françoise in July 1770.  Germain, François, and Charles's youngest brother Bénoni, a sailor, married Agnès, another daughter of Pierre Dugas and Isabelle Bourg, at St.-Suliac in February 1764.  Agnès died at Hotel-Dieu, St.-Malo, the following August, evidently as a consequence of childbirth; she was only age 22.  Their unnamed son died two days before his mother.  Bénoni remarried to Madeleine, daughter of fellow Acadians Jacques Forest and Claire Vincent, at Plouer, another St.-Malo suburb, in February 1766.  Madeleine gave him three more children at St.-Suliac:  Marie-Madeleine, born in February 1767; Joachim-Jacques in October 1768; and Bénoni-Jacques in June 1771.  Blanchard cousins also created families in the St.-Malo suburbs.  Joseph, son of Martin Blanchard and Élisabeth Dupuis of Cobeguit, a seaman, and wife Anne-Symphorose, daughter of Pierre Hébert and Marguerite-Françoise Bourg of Cobeguit, settled at St.-Suliac, where six children were born to them:  Joseph-Jean-François in December 1761; Marie-Anne in February 1764 but died in April; Laurent-Olivier in August 1765; Marie-Madeleine in August 1767; Pierre-Joseph in September 1769; and Louis-Suliac in October 1771.  Another Joseph, son of Anselme, arrived at St.-Malo from an unnamed port in 1763 and married Gertrude, daughter of fellow Acadians François Thériot and Françoise Guérin of Cobeguit and Île St.-Jean, at St.-Servan, a suburb of St.-Malo, in February 1766.  She gave him two children there:  Joseph, born in December 1766; and an unnamed girl who died the day after her birth in May 1769.  Gertrude died in August 1772, age 27, and Joseph remarried to Marie, daughter of fellow Acadians Jean Henry and Marie Carret, at St.-Servan in January 1773.  She gave him another son:  Cirile-Henry was born in February 1774 but died the following April. 

Island Blanchards landed in other French ports, including Boulogne-sur-Mer, Rochefort, and Cherbourg.  Marie-Madeleine, called Madeleine, daughter of Guillaume Blanchard and Huguette Gougeon of Petitcoudiac and wife of Charles Goutrot, ended up at Boulogne-sur-Mer in Picardie, where she died at age 67 (the recording priest said 72) in October 1759, likely from the rigors of the voyage.  Anselme Blanchard of Cobeguit and St.-Esprit, Île Royale, died in St.-Louis Parish, Rochefort, in September 1759, age 42, probably from the rigors of the crossing.  His son Joseph by his first wife, age 16 in 1758, moved on to St.-Malo in 1763.  One wonders what happened to Anselme's other children.  Toussaint Blanchard of Petitcoudiac, not kin to the other Blanchards, his wife Angélique Bertrand, and their son Joseph ended up at Cherbourg in Normandy by the late 1760s, refugees, perhaps, from Île Miquelon off the southern coast of Newfoundland, from where French officials, to relieve crowding on the island, deported Acadians to France in 1767.  Angélique died in a hospital in Brittany in January 1768, in her early 70s.  Toussaint died at Cherbourg in September 1769, age 83.  Two of their three daughters, Marguerite and Anne, had married into the Bertrand and Comeau families probably at Halifax in c1762 before following their family to Îke Miquelon and France.  Youngest daughter Madeleine, now in her mid-20s, was still unmarried when her parents died.  Toussaint's son Joseph married Marie, daughter of fellow Acadians Jean Granger and Madeleine Melanson, at Très-Ste.-Trinité, Cherbourg, in August 1769 and remained at Cherbourg, where at least two sons were born to them:  Jean-Frédéric in July 1770, and Guillaume-Joseph-Victor in March 1774. 

In the early 1770s, hundreds of Acadians from the port cities participated in a settlement scheme in the Poitou region.  French authorities were tired of providing for the Acadians languishing in the port cities.  A French nobleman offered to settle them on land he owned near the city of Châtellerault.  The Acadians--including brothers François, Charles, and Bénoni Blanchard; and Joseph, son of Martin--tried mightily to bring life to the rocky soil on the nobleman's estate.  François's wife Hélène-Judith Giroir gave him a son in Poitou:  Joseph-François was baptized at Leigné-les-Bois, southwest of Châtellerault, in April 1775.  Charles's wife Marguerite-Josèphe Dugas died in Poitou in February 1775; she was only 36 years old.  Madeleine Forest gave Bénoni another son in Poitou:  Étienne-Charles-Marie was baptized at St.-Jean L'Evangeliste, Châtellerault, in April 1775.  Jean-Grégoire Blanchard, a cousin, and his wife Marie-Madeleine Livois, recently married, also went to Poitou.  Marie-Madeleine gave him a daughter there:  Marie-Anne, baptized at St.-Jean L'Evangeliste, Châtellerault, in February 1775 but died at age 1 in February 1776.  Joseph, son of Toussaint Blanchard, took his family from Cherbourg to Poitou, where wife Marie Granger gave him another son, Louis-Augustin, baptized at St.-Jean L'Evangeliste Parish, Châtellerault, in September 1775.  Joseph's sisters Marguerite and Anne and their Bertrand and Comeau husbands also were a part of the Poitou venture.  After two years of effort, the Poitou venture was a failure for most of the Acadian exiles.  From October 1775 to March 1776, the Blanchards and other Poitou Acadians retreated in four convoys to the port city of Nantes, where they lived as best they could on government hand outs and what work they could find there. 

At Nantes, François Blanchard's wife Hélène-Judith gave him four more children:  Pierre-Sébastien was baptized in St.-Similien Parish in January 1777 but died the following May; Jean was baptized in July 1779 but died in June 1780; Marguerite-Anne was baptized in August 1780; and Rosalie-Adélaïde in May 1782 but died at age 1 1/2 in November 1783.  Brother Charles's daughter Marie-Françoise died at age 7 in July 1777.  Brother Bénoni's son Étienne died at age 1 in April 1776, but Madeleine gave him four more children there:  Céleste, baptized in Ste.-Croix Parish in August 1776; Rosalie at St.-Jacques Parish in May 1778 but died at Ste.-Croix, age 1 1/2, in January 1780; Angélique-Michel was baptized at Ste.-Croix in August 1780 but died two weeks later; and Moïse was baptized at Ste.-Croix in February 1782.  Cousin Joseph's son Joseph-Jean-François died in St.-Jacques Parish in June 1776; he was age 15.  Joseph's wife Anne-Symphorose Hébert gave him three more children in St.-Jacques:  Joseph-Nicolas was baptized in June 1776 but died the following February; Anne was baptized in February 1778; and Joseph, fils was baptized in December 1781 but died 4 days later.  Joseph, père died in St.-Jacques in December 1783, age 53.  Cousin Jean-Grégoire's wife Marie-Madeleine gave him three more children in St.-Similien Parish:  Marie was baptized in July 1776; Jean in March 1778; and Pierre-Charles was born in c1785.  Joseph, son of Toussaint, also retreated with other Poitou Acadians to Nantes, where wife Marie Granger gave him another son, and they buried two:  Louis-Augustin, born in Poitou, died at Chantenay, near Nantes, in August 1780, age 5; Alexandre-Josèphe was baptized at St.-Martin-de-Chantenay in April 1778 but died at age 2 in August 1780, eight days after his older brother.

In the spring of 1763, Minas Acadians who had languished in the English seaports for seven long years were repatriated to France.  Jean LeBlanc and his wife Françoise Blanchard of Grand-Pré, with three of their children, sailed from Liverpool to Morlaix.  In 1765, the French government sent them and dozens of other Acadians to Belle-Île-en-Mer, off the southern coast of Brittany, where Françoise died at Sauzon on the island; she was 84.

In the early 1780s, the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France the chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana.  Many of the Blanchards, including Toussaint's son Joseph, chose to remain in France, but at least 30 other Blanchards--most descendants of Jean, including brothers François, Charles, and Bénoni and their families, Joseph's widow Anne-Symphorose Hébert and her six Blanchard children, as well as Jean-Grégoire and his family--agreed to take it.  Even Toussaint Blanchard's three daughters agreed to go.  

In North America, descendants of Jean Blanchard suffered more reverses in the final years of the war with Britain.  In July 1760, British forces attacked Restigouche at the head of the Baie des Chaleurs, where many Acadians had found refuge from earlier roundups.  Some of the Petitcoudiac Blanchards who had taken refuge there were among the 300 Acadians the British captured and held in prisoner-of-war camps in Nova Scotia during the final years of the war.

In 1766 and 1767, after the war with Britain, Blanchards exiled to Massachusetts moved on to Canada, where some of their kinsmen already had gone.  Though now also a British possession, the northern province was populated largely by fellow French Catholics, many of them Acadian exiles.  So, in a colony nearly as old as Acadia, descendants of Jean Blanchard began the slow, inexorable process of becoming Canadiennes.  Especially after 1766, they could be found in the St. Lawrence valley above Québec at Deschambault, Repentigny, Nicolet, St.-Jacques de l'Achigan, St.-Michel-d'Yamaska, Varennes, Louiseville, and Yamachiche; at St.-Ours on the lower Richelieu; and on the St. Lawrence below Québec at St.-François-de-la-Rivière-du-Sud, Berthier-sur-Mer, and Kamouraska.  They also settled at Caraquet on the southern shore of the Baie des Chaleurs in present-day New Brunswick; at Chédabouctou, now Guysborough, Nova Scotia; at Rustico on Prince Edward Island, formerly Île St.-Jean; and on the French island of Miquelon off the southern coast of Newfoundland.  Typical of most, if not all, Acadian families, these Acadiennes of Canada lost touch with their Cadien cousins hundreds of miles away, and, until the Acadian reunions of the twentieth century, may even have forgotten the others existed.  

Members of the family also ended up in the Caribbean basin, on French St.-Domingue, today's Haiti; at Cayenne in Guyanne, South America; and on the island of Martinique in the French Antilles.  Clothilde Blanchard, described as an orphan, died at St.-Joseph, Sinnamary, Cayenne, in January 1765; she was only age 15.  She evidently was the only member of the family to go to that forbidding place; one wonders who were her parents.  Élisabeth-Félicité, daughter of Marc Blanchard and Félicité Comeau, was born at St.-Pierre, Martinique, in November 1765.  Other Blanchards were recorded at Champflore, Martinique, on 1 January 1766:  Élisabeth, or Isabelle, widow of Zacharie, son of Michel Richard and Agnès Bourgeois, was counted with daughter Marie and four other Blanchards--Marguerite, Élisabeth, Félicité, and Anne--likely her sisters.  Her oldest sister Marie-Josèphe was counted with husband, Louis, son of Alexandre Girourd and Marie Le Borgne de Bélisle, and three of their children; Louis died the following March, and son François Girouard died in August.  A third sister, Marie-Madeleine, widow of Michel dit LaFond, another son of Michel Richard and Agnès Bourgeois, was counted with three other Blanchards--Agnès, Marguerite, and Michel--probably her siblings.  Their first cousin Joseph, son of René Blanchard and Marie Savoie of the Annapolis valley, was counted with wife Marguerite Dupuis and their five children--Joseph, Jean, Anne, Pierre, and Madeleine; Anne died at Champflore on January 17.  Joseph and his family had been exiles in New York before moving on to Martinique.  Interestingly, their ship Experiment, on its way from the Annapolis valley to New York in December 1755, had been blown off course to the British-controlled island of Antigua, north of Martinique, before doubling back to New York.  Evidently the family liked what they saw during their unexpected sojourn to the Windward Islands and chose to return there after the British set them free in 1763.  Two of the Blanchard sisters, daughters of Antoine Blanchard and Élisabeth Thériot of the Annapolis valley, died on Martinique in the early 1770s:  Marie-Josèphe, widow Girouard, at Fort-Royal in December 1772, age 60; and Élisabeth/Isabelle, widow Richard, at St.-Pierre in December 1773, age 53.  Marie-Madeleine, called Madeleine, daughter of Guillaume Blanchard and Catherine Cyr and widow of Pierre Bouvard, baptized at Restigouche in February 1760, married Jacques, son of vigneron Antoine Jacquemin and Étienette LePage of Port-sur-Soane, Franche-Comte, at Fort-Dauphin, St.-Domingue, in September 1778.  Joseph Blanchard married Françoise Sire, perhaps Cyr, at Môle St.-Nicolas, St.-Domingue, in June 1783.  Their daughter Marie-Sophie had been born at the naval base in March 1776. 

Blanchards being held in prison compounds in Nova Scotia at war's end faced a hard dilemma.  The Treaty of Paris of February 1763 stipulated in its Article 14 that persons dispersed by the war had 18 months to return to their respective territories.  However, British authorities refused to allow any of the Acadian prisoners in the region to return to their former lands as proprietors.  If Acadians chose to remain in, or return to, Nova Scotia, they could live only in small family groups in previous unsettled areas or work for low wages on former Acadian lands now owned by New England "planters."  If they stayed, they must also take the hated oath of allegiance to the new British king, George III, without reservation.  They would also have to take the oath if they joined their cousins in Canada.  After all they had suffered on the question of the oath, few self-respecting Acadians would consent to take it if it could be avoided.  Some Halifax exiles chose to relocate to Miquelon, a French-controlled island off the southern coast of Newfoundland.  Others considered going to French St.-Domingue, where Acadian exiles in the British colonies already had gone, or to the Illinois country, the west bank of which still belonged to France, or to French Louisiana, which, thanks to British control of Canada, was the only route possible to the Illinois country for Acadian exiles.  Whatever their choice, they refused to remain in L'Acadie.  So they gathered up their money and their few possessions and prepared to leave their homeland.  Of the 600 Acadian exiles who left Halifax in late 1764 bound for Cap-Français, St.-Domingue, at least nine of them were Blanchards.

When word reached the Acadians in Maryland that they would be welcome in Louisiana, where some of their relatives had gone, they pooled their meager resources to charter ships that would take them to New Orleans.  The Maryland Blanchards may have learned that some of their relatives were among the Acadians from Halifax who had found refuge in the Spanish colony.  Certainly life had to be better there than among Englishmen who, despite their colony's Catholic roots, treated the Acadians like pariahs.  The first continent of Maryland exiles left the colony for New Orleans in late June 1766 and got there via Cap-Français, French St.-Domingue, the following September.  A few Blanchards were part of that expedition, but most, like René and and his son Anselme Blanchard of Minas, were part of  the second contingent that left Baltimore in April 1767 and reached New Orleans via Cap-Français the following July.212

Bonnevie

In 1755, descendants of Jacques Bonnevie dit Beaumont of Paris, Port-Royal, and Île Royale, and Françoise Mius d'Azy of Pobomcoup could still be found on Île St.-Jean, where they had gone in the early 1700s.  Living in territory controlled by France, they escaped the British roundup in Nova Scotia in the fall of 1755.  Their respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  In late 1758, after the fall of the French stronghold at Louisbourg in July, the victorious British rounded up most of the Acadians on Île St.-Jean and deported them to France.  Sadly, two of the old corporal's daughters--Françoise, married to master tailor Jean, son of Étienne Helie dit Nouvelle and Marguerite Laporte of Poitiers, Poitou, her second husband; and Marie, married to François Duguay of Pluvigné, Britanny, one of the first settlers on the island--never made it to France.  In December 1758, they perished with their husbands and children and dozens of other Acadians aboard the Violet, a British transport that sank in a North Atlantic storm on its way to St.-Malo.  

Meanwhile, the corporal's older son, Jacques dit Jacquot dit Beaumont, Jacquot's third wife, and their family, still living at Chignecto, were deported to South Carolina aboard the British transport Edward Cornwallis, which reached Charles Town in November 1755.  They likely were among the Acadians in that colony allowed to return to Nova Scotia by sea, which they accomplished in the spring of 1756.  After finding refuge on Rivière St.-Jean, they may have been among the Acadians granted permission to move on to Île St.-Jean, where the rest of Jacquot's family could be found, or, more likely, they moved on to Miramichi on the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore in present-day eastern New Brunswick.  Later, they joined other Acadian exiles at Restigouche at the head of the Baie des Chaleurs.  Jacquot's third wife, Nannette Melanson, gave him another daughter, Louise-Élisabeth, in October 1759; the baby was baptized at Retigouche in May 1760, so she may have been born at their previous domicile.  Four of Jacquot's children married during the family's year-long stay at Restigouche.  In January 1760, daughter Rose married Jean, fils, son of Jean Gousman and Marie Granielle of Andalusia, a Spanish sailor who had lived at Annapolis Royal.  Jacquot's son Amand dit Beaumont married Catherine, daughter of fellow Acadians Pierre Gaudet and Anne Girouard, in July 1760.  Jacquot's son Joseph married Marguerite, daughter of fellow Acadians Michel dit Michaud Haché dit Gallant and his first wife Marguerite Gravois of Chignecto, in May 1761.  The British attacked Restigouche in the summer of 1760, and Jacquot, his wife, and five of their children were among the 300 Acadians who fell into British hands when the Royal Navy left the Baie des Chaleurs.  Jacquot died by 1761, when his third wife remarried.  His family was held at Fort Edward, formerly Pigiguit, in British Nova Scotia before being transferred to the larger prison compound on Georges Island, Halifax harbor, where the British counted some of them in August 1763.  When the war with Britain finally ended, the surviving Bonnevies moved from Halifax to the French-controlled island of Miquelon off the southern coast of Newfoundland, but not all of them remained there.  Some of them moved on to Chezzetcook near Halifax, some to Menoudie at Chignecto in Nova Scotia, others to nearby Cap-Pelé on the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore, and some ended up in France. 

One of Jacques dit Jacquot's sons, Amand dit Beaumont, outdid all his siblings in his wanderings.  He was at Port-Louis, France, in 1768; back on Miquelon later in the year; was deported by the British to France aboard the brigantine La Jeanette in November 1778; and died at St.-Servan near St.-Malo in c1779.  His widow Catherine Gaudet returned to Miquelon in c1785 and moved on to the îles-de-la-Madeleine in the Gulf of St. Lawrence by the late 1780s.  Son Pierre, a fisherman, married Françoise Briand on the isolated islands in c1790 but did not remain there.  They were living at Halifax later in the decade, where a daughter was born to them in c1796.  They moved on to Le Havre, where another daughter was born in August 1799 and their older daughter died in September, age 2 1/2.  Brother Amand, fils married Marie LeBorgne, probably a fellow Acadian, became a carpenter, and also settled at Le Havre.  Between 1797 and 1805, Marie gave Amand, fils at least six children, five sons and a daughter, at the Norman port.  Two of them died in infancy.  Joseph's and Amand, fils's sister Marie-Modeste married into the Doucet family at Le Havre. 

Meanwhile, Jaquot's daughter Rose and her husband Jean Gousman, fils joined other members of her family on Île Miquelon after they were allowed to leave the prison at Halifax.  Pressured by the French government to vacate the overcrowded island, they, too, moved to France and were counted at Le Havre in 1772.  Unlike brother Amand's widow, however, they remained in France with the hundreds of other Acadian exiles still living there.  Despite their many relocations, Jean and Rose had at least nine children, including six sons:  Raphaël was born in c1762, Rosalie-Charlotte in c1764, Gousman in c1766, Étienne in c1767, Joseph-Antoine in c1768, Jean-Baptiste in c1770, Anne-Marie in c1772, Ludivine was baptized at Cenan, France, in August 1774, and Jean-Thomas was born at Chantenay, France, near Nantes, in August 1783.  All of these children except two died in childhood, not an uncommon fate during Le Grand Dérangement.  In the early 1770s, Rose and Jean went to Poitou with dozens of their fellow Acadians to settle on land that belonged to an influential French nobleman.  The venture failed after two seasons of effort, and Rose and Jean retreated with their fellow Acadians to the port city of Nantes, where they lived as best they could on what work they could find and on welfare provided by the French government. 

When in the early 1780s the Spanish offered the Acadians in France the chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana, Rose Bonnevie and her Spanish husband agreed to take it.195

Le Borgne de Bélisle

By 1755, descendants of Alexandre Le Borgne de Bélisle, like his father once governor of Acadia, and Alexandre's wife Marie de Saint-Étienne de La Tour could still be found at Annapolis Royal and in the Minas Basin.  All were from Alexandre's younger son, Alexandre, fils and his wife Anastasie d'Abbadie de Saint-Castin.  The largest line was that of Alexandre III and his wife Marie, daughter of Jean LeBlanc and Jeanne Bourgeois of Minas, which produced at least nine children, six sons and three daughters, including Alexandre IV, born at Minas in c1736.  Alexandre III had died at Minas in August 1744, but his widow and children remained there. 

In the fall of 1755, Alexandre IV, still a teenager, escaped the British roundup at Minas and fled north into Canada.  In April 1773, he married Geneviève Cloutier, a Canadian, at L'Islet, in the lower St. Lawrence valley.  In the early 1800s, their younger son Anselme le jeune moved his family first to Rivière-Ouelle and then to L'Isle-Verte, farther down the St. Lawrence.  Typical of most, if not all, Acadian families, these Acadiennes of Canada lost touch with their Cadien cousins hundreds of miles away, and until the Acadian reunions of the mid-twentieth century, may even have forgotten the others existed. 

Alexandre IV's widowed mother and his siblings were not as lucky.  In the fall of 1755, the British deported them to Maryland, where brother Anselme married cousin Anne, daughter of Paul Babin and Marie LeBlanc of L'Assomption, Pigiguit, in the late 1750s or early 1760s; Anselme's mother, also, was a LeBlanc.  They endured life among English colonists who, despite their Catholic roots, did not care very much for the French "papists" who had been thrust upon them.  In July 1763, colonial officials counted the young couple at Annapolis with other Acadian exiles, including Anselme's widowed mother, young brother Pierre, and sister Marie-Rose.  When word reached the Acadians in Maryland that they would be welcomed in Louisiana, where many of their relatives had gone, most of them pooled their meager resources to charter ships that would take them to New Orleans via Cap-Français, French St.-Domingue.  In April 1767, as part of the second contingent of Maryland Acadians to head to Louisiana, Anselme, wife Anne, and their infant son Paul booked passage on the English ship Virgin with 200 other Acadians, but Anselme's widowed mother and siblings remained in the British colony.191

Boucher

In the autumn of 1755, the British deported Pierre Boucher, his wife Marie Doiron, and their infant daughter Marie-Anne to South Carolina aboard the sloop Dolphin, which left Chignecto on October 13 and reached Charleston on November 19.  Pierre died in South Carolina, and Marie Doiron remarried to Pierre, son of fellow Acadians Philippe Lambert and Marie-Madeleine Boudrot of Chignecto and widower of Marguerite Arseneau and _____, in South Carolina in c1761.  Two years later, in August 1763, South Carolina officials counted Marie Doiron, daughter Marie-Anne Boucher, Pierre Lambert, his son by a previous marriage, Pierre and Marie's infant son Jean, and three orphans, still living in the colony.  Marie-Anne was nine years old at the time  In the same census, South Carolina officials counted Jean Boucher (they called him Pierre), wife Félicité Breau, son Pierre, age 3, and Anne Breau, age 12, perhaps Félicité's younger sister.  One wonders how Jean was kin to the late Pierre Boucher

Later that year or in early 1764, Acadians languishing in the seaboard colonies, including many in South Carolina, emigrated to French St.-Domingue, today's Haiti.  Although driven from North America by the Seven Years' War, the French were determined to hang on to what was left of their shrinking empire.  The new naval base on the north shore of the big sugar island would protect the approaches to their remaining possessions in the Caribbean Basin.  Acadians like Pierre Lambert and Jean Boucher would provide a ready source of cheap labor for construction of the base.  In return, the French promised them land of their own in the sugar colony. 

Things did not work out there for Pierre Lambert.  After enduring the tropical hell of St.-Domingue for two long years, he was determined to resettle his family in a more salubrious climate.  His chance came in 1765, when hundreds of Acadians from British Nova Scotia arrived at Cap-Français, east of Môle St.-Nicolas, on their way to the lower Mississippi valley.  Evidently Pierre and his family, including stepdaughter Marie-Anne Boucher, now age 11, joined up with one of the contingents from Halifax that changed ships at Cap-Français before continuing on to New Orleans. 

Jean Boucher's experience in the sugar colony could not have been more different.  He and his family remained at Môle St.-Nicolas, where, by the early 1780s, he became maitre de port.  At least six more children were born to him and wife Félicité Breau at the naval base:  Étienne in c1764, Félicité in c1766, Madeleine in c1770, Marie-Hélène in c1775, Marie in March 1777, and Eugène in c1780.  Then tragedy struck.  On 2 April 1783, Jean and Félicité filed a "testimony of marriage" at Môle St.-Nicolas.  Reported as "extremely ill," Jean was attempting to legitimize his children before he died, which occurred the following day.  Evidently his family remained on the island, which was rocked by a bloody slave revolt a decade after his passing.196

Boudrot

By 1755, the many descendants of Michel Boudrot and Michelle Aucoin could be found in most of the major communities of greater Acadia:  at Annapolis Royal, Grand-Pré and Pigiguit in the Minas Basin, Chignecto in British-controlled Nova Scotia, and on Île St.-Jean and Île Royale in the French Maritimes.  Le Grand Dérangement of the 1750s scattered this large family even farther.

The Acadians at Chignecto were the first to endure a disruption of their lives.  In the early 1750s, Canadian soldiers, assisted by Mi'kmaq warriors led by Abbé Le Loutre, burned Acadian homesteads in the British-controlled area east of Rivière Missaguash, forcing the habitants to move to the French-controlled area west of the river.  Boudrots may have been among the refugees.  After yet another war erupted between Britain and France in 1754, the Chignecto Acadians were caught in the middle of it.  When British and New England forces attacked Fort Beauséjour in June 1755, Boudrots likely were among the 300 Chignecto Acadians who were serving in the fort as militia.  They, too, along with the French troupes de la marine, became prisoners of war when the fort surrendered on June 16.  Governor Lawrence was so incensed to find so-called French Neutrals fighting with French regulars at Beauséjour he ordered his officers to deport the Chignecto Acadians to the southernmost British colonies on the Atlantic seaboard.  At least one Boudrot family from Chignecto--Paul and his wife Marguerite Landry--ended up in South Carolina.  Another ended up in Georgia.  But not all of the Boudrots sent to the southern colonies remained there until the end of the war.  In the spring of 1756, the governors of Georgia and South Carolina allowed the Acadians in their colonies who were not under arrest to return to their homeland as best they could.  Under the leadership of merchant Jacques-Maurice Vigneau of Baie-Verte, dozens of them--perhaps as many as 200--purchased or built small vessels and headed up the coast.  Some made it all the way back to the Bay of Fundy and found refuge on lower Rivière St.-Jean.  Most did not.  In late August, after weeks of effort, 78 exiles came ashore on Long Island, New York, and were detained by colonial officials.  On a list of "names of the heads of the French Neutral families, number of their Children returned from Georgia and distributed through the counties of Westchester and Orange," dated 26 August 1756, can be found Francis Bodron, likely François Boudrot, his unnamed wife, perhaps Marguerite Pitre, and two unnamed children, who were sent to the "Orange precincts, south of the Highlands." 

Boudrots still at Minas and Pigiguit in the fall of 1755 were deported to Maryland, Virginia, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, and Massachusetts.  The Acadians transported to Virginia suffered the indignity of being turned away by the colony's authorities.  They languished in the lower James River aboard disease-infested ships until Governor Dinwiddie ordered them dispersed to Hampton, Norfolk, and Richmond, while he and the colony's political leaders pondered their fate.  The following spring, the Virginians sent them on to England, where they were packed into warehouses in several English ports and treated like common criminals.  Boudrots were held at Bristol and Falmouth.  At least one Boudrot family from Annapolis Royal family was deported to New York in late 1755.  Boudrots who escaped the British roundup found refuge with hundreds of other exiles at Shediac, Richibouctou, Miramichi, and Restigouche on the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore, where they fought starvation, hard winters, and British raiding parties.  Others moved on to Canada. 

Living in an area still controlled by France, the Boudrots on Île St.-Jean and Île Royale escaped the deportations in Nova Scotia.  Their respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  After the fall of the French fortress at Louisbourg in July 1758, British forces rounded up most of the Acadians on the Maritime islands and deported them to France. 

Many Boudrots did not survive the crossing, and entire families were lost.  Élisabeth, daughter of René Boudrot, with her husband Joseph Pitre and four of their sons; Anne, daughter of Michel dit Miquetau Boudrot and his first wife Anne Landry, with her husband Christophe Pothier and six of their children; and Madeleine, daughter of Charles Boudrot and his second wife Marie Corporon, with her husband Alain Bugeaud and seven of their children--disappeared without a trace aboard one of the two British transports that sank in a mid-Atlantic storm during the second week of December 1758.  Anselme Boudrot, age 39, and five of his six children--Anselme, fils, age 13; Simon, age 7; Pierre, Madeleine, and Paul, ages unrecorded--died aboard the British transport Duke William, which limped into St.-Malo the first of November.  Oldest daughter Marie-Henriette, age 10, died a few weeks after the ship's arrival.  Anselme's wife Geneviève Girouard also survived the voyage, but she, too, succumbed from the rigors of the crossing.  She died at St.-Malo in late December, age 38, so the entire family was wiped out.  Petit Paul Boudrot, age 56, and two of his five unmarried children--Basile, age 11; and Mathurin, age unrecorded--perished on Duke William.  Wife Marie-Josèphe Doiron, age 55, died in a St.-Malo hospital in late November, and son Joseph, age 4, died in December.  Only two of their older children--Jean-Charles, called Charles, age 19; and Anne, age 14--survived the rigors of the crossing.  Marie Boudrot, wife of Louis-Georges Anquetil of Louisbourg, died along with her husband and two of their three chidlren--Jean and Anne--aboard Duke William.  Only son Louis Anquetil and niece Marie Boudrot survived the crossing.  Marguerite Boudrot, daughter of Paul Boudrot and wife of Joseph Hébert, also crossed on the ill-fated Duke William. She died in the hospital at St.-Malo soon after they reached the port city, no doubt from the rigors of the crossing.  Her husband and son Grégoire died at sea.  Marie-Josèphe Boudrot, widow of Pierre-Toussaint Richard, also crossed on Duke William.  She, along with son Thomas Richard, died at St.-Malo soon after arrival.  Only son Honoré Richard and daughter Marie-Blanche Richard survived the rigors of the crossing.  Many of the island Boudrots crossed on one of the five British transports that left the Gut of Canso in late November and reached St.-Malo in late January 1759.  Antoine Boudrot, age 43, crossed with wife Brigitte Apart, age 32, and their young son.  Antoine and Brigitte survived the crossing, but they watched 11-year-old son Jean-Baptiste die in a St.-Malo hospital a month after they reached the port.  Antoine's brother Zacharie Boudrot, age 37, crossed with wife Marguerite Daigre, age 30, five children--Marie, age 9; Paul, age 7; Charles, age 6; Marguerite, age 3; and Benjamin, age 1--Zacharie's half-sister Marie-Madeleine, age 22, and kinsman Pierre Boudrot, age 22.  All of the adults survived the crossing, but all five of Zacharie and Marguerite's children were buried at sea.  Anastasie Boudrot, sister of Marie-Madeleine and half-sister of Zacharie, crossed with husband Joseph Landry, age 30, and three of their children, ages 4, 3, and 1.  Anastasie and the children died at sea, leaving Joseph without a family.  Jean-Baptiste Boudrot, age 30, wife Luce Trahan, age 23, three of their children--Madeleine, age 4; Isabelle, age 2; and Étienne, age 18 months--as well as Jean-Baptiste's parents, Jean-Baptiste, père and Louise Saulnier, crossed on one of the Five Ships.  Jean-Baptiste and Luce lost all three of their children to the sea, and Jean-Baptiste, fils lost his parents.  Olivier Boudrot, age 47, crossed with wife Henriette Guérin, age 45, and six children--Madeleine-Josèphe, age 15; Anne-Marie, age 13; Basile, age 12; Mathurin, age 10; Charles, age 6; and Jean-Baptiste, age 3.  All of their children but Madeleine-Josèphe died at sea, and Henriette died in a local hospital two months after they reached St.-Malo.  Pierre, age 20, son of Joseph Boudrot, crossed "alone" and survived the crossing.  Marie Boudrot, age 48, crossed with husband Paul Dugas, age 48, and five of their children, ages 15 to 6.  Paul and four of their children survived the crossing, but Marie and a 9-year-old son died at St.-Malo within days of reaching the port.  Another Marie Boudrot, age 48, crossed with husband François Daigre, age 50, and two of their daughters, ages 17 and 15.  The daughters survived, but Marie and François died from the rigors of the crossing.  Rosalie Boudrot, age 26, crossed with husband Jean Landry, age 31, and a 15-month-old son.  The son died at sea, and Rosalie died in a St.-Malo hospital a few weeks after the ship's arrival.  Anne-Marie Boudrot, wife of Joseph Dugas, also died in a St.-Malo hospital less than a month after she reached St.-Malo.  Anne-Josèphe, 5-year-old daughter of Pierre Boudrot, died on one of the Five Ships.  Honoré Boudrot, age 29, crossed with wife Élisabeth, or Isabelle, Hébert, age 24, son Pierre, age 5, and daughter Geneviève, age 10 months.  The aggrieved parents buried their two children at sea and then died in a St.-Malo hospital in early March probably from the rigors of the crossing.  A number of island Boudrots crossed on the transport Supply, which left the Maritimes in November 1758, took refuge in an English port in late December, and did not reach St.-Malo until early March 1759.  Basile Boudrot, age 41, lost three of his eight children--Euphrosine, age 9; Cyprien, age 2; and Céleste, age 7 months.  He, wife Marguerite Girouard, age 36, and five of their children--Pierre, age 14; Marie-Josèphe, age 12; Amand and Marguerite, age 6; and Alexis, age 4--survived the crossing.  Anne Boudrot, age 31, husband Jacques Haché, age 31, and four of their children, ages 10 to 5, survived the crossing, but they lost two children, one of them an infant, to the sea, and a 4-year-old daughter died at St.-Malo two months after the family's arrival.  Marguerite Boudrot, an "orphaned niece," age unrecorded, crossed with the family of Louis Longuépée, age 64, his wife Anne Brasseur, age 57, and their three grown children.  All survived the crossing.  Françoise Boudrot, age 20, crossed with husband Joseph Closquinet, age 28, and two sons, ages 2 years and 6 months.  All survived the crossing.  Théodose Boudrot, age 27, crossed with husband Jean-Baptiste Doiron, age 24, and their 7-month-old daughter, who died at sea.  Antoine Boudrot, age 66, wife Cécile Brasseur, age 54, their 17-year-old son Prudent, and 8-year-old nephew Ignace Boudrot, survived the crossing.  Antoine and Cécile's son Victor, age 29, wife Catherine-Josèphe Hébert, age 28, and their three children--Hélène-Marie-Rose, age 6; Madeleine, age 4; and Joseph, age 18 months--also crossed on Supply.  Daughter Madeleine died at sea, but the others survived the crossing. 

The island Boudrots who survived the crossing did their best to create a life for themselves in the teeming suburbs of St.-Malo.  Antoine, son of Charles Boudrot and his second wife Marie Corporon, his wife Cécile, daughter of Pierre Brasseur and Gabrielle Forest, their unmarried son Prudent, and nephew Ignace Boudrot, settled at St.-Servan, on the outskirts of St.-Malo.  Antoine and Cécile were in their 60s when they reached the Breton port, so they had no more children there.  Prudent, at age 29, married Marie-Josèphe, daughter of fellow Acadians Étienne Comeau and Marie Landry, at St.-Servan in October 1763.  She gave him at least two children there:  Marguerite was born in March 1765, and Jean-Baptiste in November 1767.  Antoine and Cécile's older son Victor, his wife Catherine-Josèphe, daughter of Jean Hébert and Marie-Madeleine Doiron, and their remaining children--Hélène-Marie-Rose and Joseph--also had crossed on Supply and settled at St.-Suliac, south of St.-Servan, where Victor worked as a carpenter.  Catherine-Josèphe gave him at least six more children there:  Anne was born in April 1760 but died at age 1 1/2 in December 1761, Marguerite-Jeanne was born in March 1762, Pierre in August 1764, Prudent-Olivier in February 1766 but died the following October, Jean-Baptiste was born in December 1767, and Cécile in July 1770.  Catherine-Josèphe died at Hotel-Dieu, St.-Malo, in April 1772; she was 40 years old.  Victor, at age 45, remarried Geneviève, daughter of fellow Acadians Charles Richard and Catherine Gautrot and widow of Simon Pitre dit Pierre, at St.-Servan in August 1773.  Geneviève gave him at least five more children:  Geneviève-Sophie was born at St.-Servan in August 1774, Noël-Victor in December 1776, Antoine-Charles in February 1780 but died the following September, René-Antoine was born in September 1781 but died the following February, and Anne-Jeanne was born in January 1785.  Antoine's nephew Ignace Boudrot "settled" near his relatives at St.-Servan but did not remain there.  In January 1772, now age 22, Ignace "was given permission to go work at Morlaix," in western Brittany, where he served in the Royal Artillery Corps.  In c1780, still in France, he married Anne Pierson, probably a Frenchwoman, and settled in St.-Nicolas Parish, Nantes, where son Charles was born in September 1783 and son Jean-Baptiste died at age 2 in October 1783.  A year later, in September 1784, Ignace and his family were counted on Belle-Île-en-Mer, off the southern coast of Brittany, where fellow Acadians had settled nearly two decades earlier.  Another of Antoine's nephews, Charles, son of Denis Boudrot and Agnès Vincent, his wife Cécile Thériot, and three of their children--Charles-Olivier, age 23; François, age 21; and Cécile, age 14--were transported from Île St.-Jean to Boulogne-en-Mer, but they did not remain there.  In August 1762, Charles remarried to Marie-Madeleine, daughter of fellow Acadians Claude Bourgeois and Marie LeBlanc and widow of Joseph-Prudent Robichaud, at Très-Ste.-Trinité, Cherbourg, but they evidently returned to Boulogne-en-Mer, where son Jean-Charles was born in St.-Nicolas Parish in July 1764.  Meanwhile, Charles's daughter Cécile, by his first wife, now age 18, married Charles, 27-year-old son of fellow Acadians Jacques Richard and Anne LeBlanc, at St.-Nicolas Parish in February 1763.  Then the family moved again.  In May 1766, Charles, Marie-Madeleine, and 2-year-old Jean-Charles took Le Hazard from Boulogne-en-Mer to St.-Malo and settled at St.-Servan, near Charles's uncle and cousins.  In August, daughter Cécile and her husband joined them at St.-Servan.  Charles died at Hotel-Dieu, St.-Malo, in November 1766; he was 55 years old.  Son Joseph was born posthumously at St.-Servan in May 1767, and Jean-Charles died there at age 3 1/2 in January 1768.  Marie-Madeleine remarried to fellow Acadian Étienne Thériot, a widower, at St.-Servan in February 1770; this made her the stepmother of Nantes shoemaker Olivier Térriot, who, 15 years later, would coax hundreds of his fellow Acadians in France to go to Spanish Louisiana.  Charles's younger brother Olivier, after burying his wife Henriette Guérin, took his remaining daughter to Ploubalay, southwest of St.-Malo, then to Langrolay, south of the port, and to Trigavou, west of Plouër.  At St.-Énogat, in May 1762, the year he turned 50, Olivier remarried to Anne, 29-year-old daughter of fellow Acadians Charles Dugas and Marie Benoit.  Anne gave him at least three more children at Trigavou:  Charles-Olivier was born November 1763, Marie in June 1766, and Jean-Baptiste in October 1767.  One wonders if they went to Poitou.  Antoine, son of Jean-Baptiste Boudrot and his first wife Cécile Corporon, and his wife Brigitte, daughter of Michel Apart and Élisabeth Henry of Grand-Pré, settled at Trigavou, southeast of St.-Malo, where Brigitte gave Antoine at least eight more children:  François-Xavier was born in March 1760, Charles-Michel in October 1761, Marie-Madeleine in October 1763, Joseph in February 1765, Étienne in December 1766, Marguerite-Josèphe in April 1768, Brigide-Anne in February 1771 but died at age 1 1/2 in July 1772, and Jean-Pierre was born in December 1772.  And then they went to Poitou.  Antoine's brother Zacharie and his wife Marguerite Daigre, now childless, settled at Trigavou, where Marguerite gave him at least six more children:  A second Benjamin was born in July 1760 but died at age 7 in May 1767, Paul-Dominique was born in September 1761, Charles in 1764, Jean-Baptiste in August 1766 but died the following March, Marguerite was born in March 1768 but died at age 5 1/2 in August 1773, and Benjamin-Hilaire was born in January 1770; only three of their children, born from 1749 to 1770, survived childhood.  Basile, son of Pierre Boudrot and Madeleine Hébert, wife Marguerite, daughter of Pierre Girouard and Marie Doiron, and their three remaining children--Pierre-Paul, Marie-Josèphe, Marguerite, Amand, and Alexis--settled at Pleudihen, south of St.-Malo.  Marguerite gave Basile three more children there:  Françoise-Anne-Renée was born in April 1760, Jean-Cyprien at Mordreux, today's Mordreuc, in August 1761, and Marie-Céleste in October 1764.  Basile's younger brother Augustin had landed at Cherbourg but joined his brother at Pleudihen in September 1759.  Augustin, at age 29, married Osite, 29-year-old daughter of fellow Acadians Jean Landry and Madeleine Melanson and widow of Jean-Baptiste Broussard, at Pleudihen in August 1760.  Osite gave him at least eight children, but all but two of them died young:  Marguerite was born at Mordreux in June 1761 but died at age 8 in May 1769; Marie was born in October 1762 but died at La Coquenais, age 14, in April 1777; Agathe-Charlotte was born at Mordreux in July 1764 but died at age 5 in June 1769; Isabelle-Rose was born at Mordreux in March 1766 but died at La Coqueais, age 11, in January 1780; Paul-Joseph was born at Mordreux in March 1767 but died at age 2 in July 1769; Isabelle-Josèphe was born at Mordreux in December 1769; Madeleine-Marguerite at La Coquenais in January 1772; and Anne-Jeanne in February 1773 but died at Bas Champs , age 4, in February 1777.  Osite died at La Coquenais in September 1779; she was 48 years old.  Augustin remarried to fellow Acadian Madeleine Comeau probably at La Coquenais in c1781.  She gave him another daughter:  Marie-Sophie was born at La Coquenais August 1782.  Judging from the birthdates of their children, Basile and Augustin did not take their families to Poitou.  Basile's oldest remaining son, Pierre-Paul, at age 19, married Marie-Josèphe, 20-year-old daughter of fellow Acadians Jean Moyse and Marie-Josèphe Blanchard, at St.-Suliac, south of St.-Malo, in January 1765.  Marie gave him at least four children at La Chapelle de Mordreux near Pleudihen:  Marguerite-Jeanne was born in April 1766, Marie-Bélony in July 1767, Isabelle-Jeanne in September 1769, and Basile-Pierre in November 1771.  Unlike his father and uncle, Pierre-Paul took his family to Poitou in the early 1770s.  Basile's youngest son, Jean-Cyprien, at age 23, while he was a resident of St.-Donatien Parish, Nantes, married Élisabeth, 35-year-old daughter of fellow Acadians Pierre Broussard and Madeleine Landry and widow of Joseph Melanson, at Pleudihen in November 1784.  Élisabeth had given her first husband two sons, one of whom already had died; she gave Jean-Cyprien at least two children:  twins Marie-Josèphe and Pierre-Charles were born at La Coquenais, near Pleudihen, in August 1785.  Pierre, fils, son of Pierre Boudrot and Anne Hébert of Grand-Pré, came to St.-Malo aboard one of the Five Ships but evidently did not care for what he found there.  In early February 1759, the 22-year-old went to Rochefort to seek employment, but he found none there.  He returned to St.-Malo in October and settled at Trigavou, where, at age 26, he married cousin Françoise, 20-year-old daughter of fellow Acadians François Daigre and Marie Boudrot, in November 1763.  Françoise gave Pierre at least four children at Trigavou:  Isaac was born in October 1764, Marie-Josèphe in October 1766, Françoise-Mathurine in April 1769, and Rose-Théotiste in May 1771.  Pierre took his family to Poitou.  Two married daughters of Petit Paul Boudrot and Madeleine-Josèphe Doiron, unlike their parents and most of their younger siblings, survived the crossing from the Maritimes.  Oldest daughter Marguerite crossed with husband Joseph Hébert, who may have died at sea or from the rigors of the crossing.  At age 24, she remarried to Charles, fils, son of Charles Landry and Marie LeBlanc, at St.-Servan in November 1759.  From 1760 to 1771, she gave him at least seven children there, three of whom did not survive childhood.  Younger sister Françoise had crossed on Supply with husband Joseph, son of Louis Closquinet dit Dumoulin and Marguerite Longuépée, and two sons.  All survived the crossing, though their younger son died the following September.  Joseph, Françoise, and their older son settled at St.-Énogat, where, in 1760 and 1762, she gave Joseph two daughters.  Joseph died in c1764-65, and Françoise, now age 28, remarried to Marin, 19-year-old son of Jean-Baptiste Dugas and Marguerite Benoit, at nearby St.-Servan in November 1766; Marin had survived the crossing with his family on one of the Five Ships.  From 1767 to 1773, she gave him at least four children at St.-Servan, only one of whom survived childhood.  Two of Marguerite and Françoise's younger siblings--Jean-Charles, called Charles, and Anne--had survived the crossing on the Duke William that had killed their parents and younger siblings.  Charles married Marie-Josèphe, daughter of Pierre Haché dit Gallant and Cécile Lavergne, at St.-Énogat in November 1763.  The following April, he, Marie-Josèphe, and other Acadian exiles, including, says one historian, Jean Boudrot, took the ship Le Fort to French Guiana on the northern coast of South America.  Marie-Josèphe did not survive the tropical climate there, and she evidently gave Charles no children in the colony.  At age 35 (the recording priest said 38), Charles remarried to Marie-Marguerite, daughter of François-Robert Du Mesnil and Thérèse Le Botte and widow of Sr. Regnauldin, at St. Joseph de Sinnamary, Guiane, in February 1775.  One wonders what became of them there.  Sister Anne remained in the St.-Malo area.  At age 18, she married Jacques, 27-year-old son of fellow Acadians Charles Haché and Geneviève Lavergne, at St.-Énogat in November 1763.  From 1764 to 1773, she gave him at least six children, only two of whom survived childhood.  Élisabeth, daughter of Pierre Boudrot and Madeleine Hébert and wife of Jean-Baptiste Doiron, reached Cherbourg from Île St.-Jean in early 1759.  She was either a widow at the time of her arrival, or her husband died soon after they reached the port.  Élisabeth moved on to St.-Malo by 1760, where she settled at Pleudihen.  She remarried to Olivier, son of Joseph Thibodeau and Marie Bourgeois and widower of Madeleine Aucoin, at Pleudihen in August 1760 and gave him at least four more children there. 

Island Boudrots also ended up in other coastal cities, including Boulogne-sur-Mer, Le Havre, Cherbourg, Morlaix, La Rochelle, Rochefort, and Bordeaux.  They were especially numerous at Cherbourg and La Rochelle.  Marie and Pierre Boudrot, age 22 and perhaps twins, arrived at St.-Malo aboard one of the Five Ships in late January 1759.  A few weeks later, Marie received permission from French authorities to move on to La Rochelle, and Pierre went on to Rochefort.  Madeleine, daughter of Pierre Boudrot and his first wife Marie Doiron of Île Royale, settled at Cherbourg.  One wonders if she was the Madeleine Boudrot, wife of Léonard Cireaud, who died at Cherbourg, age 20, in November 1760.  Madeleine's father Pierre Boudrot died at Cherbourg in June 1759, in his late 40s, soon after he and his second wife Madeleine Gautrot reached the port; his widow moved on to St.-Malo.  Charles Boudrot, widower of Cécile Thériot, remarried to Marie-Madeleine Bourgeois at Très-Ste.-Trinité, Cherbourg, in August 1762, but they did not remain there.  Son Jean-Charles was born in St.-Nicolas Parish, Boulogne-sur-Mer, in July 1764.  In the summer of 1766. they moved on to St.-Malo.  Basile, son of Pierre Boudrot and Madeleine Melanson of Annapolis Royal, married Madeleine, daughter of Charles Mius d'Entremont and Marguerite Landry of Pobomcoup, at Très-Ste.-Trinité in May 1764.  Madeleine died there in December 1770, age 40.  Pierre, son of Charles dit Charlot Boudrot of Port-Toulouse, Île Royale, died at Cherbourg in September 1771.  The recording priest said Pierre died at age 60, but he was "only" 49.  The priest said nothing of Pierre's first wife Cécile Vécot, who he had married in c1749, or even his second wife Madeleine Bourg, who Pierre had married in c1758 on the eve of the deportations to France.  The priest also noted that Pierre was "de l'Isle St-Jean."  Pierre, in fact, had been counted with his first wife and two children at Tracadie on the island's north shore in August 1752.  Pierre also had been counted on Miquelon, a French-controlled island off the southern coast of Newfoundland, in 1765 and 1767, so he likely had gone from there to France in the late 1760s, pressured by French officials to leave the overcrowded island with other Acadian refugees.  Pierre's sons Jean and Louis, born in c1759, were only age 12 and 13 when their father died.  Interestingly, a French record notes that son Jean was "born about 1759 in the Parish of Saint-Pierre of Chiboutou[sic] in Acadie."  This likely was Chebouctou, the original name for Halifax in British Nova Scotia.  If so, then Pierre and his second wife Madeleine evidently escaped the British roundup on Île St.-Jean in 1758, but the British captured them soon afterwards and held them at Halifax until the end of the war with Britain.  In 1764, Pierre, Madeleine, and their two sons may then have followed other Acadian refugees to Île Miquelon and from there on to Cherbourg, where Pierre, and perhaps Madeleine, died.  Joseph-Simon Boudrot was born at Morlaix in June 1764; the priest at St.-Mathieu Parish did not give the boy's parents' names.  Jean-Baptiste, fils of Ste.-Famille, Pigiguit, and Île St.-Jean, and his wife Luce or Lucie, daughter of Jean Trahan and Marie Girouard, crossed on one of the Five Ships from the Maritimes in late 1758.  They buried their three children at sea, reached St.-Malo in January 1759, and "resided at la Martin on the rue des Forgeurs" after they reached the port, but they did not remain there.  In early February, "they received permission and passage for La Rochelle."  Rosalie, daughter of Jean Boudrot and Françoise Arseneau of Île Royale and Île Miquelon, married sailor François, son of fellow Acadians Jean Cyr and Anne Bourgeois of Chignecto, at St.-Jean, La Rochelle, in January 1781.  Anastasie Boudrot, wife of Amand Vigneau, died in St.-Jean Parish, La Rochelle, in August 1782; she was 32 years old.  Marie-Françoise Boudrot, wife of Nicolas Toussaint, died in St.-Jean Parish, La Rochelle, in October 1783, age 35.  A Boudrot from the French Maritimes also came to La Rochelle from the Newfoundland islands.  Claude, fils, dit Le Petit Claude, married Madeleine Ozelet in exile probably on the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore in c1760.  She gave him four daughters--Marie, Anne, Madeleine, and Geneviève--between 1763 and 1771.  They either surrendered to, or were captured by, the British in the early 1760s, held as prisoners at Fort Cumberland, formerly French Fort Beauséjour, at Chignecto, and followed his family to Île Miquelon, where they were counted in 1765, 1776, and 1778.  The British captured the island during the American Revolution and deported Petit Claude, his family, and dozens of other island Acadians to La Rochelle in 1778.  Wife Madeleine died in St.-Nicolas Parish there in June 1779.  Daughter Marie married into the Vigneau family in St.-Jean's Parish, La Rochelle, in January 1783.  Some of the Newfoundlanders chose to remain in France, but Petit Claude did not.  He took two of his daughters, Anne and Geneviève, back to Île Miquelon in 1784.  One wonders if daughter Marie and her husband went with them.  One thing is certain:  if Marie and her husband remained in France, they did not go to Louisiana.  During the late 1790s, Jean Boudrot, his wife Anne ____, and their son Jean left the Newfoundland islands, where they may have gone in the late 1760s or early 1780s, and sailed to Le Havre, which they reached in August 1797.  They lived for a time at Les Penitents before asking permisson to move on to La Rochelle in April 1798.  Marie-Madeleine, daughter of Jean-Baptiste Boudrot and his second wife Louise Saulnier, younger sister of Jean-Baptiste, fils of La Rochelle and half-sister of Antoine and Zacherie of Trigavou, crossed to St.-Malo aboard one of the Five Ships with brother Zacharie, but she did not remain there.  She married Antoine, son of Jean Pineau and Renée Drouet of Mornay-en-Poitou, at Notre-Dame, Rochefort, in September 1762; the priest who recorded the marriage noted that, at the time of the wedding, Marie-Madeleine had been living in the parish for four years, but it was only three; the priest also noted that both of her parents were deceased when she married.  In June 1775, at age 22, Alexis Boudrot, an Acadian, was admitted to L'Hopital St.-André in Bordeaux.  One wonders what became of him. 

In the spring of 1763, after prolonged negotiations between the French and British governments, the Acadians in England were repatriated to France.  Arriving in several vessels, these Boudrots settled in the St.-Malo area, where they added substantially to the number of their kinsmen already there.  Françoise Comeau, age 71, widow of Joseph, son of Claude Boudrot and his first wife Anne-Marie Thibodeau of Grand-Pré, along with two of her unmarried sons, twins Jean-Baptiste and Pierre, age 32, reached St.-Malo aboard La Dorothée in late May 1763.  Françoise died at Hotel-Dieu, St.-Malo, in July, and her sons settled at nearby St.-Servan before moving to Plouër south of St.-Malo, where Jean-Bapiste married Marie-Josèphe, daughter of fellow Acadians Joseph Daigre and Marguerite Granger, in March 1764.  They returned to St.-Servan, where Marie-Josèphe gave Jean-Baptiste at least five children:  Marie-Rose was born at Plouër in December 1764, Marguerite-Josèphe in December 1766 but died at age 1 1/2 at St.-Servan in February 1768, Pierre-Jean was born in April 1768 but died at age 4 in September 1772, Marguerite-Marie was born in March 1771 but died at age 1 1/2 in October 1772, and Jean-François was born in September 1773.  Evidently Jean-Baptiste's twin brother Pierre did not marry.  Alexandre Boudrot's widow Marie-Madeleine Vincent, age 38, had lost her husband at Bristol in August 1756 and remarried to Joseph Breau perhaps at Bristol in c1760.  Her son Joseph Breau, fils was born probably at Bristol in February 1761.  By May 1763, she was a widow again.  She crossed to France aboard La Dorothée with sons Jean-Baptiste Boudrot, age 9, and Joseph Breau, fils, age 2, and settled at St.-Suliac.  She remarried to a Dugas at St.-Servan in January 1764.  Also aboard La Dorothée were Germain, age 39, Amand, age 33, and Jean-Charles, age 30--Alexandre of Pigiguit's younger brothers.  Germain had lost his first wife, Marguerite Trahan, at Bristol in August 1756 and remarried to Anne, daughter of Jacques Hébert and Marguerite Landry, at Bristol in c1758.  Their daughters Marguerite and Marie were born probably at Bristol in c1759 and c1760.  Also with Germain and his family was unmarried cousin Honoré Breau.  At Plouër, Anne gave Germain at least two more children:  Élisabeth was born in October 1763, and Joseph-Marie in August 1768.  Meanwhile, daughters Marguerite, age 6, and Marie, age 5, died at nearby La Pommeraye on the same day in August 1765, perhaps the victims of an epidemic.  In March 1773, Bona Arsenault tells us, Germain, Anne, and their two remaining children returned to England!  They likely joined other Acadian exiles on the British-controlled Channel Islands off the west coast Brittany on the first leg of their journey back to North America.  In greater Acadia, they engaged in the fisheries in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and were among the first Acadian families to settle at Chéticamp on the west coast of Cape Breton Island, now part of Nova Scotia.  Blind since age 12, Germain's brother Amand was still a bachelor in 1763.  He lived near, or with, his brothers at Plouër, but, despite his infirmity, he did not remain a bachelor.  He married local girl Marie, daughter of Guillaume Couillard and Marie Hesry of Plouër, in April 1769.  She gave him at least four children at Plouër:  Jean-Baptiste was born at Port St.-Hubert in February 1770, François-Joseph in August 1771, Joseph-Jacques in December 1773 but died at nearby La Paumerais at age 3 in January 1777, and Pierre-Mathurin was born at La Paumerais in July 1776 but died there at age 1 1/2 in May 1778.  Amand evidently did not follow his older brother to "England."  Wife Marie died by February 1777, when Amand remarried to another local girl, Marie-Perrine, daughter of Charles Nogues and Françoise Raimond, at La Fresnelais, his bride's native village.  She gave him more children:  Jacques-Joseph was born at La Pomeraye in September 1777 but died nine days after his birth, Marie was born in c1780, and Joseph-Alain in c1781.  Germain and Amand's youngest brother Jean-Charles and wife Agnès, age 21, daughter of fellow Acadians Jean Trahan and Charlotte Comeau and younger sister of Jean-Charles's older brother Germain's first wife, also settled at Plouër with their two children--Jean-Charles, fils, age 3; and Marie, age 1 1/2.  Jean-Charles and Agnès had married at Bristol in c1758.  She gave him at least four more children at Plouër:  Joseph-Marie was born at nearby Port St.-Hubert in May 1765, Pierre in May 1767, Rose-Geneviève in May 1770 but died at age 2 1/2 in February 1773, and Henriette-Charlotte was born in September 1772.  They went to Poitou.  Three more brothers--Marin, age 31; Charles, age 26; and Étienne, fils, age 21--sons of Étienne Boudrot and Marie-Claire Aucoin, reached St.-Malo on La Dorothée and settled at Pleudihen.  Youngest brother Étienne, fils, at age 22, married first to Marguerite, 20-year-old daughter of fellow Acadians Antoine Thibodeau and Susanne Comeau, at Pleudihen in May 1764.  Marguerite gave him at least four children there:  Joseph-Marie was born at Mordreux in September 1765, Cécile-Marguerite in March 1767, Blaise-Julien in January 1769, and Anne-Henriette in May 1771.  Étienne, fils worked as a seaman and joiner.  Brother Marin, at age 33, married Pélagie, daughter of Pierre Barrieau and Véronique Girouard, at Pleudihen in May 1765.  Pélagie gave him at least four children at nearby Mordreux:  Joseph-Marie was born in July 1767, Anastasie-Marie-Céleste in May 1769 but died the following September, Jean-Basile was born in July 1770, and Étienne le jeune in May 1772.  In 1767, brother Charles, now age 30 and still unmarried, received permission from French authorities to go to Nantes on the other side of Brittany and died there in July of that year.  Paul Boudrot and wife Nathalie, daughter of Antoine Pitre and Marie Comeau of Rivière-aux-Canards, who Paul had married in England in c1758, reached St.-Malo aboard La Dorothée with their 4-year-old son Pierre and settled at St.-Servan.  Paul died by February 1766, when Nathalie, now age 32, remarried to Jean-Jacques, son of Jacques LeBlanc and Cécile Dupuis of Grand-Pré and widower of Ursule Aucoin, at St.-Servan.  Three bachelor brothers--Charles, age 25; Joseph, age 21; and Amand, age 15, sons of Jean dit Lami Boudrot and Agathe Thibodeau of Minas--came to St.-Malo aboard La Dorothée.  They "settled" at Pleudihen, south of St.-Malo.  Evidently none of the brothers married.  Charles, perhaps a sailor, died at sea in September 1770, age 32.  In May 1770, Joseph "was in Guinea on the ship, L'Heureux."  He died at "la Coste," perhaps in Guinea, in January 1771; he would have been age 29.  Brother Amand's fate is anyone's guess.  Three siblings--Joseph, age 21; Marguerite, age unrecorded, and Michel III, age 15--children of Michel Boudrot, fils and Claire Comeau of Minas, reached St.-Malo aboard La Dorothée.  Joseph married Marguerite, 20-year-old daughter of Jean Richard dit Sapin and Cécile Gautrot, at St.-Servan in June 1763; Marguerite and her family had come to St.-Malo aboard L'Ambition in late May, arriving a day or two after La Dorothée, so she and Joseph probably had known one another in England and perhaps at Minas.  She gave him at least seven children at St.-Servan and Plouër, most of whom died young:  Marie-Marthe was born at St.-Servan in May 1764; twins François and Joseph-Marie in June 1766 but François died a month after his birth and Joseph-Marie at age 7 months in February 1767; Jean-Charles was born in November 1767; an unnamed girl died in February 1771; an unnamed child died the day of his or her birth at Village du Pré, near Plouër, in June 1772; and Pierre-Jean-Joseph was born in August 1773.  Joseph took his family to Poitou.   Younger brother Michel III settled at Plouër until March 1767, when he "went to England," which means he, too, likely followed his fellow refugees to the Channel islands and returned to North America.  One wonders what happened to him there, and what happened to his sister Marguerite who had come with him to St.-Malo.  Jean-Zacharie Boudrot, age 33, wife Marguerite Hébert, age 25, and their 8-year-old son Joseph reached St.-Malo aboard L'Ambition.  They settled at St.-Servan, where Marguerite died in July 1764 and Jean-Zacharie in April 1765.  After his parents died, Joseph, only 10 years old, went to live with Joseph Célestin dit Bellemère, whose wife was Marguerite Boudrot.  They, too, had come to St.-Malo from England aboard L'Ambition and settled at St.-Servan.  One wonders what happened to young Joseph.  Jean-Baptiste Boudrot, age 28, oldest brother, perhaps, of Charles, Joseph, and Amand of La Dorothée, Jean-Baptiste's wife Anastasie, daughter of Jacques dit Jacob Célestin dit Bellemère and Marie Landry, age 24, who he had married in England in c1758, and two of their children--Jean-Baptiste, age 2 1/2, and Marie-Josèphe, age 1--reached St.-Malo aboard L'Ambition.  Anastasie gave Jean-Baptiste at least four more children at St.-Servan:  Anne-Marie was born in October 1763 but died 7 days after her birth, Joseph-Marie was born in March 1766, Charles in January 1769, and Pierre-Olivier in January 1772 but died at age 1 in March 1773.  Meanwhile, daughter Marie-Josèphe died at Hôtel-Dieu, St.-Malo, age 9, in January 1771.  Brothers Anselme, age 25, and François, age 22, sons of François Boudrot and Anne-Marie Thibodeau, along with their sister Anne, age 16, reached St.-Malo aboard L'Ambition.  They settled at Pleudihen, where Anselme, at age 26, married Ursule, daughter of Jean Daigre and Anne Breau, in January 1764.  Ursule gave him at least four children in the St.-Malo area:  Jacques-Françoise was born at Mordeaux in December 1764; Anne-Marie at St.-Servan in January 1766; Joseph-Marie in April 1767; and Pierre-Hilaire in October 1768.  Brother François, at age 24, married Marguerite, daughter of Joseph Landry and Marie Comeau, at St.-Servan in c1765.  Marguerite died at St.-Servan in January 1767, age 26, before she could give François any children.  At age 27, François remarried to Euphrosine, another daughter of Pierre Barrieau and Véronique Girouard, at Pleudihen in April 1768.  Euphrosine gave him at least four children at St.-Servan:  Joseph-François was born in March 1769 but died at age 3 in September 1772, Pierre-Jean was born in May 1770, Paul-Marie in October 1771, and Jean-Louis in October 1773.  One wonders what became of François's younger sister Anne. 

In late autumn 1765, Acadians repatriated from England or who had been deported from the French Maritimes agreed to become part of a new agricultural settlement off the southern coast of Brittany.  Boudrots were among the exiles who went to Belle-Île-en-Mer that November, but not all of them remained there.  Félix, son of François Boudrot and Angélique Doiron of l'Assomption, Pigiguit, age 36 in 1765, wife Marie-Josèphe, daughter of Jean LeBlanc and Anne Bourgeois, age 36, and daughter Félicité, age 13, had been held at Bristol, repatriated to Morlaix in Brittany, where son Joseph was born in June 1764, and settled at Borderun, Sauzon, on the island.  Félix and Marie-Josèphe had no more children on the island.  She died on there in 1773, age 44.  Félix remarried to Madeleine Hébert, widow of Pierre Blanchard, later in the decade.  In the late 1770s or early 1780s, Félix and Madeleine moved to La Fosse in the Parish of St.-Nicolas, Nantes.  Daughter Félicité, age 29, married Jean, 27-year-old son of fellow Acadians Amand Lejeune and Anastasie Levron, at St.-Nicolas in November 1782; Jean was a native of Liverpool, England, so his family also had been exiled to Virginia.  A younger Félix, age 24, son of Jean Boudrot and Marguerite Comeau of L'Assomption, Pigiguit, and his new wife Anne-Gertrude, called Annette, daughter of Jean Thériot and Marie Landry, age 20, had been held at Falmouth, repatriated to Treguier, Morlaix, and married in St.-Martin des Champs Parish in July 1764.  Their son Simon-Bruno was born at Morlaix in May 1765.  On Belle-Île-en-Mer, they settled at Kerxo, Sauzon, where daughter Geneviève was born in August 1767.  They left the island soon afterwards; daughter Marie-Jeanne-Josèphe was born at L'Anildut, Quimper, in southwest Brittany, in November 1773, when Félix was serving there as commis des Fermes du Roi in the Parish of Poaspoder.  Son Yves was born at Plougastel-Daoulas, Quimper, in May 1777.  Wife Anne-Gertrude died soon after, and Félix remarried to Marie Lagatu, a Frenchwoman, at Quimper.  Their daughter Marie-Vincente was born at Landerneau, Quimper, July 1783, and Marie-Perrine at Le Faou, Quimper, in July 1792, when Félix was serving as a customs officer at nearby Douanes.  His place in the French bureaucracy evidently compelled him to remain in France in 1785.  Pierre, age 28, son of  Joseph Boudrot and Anne LeBlanc, and his wife, cousin Anne, daughter of Claude Boudrot and Judith Belliveau and widow of Jacques Haché dit Gallant, age 32, came to Belle-Île-en-Mer by a different route.  Unlike most of the Acadians on the beautiful island, who had spent time in the coastal compounds of England, Pierre and Anne had come to France from Île St.-Jean aboard one of the Five Ships in 1759.  They lived at St.-Énogat, near St.-Malo, until 1765, when they followed their fellow Acadians to Belle-Île-en-Mer.  With them at Kernest, Bangor, was son Joseph-Ian, born in October 1765, and four Haché children from Anne's first marriage.  Anne gave Pierre more children on the island:  Anne-Marie-Michelle at Bangor in August 1767, a son or daughter in December 1769 but died the following day, and Jean-Marie was born in April 1771.  Also on the island were Michel Boudrot and his second wife Marie-Anne Granger.  Michel and his wife Angélique Poirier had come to Nantes, France, from Île Miquelon in c1766.  Angélique died at Nantes soon after their arrival, and Michel moved on to Belle-Île-en-Mer.  At age 26, he remarried to Marie-Anne, 27-year-old daughter of fellow Acadians Charles Granger and Françoise LeBlanc, at Bangor in January 1769.  Marie-Anne gave him at least five children there:  a son or daughter was born at Bangor in June 1771 but died the following day, Anne-Françoise was born at La Palais in April 1772, Marie at Bangor in June 1774 but died at age 8 1/2 in January 1783, Jeanne-Adélaïde was born in December 1776, and Pierre in August 1779 but died at age 4 1/2 in January 1784. 

In the early 1770s, Boudrots in the St.-Malo area, most of them exiles from England, chose to take part in another settlement venture, this one in Poitou.  French authorities were tired of providing for the Acadians languishing in the port cities.  A French nobleman offered to settle them on land he owned near the city of Châtellerault.  The Boudrots who went there included Antoine and his wife Brigitte Apart from Trigavou; Étienne and his wife Marguerite Thibodeau from Pleudihen; François and his second wife Euphrosine Barrieau from St.-Servan; Jean-Baptiste and his wife Marie-Josèphe Daigre from St.-Servan; Jean-Baptiste and his wife Anastasie Célestin dit Bellemère from St.-Servan; Jean-Charles and his wife Agnès Trahan from Plouër; Joseph and his wife Marguerite Richard dit Sapin from St.-Servan; Marin and his wife Pélagie Barrieau from Pleudihen; Pierre, fils and his wife Françoise Daigre from Trigavou; another Pierre and his wife Madeleine Bourg; yet another Pierre, who may have gone alone or with brother Jean-Baptiste; Pierre-Paul and his wife Marie-Josèphe Moyse from Pleudihen; and Zacharie and his wife Marguerite Daigre from Trigavou.  New Boudrot families were created, others continued to grow, and, some, sadly, continued to shrink during the family's sojourn in Poitou.  Françoise Daigre gave husband Pierre Boudrot, fils at least four more children in Poitou:  Jean-Pierre was born at Châtellerault in December 1773 but died 10 days after his birth, Marguerite-Geneviève was born at Bonneuil-Matours in April 1775 but died at age 3 in May 1778, Benjamin was born in October 1777, and Paul in January 1780.  Anastasie Bellemère gave husband Jean-Baptiste Boudrot another daughter:  Louise was born at Châtellerault in January 1774.  Alexandre Boudrot's son Jean-Baptiste married Marie-Modeste, daughter of fellow Acadians Joseph Trahan and Anne Thériot, at St.-Jean-L'Evangeliste, Châtellerault, in October 1774.  Their son Jean-Baptiste, fils was born at Châtellerault in September 1775 but died 9 days after his birth.  Pierre-Paul Boudrot's son Pierre-Jean was born at St.-André-de-Bonnes, Poitiers, in October 1774.  Étienne Boudrot's son David-Valentin was born at Châtellerault in October 1774.  Marin Boudrot and Pélagie Barrieau had another son in Poitou:  Pierre-Anne was born probably at Châtellerault in c1773.  But they also lost two young sons there:  Jean-Basile died at Châtellerault, age 4, in early October 1774; and Joseph-Marie died at age 7 a few days later; one wonders if the boys were victims of an epidemic.  Marguerite Richard dit Sapin gave husband Joseph Boudrot another daughter in Poitou:  Anne-Pélagie was born at Monthoiron, south of Châtellerault, in December 1774 but she died young.  Marie-Josèphe Daigre gave husband Jean-Baptiste Boudrot another son:  Joseph-Marie was born at Monthoiron in May 1775.  François Boudrot's second wife Euphrosine Barrieau gave him another son in Poitou:  François-Xavier was born at Châtellerault in November 1775.  Pierre, brother of Jean-Baptiste Boudrot and widower of Marie Thériot, died at Châtellerault in February 1776; he was 44 years old.  After two years of effort, most of the Acadians deserted the Poitou venture.  From October 1775 through March 1776, hundreds of them, including most of the Boudrots, retreated in four convoys to the port city of Nantes, but some of them remained.  Jean-Baptiste Boudrot, parentage unrecorded, married fellow Acadian Anastasie Benoit in Poitou in c1775.  Their son Jean was born at Cenon south of Châtellerault in May 1776, after the fourth of the convoys to Nantes had departed.  Jean-Baptiste, fils, son of Jean-Baptiste and Anastasie Bellemère of St.-Servan, married local girl Marguerite, daughter of François Bedel of Targé, Poitou, at Targé in June 1778.  Their daughter Marie-Marguerite was born near Cenon in September 1779.  They moved on to Nantes by the early 1780s.  As the birthdate of their son Paul reveals, Pierre Boudrot, fils and his wife Françoise Daigre were still in the region in January 1780, nearly four years after the last convoy of Poitou Acadians had left Châtellerault.  When chaos and intrigue had shaken the Poitou venture in its final days, Pierre, fils had resisted the blandishments of his fellow Acadians and refused to abandon the colony, One wonders what became of them after 1785, when more than half of their fellow Acadians still in France left for Spanish Louisiana.  

At Nantes, where the wayward Acadians lived as best they could on government handouts and what work they could find, Boudrot families grew larger or smaller, while new ones were created.  Jean-Baptiste Boudrot and Marie-Modeste Trahan had at least four more children at Nantes:  Marie-Félicité was born in St.-Similien Parish in February 1777, Jean-Constant in November 1778, François-Marie in February 1781 but died at age 1 1/2 in September 1782, and Marguerite-Marie was born in March 1783.  Jean-Baptiste now worked as a seaman.  Antoine Boudrot, husband of Brigitte Apart, died at St.-Jacques, Nantes, in April 1776; he was 58 years old.  Their son François-Xavier, who worked as a seaman and carpenter, married Marguerite, daughter of fellow Acadians Claude Dugas and Marguerite Cyr, at St.-Martin-de-Chantenay, near Nantes, in May 1785.  Marin Boudrot and his wife Pélagie Barrieau had at least four more children at Nantes, but most of them died young:  Jean-Pierre was born in St.-Jacques Parish in April 1776 but died at age 1 1/2 in February 1778, Marie-Pélagie was born in March 1778 but died at age 2 in June 1780, Joseph was born in October 1780 but died at age 1 1/2 in March 1782, and Marie-Anne was born in September 1783.  Meanwhile, son Pierre-Anne died at age 8 in September 1781.  François Boudrot and Euphrosine Barrieau lost two more sons at Nantes:  François-Xavier, born in Poitou, died in St.-Similien Parish at age 1 1/2 in May 1777; and Pierre-Jean, born at St.-Servan, died in Ste.-Croix Parish, Nantes, at age 10 1/2 in October 1780.  Jean-Charles Boudrot's wife Agnès Trahan died in St.-Donatien Parish, Nantes, in June 1776; she was 34 years old.  Before she died, she gave Jean-Charles another daughter:  Renée was baptized at St.-Donatien in February 1776.  At age 47, Jean-Charles remarried to Marguerite-Victoire, 28-year-old daughter of fellow Acadians Charles Guédry and Madeleine Hébert, at St.-Similien Parish in August 1780.  She gave him at least three more children at Nantes:  Marguerite-Renée was born at St.-Similien in June 1781, Pierre-David in April 1783, and Félix-Marie in June 1785.  Meanwhile, son Pierre, by his first wife, died at St.-Similien at age 9 in August 1777; and oldest son Jean-Charles, fils, born in Bristol, England, in January 1760, died at age 23 in June 1783, evidently still a bachelor.  Jean-Charles's oldest daughter Marie, also born at Bristol, in September 1761, married Jean-François, 23-year-old son of Jean Havard and Jeanne Bernardeau of St.-Donatien, Nantes, at St.-Similien in August 1783.  Their son Jean-Marie was born on the Rué du Martray, St.-Similien, in February 1785.  Étienne Boudrot's son David-Valentin, born in Poitou, died in St.-Nicolas Parish, Nantes, age 2, in June 1776.  Étienne's wife Marguerite Thibodeau gave him four more children at Nantes:  Marie was born in St.-Léonard Parish in September 1776 but died at age 6 1/2 in St.-Similien Parish in July 1783, Jean-Étienne was born in St.-Clément Parish in April 1779, Marguerite-Susanne was born in St.-Léonard Parish in May 1782, and Yves-Cyprien was born in St.-Similien Parish in January 1785.  Joseph Boudrot and his wife Marguerite Richard dit Sapin had at least four more children at Nantes:  Jean-Joseph was born at St.-Martin de Chantenay Parish in July 1776, Jean-Marie in c1777 but died at age 4 1/2 in December 1782, Henriette-Josèphe was born in April 1780 but died at age 2 1/2 in December 1782, and Sophie was born in April 1782.   Pierre Paul Boudrot, a laborer and seaman, and his wife Marie-Josèphe Moyse had at least three more children at Nantes:  Madeleine-Cécile was born at St.-Pierre de Rezé, across from the river from Nantes, in July 1777; André in January 1780; and Anne in August 1783.  Meanwhile, son Pierre Paul, born at Poitiers, died at age 3 in November 1777.  Pierre-Paul died in March 1784, age 39.  Louis, son of Pierre Boudrot and his second wife Marguerite Bourg, at age 18, married Perpétué, 26-year-old daughter of fellow Acadians Jean-Baptiste Dugas and and his first wife Marguerite Benoit, at St.-Similien Parish in November 1777.  Perpétué gave Louis at least two children at Nantes:  Mathurin was born in St.-Martin de Chantenay Parish in August 1779, and Marie-Adélaïde in August 1780.  They grew up orphans.  Louis and Perpétué died probably at Nantes by September 1784, when Spanish officials listed an orphan, probably Marie-Adélaïde, living with her maternal grandfather and his family at Nantes.  Jean-Baptiste Boudrot and his wife Marie-Josèphe Daigre had more sons at Nantes:  Charles died in St.-Similien Parish in December 1777, less than a month after his birth; Joseph died at age 3 in April 1778; and Joseph-Marie died in St.-Nicolas Parish at age 2 1/2 in October 1781.  Sons Louis-Jean-Joseph was born in St.-Nicolas Parish in August 1779, and François-Marie in August 1782, but they probably died young.  Jean-Baptiste died in St.-Nicholas Parish in November 1783; he was 40 years old.  His widow was left with only two children--Marie-Rose, born at Plouër in December 1764; and Jean-François, born at St.-Servan in 1773--of the 10 born to them since their marriage at Plouër in March 1764.  Zacharie Boudrot lost his wife Marguerite Daigre at Nantes in October 1780; she age 51 when she died.  In September 1782, when he was 60, Zacharie remarried to 44-year-old Marguerite Vallois of St.-Nicolas, Nantes, widow of Pierre Dubois, Olivier Dubois, and Étienne Térriot; Marguerite, for a time, was the stepmother of Nantes shoemaker Olivier Térriot.  Zacherie's older son Paul-Dominique, a seaman, now age 20, married Marie-Olive, 17-year-old daughter of fellow Acadians Anselme Landry and Agathe Barrieau, at St.-Martin de Chantenay in May 1783.  Their son Paul-Marie was born at St.-Martin de Chantenay in May 1784.  Zacharie's younger son Charles, a carpenter, married, at age 20, Marie, 18-year-old daughter of fellow Acadians Joseph Gautrot and Anne Pitre, at Nantes in c1784.  Their son Charles-Marie was born in St.-Nicolas Parish in March 1785.  The other Jean-Baptiste Boudrot's French wife Marguerite Bedel gave him two sons at Nantes:  Jean-Baptiste, fils was born probably at Nantes in c1783, and Jean-Charles in March 1785.  Their daughter Marie-Marguerite, born near Châtellerault in September 1779, may have died in Poitou soon after her birth or at Nantes. Jean, age 26, son of Pierre Boudrot and his second wife Madeleine Bourg and Louis's older brother, married Anne-Léonore, daughter of fellow Acadians Jean Granger and Madeleine Melanson of Grand-Pré, at St.-Pierre de Rezé in November 1785, a month after the last of the Seven Ships left Nantes for Spanish Louisiana.

During their two and a half decades in the mother country, Acadian Boudrots proliferated, and even prospered, despite the frustrations of living there.  Yet, in the early 1780s, when the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France the chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana, at least 89 Boudrots agreed to take it.  They included Amand, Antoine's widow, Cécile and brother Joseph, Charles, Étienne, Félix of Belle-Île-en-Mer and Nantes, Ignace, two Jean-Baptistes, Jean-Charles, Joseph, Joseph-Félix-Simon, Marin, Olivier, Paul-Dominique, Victor, Xavier, Zacharie, and their families.  Nevertheless, many of the Boudrots in France--Alexis; Anselme and François of St.-Malo; Augustin, Basile, and Jean-Cyprien of Pleudihen and Nantes; Félix of Quimper; Jean of Rezé; Louis of Nantes; Michel of Belle-Île-en-Mer; Pierre, fils of Trigavou and Poitou; Pierre and Anne of Belle-Île-en-Mer; and Pierre-Paul's widow Marie Moyse--chose to remain in the mother country.  In late February 1791, during the early years of the French Revolution, officials counted Acadians still receiving government subsidies at Nantes.  Nearly a dozen Boudrots appeared on the list, including Alexis, André, his father Basile, Louis, fils, and Michel.  In the late 1780s, after the Seven Ships had sailed to Spanish Louisiana, Michel Boudrot took his family from Belle-Île-en-Mer to Nantes, where daughter Anne was born in June 1790, but she died there at age 3 1/2 in November 1793.  Members of Pierre and Anne Boudrot's family were counted at Lorient in southern Brittany in 1792.  Other members of the family were still living on the island during the French Revolution.  In 1801, French authorities counted the widow Marguerite Boudrot with four of her children at Bordeaux.  One wonders who her husband might have been. 

In North America, things got only worse for the Acadians who had escaped the British roundups of 1755 and 1758.  After the fall of Québec in September 1759, the British gathered their forces to attack the remaining French strongholds in New France, one of which was the Acadian refuge at Restigouche at the head of the Baie des Chaleurs.  They attacked in June 1760.  After a spirited fight in which Acadian and Mi'kmaq militia played an important role, the French commander blew up his larger vessels and  retreated up the Restigouche, leaving the militia to prevent a British landing.  Unable to land his redcoats and lay waste to the area, the British commander ordered his ships to return to Louisbourg with what booty and prisoners they could carry.  In October 1760, three months after the British withdrawal, French officials counted 1,003 Acadians still at Restigouche.  Among them were Joseph Boudrot, with a family of eight; the widow of Charles Boudrot and her family of four; Joseph, père and his family of two, and son Joseph, fils and his family of five; the widow of Charles Boudrot l'aîné and her family of six; Claude Boudrot, fils and his family of four; another Claude Boudrot, perhaps père, and a family of six; Olivier Boudrot and his family of five; Pre, that is, Pierre Boudrot and his family of seven; another Charles Boudrot without a family; the widow of Bonaventure Boudrot and her family of six; and Jean Boudrot and his family of two.  Other Acadians, including Boudrots, took refuge in Gaspésie on the north shore of the Baie des Chaleurs.  French officials counted the widow of Jean Boudrot and nine dependents at Grande-Rivière, Gaspésie, at the end of July 1761.  The British, however, had captured an estimated 300 Acadians during the fight at Restigouche and held them as prisoners of war in British-controlled Nova Scotia.  During the following months, Acadians who had escaped capture at Restigouche either surrendered to, or were captured by, other British forces in the region and dragged them off to the prison compounds Nova Scotia.  One of these compounds was Fort Edward, overlooking the old Boudrot homesteads at Pigiguit.  Another was Fort Cumberland, formerly French Fort Beauséjour, at Chignecto.  The largest was on Georges Island in the middle of Halifax harbor.  Some of the Acadians held in Nova Scotia were Boudrots.  In August 1762, British officials counted Olivier Boudrot of Grand-Pré and his family, six in all, at Fort Edward.  A year later, four Boudrot families--those of Pierre, wife Madeleine, and children Hilaire, Jean, and Joseph; Claude, wife Madeleine, and daughters Marie, and Marguerite; Joseph, wife Rosalie, and children Joseph, fils, Charles, Marguerite, Anne, Amand, and Thomas; and Claude, wife Judith, and children Michel, Pierre, and Anastasie--were counted at Fort Cumberland in August 1763.  That same month, British officials counted two more Boudrot families--Jean and his wife Marguerite Guilbeau of Annapolis Royal, and Joseph and his unnamed wife--at Halifax.

The war over, Boudrots being held in the seaboard colonies were allowed to go, but not until British officials counted them and discerned their intentions.  In July 1763, colonial officials in Maryland counted Joseph Boudrot and his wife Marie _____ at Newtown on the colony's Eastern Shore.  Also there were five Boudrot "orphans":  Pierre, who would have been age 25; Amand, age 19; Michel, age 17; Marie; and a second Amand, most of them children of Pierre Boudrot and Anne Hébert.  At nearby Georgetown/Frederickstown, officials found Marie, 8-year-old daughter of Benjamin Boudrot and Cécile Melanson, living with the family of François Hébert family (Marie would go on to marry an Hébert cousin and become the paternal grandmother of two Confederate generals, one of whom had served as an antebellum governor of Louisiana).  At Upper Marlborough, officials counted Brigitte, age 31, husband Basile Landry, a daughter and a Babin orphan; and her younger sister Marie-Madeleine, age 30, husband Joseph Landry, two sons, and another Babin orphan.  Brigitte and Marie-Madeleine were daughters of Pierre Boudrot and Madeleine Hébert.  At Lower Marlborough, orphans Firmin, Pierre, Joseph, and Marie Boudrot lived with the family of Joseph Leroy.  At Port Tobacco on the lower Potomac, Augustin dit Rémi, age 8, son, perhaps, of Pierre Boudrot and Anne Hébert, was living with the family of Jean-Charles Breau of Pigiguit.  In August 1763, authorities in South Carolina placed Paul Boudrot, his wife Marguerite Landry, and 14-year-old "orphan" Amand Boudrot on a list of "families previously living in Acadia who have been transported to South Carolina and who desire to withdraw under the standard of their king his very Christian Majesty [Louis XV of France.]"  Also on the list were Marguerite Boudrot, wife of François Poirier; and 17-year-old orphan Madeleine Boudrot, living with the Poiriers.  Far to the north in Massachusettes, authorites in Boston compiled a list of their own in August 1763.  On it were Charles Boudrot, wife Madeleine, two sons and two daughters, as well as Widow Boudrot; Jean Boudrot; Pierre Boudrot, wife Marguerite, five sons and three daughters; and Claude Boudrot, wife Judic, three sons and three daughters.  Marie Boudrot and her husband René Hébert, along with Marguerite Dupuis, widow of Pierre Boudrot, appeared on a "General List of the Acadian Families Distributed in the Government of Konehtoket [Connecticut] Who Desire To Go To France," compiled sometime in 1763.  In New York, officials included two Boudrot families--Pierre, his wife, and four children; and François, his wife, and four children--on an undated census of Acadians in the colony.  At Boston in June 1766, Rose Boudrot, as well as Charles Boudrot with a family of eight, appeared on a list of "the French who wish to go to Canada." 

Most of the Acadians in New England, New York, and Pennsylvania chose to go to Canada, where some of their kinsmen from Chignecto, Minas, and the Maritime islands already had gone.  Though now also a British possession, the northern province was populated largely by fellow French Catholics, many of them Acadian exiles.  So, in a colony nearly as old as Acadia, descendants of Michel Boudrot began the slow, inexorable process of becoming Canadiennes.  Especially after 1766, Boudrots could be found on the upper St. Lawrence at Deschambault, Ste.-Croix de Lotbinière, Nicolet, Repentigny, Trois-Rivières, L'Acadie, Ste.-Anne-de-la-Pérade, Baie-du-Fébvre, Cap-Santé, St.-Philippe-de-Laprairie, and Ste.-Foy; at St.-Ours, St.-Luc, and St.-Antoine-de-Chambly on the Richelieu; at Baie-St.-Paul, St.-Joachim, St.-Charles-de-Bellechasse, and Île-aux-Coudres on the lower St. Lawrence; and at Carleton, Cascapédia, now New Richmond, and Bonaventure on the northern shore of the Baie des Chaleurs.  In New Brunswick, Boudrots settled on the St. John River; on Île Miscou at the entrance to the Baie des Chaleurs; at Petit-Rocher on Nepisiguit Bay, an arm of the Baie des Chaleurs; and at Memramcook near present-day Moncton.  In Nova Scotia, they settled at Baie Ste.-Marie; at Chédabouctou, now Guysborough; at Petit-de-Grat and Chéticamp on Cape Breton Island; at Arichat on Île Madame, south of Cape Breton; and at Chezzetcook, near Halifax.  Boudrots also settled on Îles-de-la-Madeleine in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and on Île St.-Jean for a time.  Typical of most, if not all, Acadian families, these Acadiennes of Canada lost touch with their Cadien cousins hundreds of miles away, and until the Acadian reunions of the twentieth century, may even have forgotten the others existed.  The founder of the movement that led to world-wide reunions of Acadian families--Les Congrés Mondial Acadien, five so far, held every fives years since 1994--was André Boudreau, a native of New Brunswick living in Alberta, Canada, until his death at age 60 in 2005.  Boudrots also settled on the French-controlled island of Miquelon off the southern coast of Newfoundland, from which some of them were compelled to return to France in the late 1760s to relieve overcrowding.  Many returned, but in 1778, during the American Revolution, the British seized Miquelon and nearby Île St.-Pierre and deported the Acadians there to France.  Some of them returned after 1783, when the islands again were awarded to France. 

Other Boudrots being held in the seaboard colonies did not move on to Canada.  At least one family returned to Nova Scotia to join kinsmen being held there.  Others emigrated to the French Antilles to avoid living in territory controlled by the British.  In 1763, French officials encouraged Acadians in the British colonies to go to French St.-Dominique, today's Haiti, to work on a huge naval base at Môle St.-Nicolas.  Although driven from North America by the Seven Years' War, the French were determined to hang on to what was left of their shrinking empire.  The new naval base on the north shore of the big sugar island would protect the approaches to their remaining possessions in the Caribbean Basin, and the Acadians would provide a ready source of cheap labor.  The French promised them land of their own if they came to St.-Domingue.  Evidently the Boudrots who reached the colony in 1764 were sent not to Môle St.-Nicolas but to Mirebalais northeast of Port-au-Prince to work on coffee and indigo plantations:   Anne Boudrot, wife of Antoine Dupuy, died at Mirebalais in October 1764, age 30.  Élisabeth Boudrot, age 15, died at Mirebalais in November 1764.  Joseph Boudrot, age 17, died at Mirebalais in January 1765.  Despite these deaths, when fellow Acadians held in Nova Scotia or Maryland during exile, including Boudrots, came through Cap-Français in the mid-and late 1760s on their way to Louisiana, none of the Boudrots in St.-Domingue chose to join them.  Madeleine, daughter of Pierre Boudrot and Marguerite Dupuis, married Jean, son of François Esnard and Jeanne D'Annette of St.-Vincent, Beru, Perigeaux, at Mirebalais in November 1768.  Their son Jean-Charlers was born at Mirebalais in June 1782.  Madeleine's sister Marie married Port-au-Prince notary Jacques-Prosper, son of Pierre Munois or Munios and Marie Lorieux of St.-Martin, Blais, and widower of Marie-Madeleine Lecode, at Mirebalais in July 1774.  Rosalie, daughter of Pierre Boudrot and Madeleine Doucet of Pointe-Beauséjour, Chignecto, married Isidore, son of fellow Acadians Étienne Thériot and Agnès LeBlanc of Pointe-Beauséjour, at Môle St.-Nicolas in June 1777.  Marie Boudrot of Pointe-Beauséjour died at Môle in August 1778, age 55.  Boudrots went to other island in the French Antilles:  Marie Boudrot died at La Carénage on the island of Ste.-Lucie in December 1763, age 18. 

In the early 1760s, French officials coaxed Acadians languishing in the coastal cities of France to settle at Sinnamary and Cayenne in French Guiane on the northern coast of South America.  Jean-Charles, called Charles, son of Paul Boudrot and Marie-Josèphe Doiron, had survivied the crossing from the Maritimes to St.-Malo aboard the Duke William that had killed his parents and most of his younger siblings.  At age 23, he married Marie-Josèphe, 20-year-old daughter of fellow Acadians Pierre Haché and Cécile Lavergne, at St.-Énogat in November 1763.  In April 1764, they took the ship Le Fort to French Guiane, where they were counted at Sinnamary in March 1765; the census taker noted that Charles was suffering from fever.  He survived the illness, but wife Marie-Josèphe did not survive life in the tropical colony.  Charles, at age 38, remarried to Marie-Marguerite, daughter of François-Robert Du Mesnil and Thérèse Le Botte of St.-Étienne-du-Mont, Paris, and widow of Sr. Regnauldin, "major surgeon of the post of Sinnamary," at St.-Joseph, Sinnamary, in February 1775. 

Meanwhile, the hand full of Boudrots being held in Nova Scotia faced a hard dilemma.  The Treaty of Paris of February 1763 stipulated in its Article 14 that persons dispersed by the war had 18 months to return to their respective territories.  However, British authorities refused to allow any of the Acadian prisoners in the region to return to their former lands as proprietors.  If Acadians chose to remain in, or return to, Nova Scotia, they could live only in small family groups in previous unsettled areas or work for low wages on former Acadian lands now owned by New England "planters."  If they stayed, they must also take the hated oath of allegiance to the new British king, George III, without reservation.  They would also have to take the oath if they joined their cousins in Canada.  After all they had suffered on the question of the oath, few self-respecting Acadians would consent to take it if it could be avoided.  Some Halifax exiles, including Boudrots, chose to relocate to Miquelon, a French-controlled island off the southern coast of Newfoundland.  Others considered going to French St.-Domingue, where Acadian exiles in the British colonies already had gone, or to the Illinois country, the west bank of which still belonged to France, or to French Louisiana, which, thanks to British control of Canada, was the only route possible to the Illinois country for Acadian exiles.  Whatever their choice, they refused to remain in L'Acadie.  So they gathered up their money and their few possessions and prepared to leave their homeland.  Of the 600 who left Halifax in late 1764 bound for Cap-Français, St.-Domingue, at least seven were Boudrots. 

The Boudrots in Maryland endured life among English colonists who did not care much for the French "papists" who had been thrust upon them.  When word reached the Acadians there that they would be welcome in Spanish Louisiana, they pooled their meager resources to charter ships that would take them to New Orleans.  Joseph Boudrot and his wife Marie at Newton on the Eastern Shore, as well as the Breau "orphans" at Lower Marlborough, chose to remain in the English colony, but others, including young Augustin dit Rémi Boudrot at Port Tobacco, agreed to go to the Spanish colony, in 1767 and 1768. 

A young Boudrot born in France was one of the last Acadians to emigrate to Spanish Louisiana.  Jean-Baptiste, son of Victor Boudrot and his first wife Catherine-Josèphe Hébert of Île St.-Jean, was born at St.-Servan, near St.-Malo, in December 1767.  In August 1785, when his father, stepmother, and six of his siblings and half-siblings, left St.-Malo for New Orleans, Jean-Baptiste, probably a sailor, did not go with them.  He ended up, instead, on Île St.-Pierre, off the southern coast of Newfoundland, where, in 1788, at age 21, he joined 17 fellow Acadians aboard the schooner La Brigite, captained by Joseph Gravois III of Chignecto, who also had spent time as a refugee at St.-Malo.  Joseph III's mother-in-law was an Hébert from Grand-Pré, so Jean-Baptiste would have been considered a kinsman.  He was the only Boudrot on the vessel.  After a long voyage, the Brigite reached New Orleans that December, and Jean-Baptiste followed his fellow passengers first to the Acadian Coast above New Orleans before settling on upper Bayou Lafourche.293

Bourg

In 1755, descendants of Antoine Bourg of Martaizé and Antoinette Landry could be found at Annapolis Royal, Grand-Pré and Cobeguit in the Minas Basin, Chignecto, the trois-rivères area west of Chignecto, and in the French Maritimes, especially on Île St.-Jean.  Le Grand Dérangement of the 1750s scattered this large family even farther. 

The Acadians at Chignecto were the first to endure a disruption of their lives.  In the early 1750s, Canadian soldiers, assisted by Mi'kmaq warriors led by Abbé Le Loutre, burned Acadian homesteads in the British-controlled area east of Rivière Missaguash, forcing the habitants to move to the French-controlled area west of the river.  Bourgs likely were among the refugees.  After yet another war erupted between Britain and France in 1754, the Chignecto Acadians were caught in the middle of it.  When British and New England forces attacked Fort Beauséjour in June 1755, Bourgs likely were among the 300 Chignecto Acadians who were serving in the fort as militia.  They, too, along with the French troupes de la marine, became prisoners of war when the fort surrendered on June 16.  Governor Lawrence was so incensed to find so-called French Neutrals fighting with French regulars at Beauséjour he ordered his officers to deport the Chignecto Acadians to the southernmost British colonies on the Atlantic seaboard.  Madeleine Bourg and husband Paul Olivier ended up in South Carolina.  In August 1756, they were sent with 30 other Acadians from Charles Towne to Prince Frederick Winyaw, a rural Anglican parish farther up the coast at present-day Plantersville.  There, Madeleine and Paul died that summer or fall, probably of malaria, a disease unknown in their homeland.  Marguerite, daughter of Michel dit Michaud Bourg l'aîné, and second husband Jacques Vigneau dit Jacob Maurice, a Baie-Verte merchant, ended up in Georgia, but they did not remain there.  In early 1756, the governors of Georgia and South Carolina allowed the Acadians in their colonies who were not under arrest to return to their homeland as best they could.  By the first of March, dozens of them--perhaps as many as 200--had purchased or built small vessels and headed up the coast.  At least 50 of them made it all the way back to the Bay of Fundy and took refuge on lower Rivière St.-Jean.  Most did not complete the long voyage.  One of the largest contingents, led by Jacques dit Maurice, started off from Georgia with 80 exiles aboard barely-seaworthy open boats.  They arrived at Charles Towne, South Carolina, by the end of March and pushed on in mid-April.  By the end of June they had reached Shrewsbury, New Jersey.  After a short stop, they continued northward, avoiding Long Island, and made it as far as New England.  In late July, Massachusetts officials, heeding a warning from an irate Charles Lawrence, halted the Vigneau party at Sandwich on lower Cape Cod Bay and parceled them out to scattered communities in the province, where hundreds of exiles from Minas and Annapolis already were being held.  Marguerite, Jacques dit Maurice, and their many children were sent to Leicester, Roxbury, and then to Boston, where they were counted in 1760 and 1761. 

Bourgs at Annapolis Royal were deported directly to New England in the fall of 1755.  Joseph Bourg and wife Louise Robichaud were sent to Connecticut on the British transport Edward, which left the Annapolis Basin in early December 1755 but did not reach New London until late May 1756.  Louise did not survive the crossing.  A storm drove the ship to Antigua, in the British West Indies, where a hundred of its passengers died of malaria.  According to a petition Joseph filed in a Connecticut court in October 1758, Louise died in Antigua "de la picote."  Anne, called Hannah, Bourg, wife of Joseph Doucet, was counted at Salisbury, Massachusetts, in 1758.  Bourgs from Minas ended up in Pennsylvania, including three sons of Alexandre dit Bellehumeur--Paul, Bénoni, and Joseph.  At least one family from Minas--that of Michel, another son of Alexandre Bourg dit Bellehumeur--was transported to Virginia, where, along with 1,500 other "French Neutrals," they suffered the indignity of being refused by the colony's authorities.  The Acadians languished in the lower James River aboard disease-infested ships until Governor Dinwiddie ordered them dispersed to Hampton, Norfolk, and Richmond, while he and the colony's political leaders pondered their fate.  The following spring, the Virginians sent them on to England, where they were packed into warehouses in several English ports and treated like common criminals.  Many of them died when smallpox broke out in one of the ports.  Michel Bourg, wife Jeanne Hébert, and their six children were held at Southampton.  Jeanne died by 1759, when Michel remarried to Brigitte, daughter of fellow Acadians René Martin dit Barnabé and Marie Mignier and widow of Séraphin Breau, probably at Southampton.  Marguerite, daughter of Jean-Baptiste Bourg, and husband Simon LeBlanc of Cobeguit ended up at Falmouth.  Marguerite died in September or October 1756, age 34, perhaps of smallpox, and was buried in nearby St.-Gluvias Parish, Penryn.  Simon promptly remarried. 

Chignecto and Minas Bourgs who escaped the British roundup of 1755, evidently the great majority of them, took refuge on Rivière St.-Jean or at Shediac, Richibouctou, Miramichi, and Restigouche on the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore, where they fought starvation, hard winters, and British raiding parties.  Others moved on to Canada via the Rivière St.-Jean portage.  Beginning in 1758, members of the family who escaped the British roundup on Île St.-Jean joined their cousins on the Gulf shore.  Anne, daughter of Michel dit Michaud Bourg l'aîné, wife of François Hébert of Chignecto, died at Québec City in September 1756, age 50.  Anne's older sister Marie dit Louise-Marie, widow of Charles Bourgeois of Chignecto, died at Québec in February 1757, age 62.  Anne and Louise-Marie's younger brother François was counted at Québec in 1758 with second wife Marie Belliveau dit Blondin.  Anne, Louise-Marie, and François's nephew Jacques dit Canique Bourg and wife Marguerite Cormier also were counted at Québec in 1758.  Charles Bourg, formerly of Port-La-Joye, Île St.-Jean, died at Québec in December 1757, age 37.  Alexandre Bourg dit Bellehumeur, former colonial Council delegate, judge, and notary at Minas, died at Richibouctou on the Gulf of St. Lawrence in 1760; he was 89 years old.  Marie-Madeleine, daughter Joseph Bourg and Marie Girouard, was baptized at Restigouche in September 1760, two months after the British attacked the post.  In late October 1760, several Bourg families were counted at Restigouche with the 1,003 Acadians who had escaped the British roundup there a few months earlier:  Fois, likely François, Bourg was counted probably with his wife; Charles Bourg, le veux, the elder, was counted with a family of 13; Joseph Bourg, neveu, the nephew, was counted with a family of nine; and another Joseph Bourg was counted probably with his wife.  In the months ahead, however, they either surrendered to, or were captured by, the British and held in prison compounds in Nova Scotia. 

Bourgs still at Cobeguit in September 1755, learning of the fate of their cousins in the other Fundy settlements, packed up their goods and their loved ones and headed cross country to Tatamagouche and other North Shore settlements.  From there, in what boats they could find, they crossed the Mer Rouge to French-held Île St.-Jean, where they joined their kinsmen who had chosen to go there years, even decades, earlier.  Living in territory controlled by France, none of the established Bourgs on Île St.-Jean were touched by the British roundup in Nova Scotia.  Their respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  After the British captured the French fortress at Louisbourg in July 1758, they rounded up most of the Acadians on the Maritime islands, Bourgs among them, and deported them to St.-Malo and other French ports.  More members of the family were deported to France, in fact, than to any other corner of the Acadian diaspora. 

Many Bourgs did not survive the crossing, and entire families were lost.  Françoise, daughter of Jean-Baptiste Bourg, and husband Paul Doiron; Pierre Bourg, son of Ambroise, wife Madeleine Hébert, and their children, of Pointe-à-la-Jeunesse, Île Royale; and Marguerite, daughter of Pierre Bourg, husband Jacques Vécot, and their children, disappeared without a trace aboard two of the British transports that sank in a mid-Atlantic storm during the second week of December 1758; Françoise and Paul and Pierre and Madeleine died aboard the Duke William, and Marguerite and Jacques went down with the Violet.  Cécile Bourg, with husband Antoine Breau and six of their children, crossed on another British transport named Duke William, which limped into St.-Malo the first of November.  Only Antoine and daughter Cécile survived the crossing.  Wife Cécile died in a St.-Malo hospital on November 15.  Isabelle Bourg, age 47, with husband Pierre Dugas, age 50, and six of their children, ages 21 to 3, crossed on the British transport Tamerlane, which left the Maritimes in late November and reached St.-Malo in mid-January 1759 with all but six of its 56 passengers.  Isabelle and her family were among the majority who survived the crossing; sadly, she died a few weeks after she reached the port, age 46.  Most of the island Bourgs crossed on one of the five British transports that left the Gut of Canso in late November and reached St.-Malo in late January 1759.  The death toll among the 1,033 passengers aboard those vessels reached nearly 50 percent; many were Bourgs.  Louis Bourg, age 70, crossed with wife Cécile Michel, age 57, and their youngest daughter Anne-Josèphe, age 15.  Louis died at sea.  His oldest daughter Marguerite, age 38, crossed with husband Jean-Baptiste Guillot, age 38, and six children, ages 12 to 3.  Marguerite, a son, and a daughter survived the crossing, but Jean-Baptiste and four of the other children died at sea.  Louis's son Eustache, age 36, crossed with wife Marguerite Daigre, age 30, and three children--Boniface, age 6; Marguerite-Susanne, age 2; and Janvier, age 1.  Only Marguerite survived the crossing.  Louis's son Louis, fils, age 28, crossed with wife Anne Pitre, age 18, and Anne's sister Marie-Blanche, age 15.  They all survived the crossing, but Louis, fils died in a local hospital in early March probably from the rigors of the voyage.  Louis's youngest son Charles, age 21, crossed with wife Madeleine Blanchard, age 21.  They both survived the crossing.  Marie-Madeleine, called Madeleine Hébert, widow of François Bourg of Cobeguit, crossed with three children--Anselme, age 22; Alain, age 17; and Luce-Perpétué, age 15.  Madeleine and Anselme died from the rigors of the crossing.  Michel Bourg, age 38, crossed with wife Cécile Moyse, age 35, and four children--Marie, age 8; Perpétué, age 5; Michel, age 3; and Simon, age 8 months.  Only Cécile survived the crossing.  Marguerite Bourg, age unrecorded, crossed with husband Germain Blanchard, age 37, and six children; only Germain and their 13-year-old son Jean survived the crossing.  Jean Bourg, age 56, crossed with wife Marie Pitre, age 52, and three children--Marguerite, age 26; Marie, age 16, and Charles, age 13.  Only daughter Marie and son Charles survived the crossing.  Jean's older sons Jean, fils, age 22, with wife Marie Aucoin, age 25; and François le jeune, age 20, with wife Anne Aucoin, age 20, also crossed on one of the Five Ships.  Both couples survived the crossing.  Jean, père's brother François l'aîné, a widower, age unrecorded, crossed with seven children--Charles, age 15; Jean, age 14; Françoise, age 12; Marguerite, age 10; Antoine, age 6; Marie, age 7; and Osite, age 4.  François l'aîné and the younger children died at sea.  Charles, Jean, Françoise, and Marguerite survived the crossing, but Marguerite died at a hospital near St.-Malo the following April.  Joseph Bourg, age 22, and wife Marguerite Aucoin, age 23, survived the crossing, but Joseph's parents and younger siblings were not so lucky:  Alexandre Bourg, age 49, crossed with wife Ursule Hébert, age 44, and five of their children--Marguerite, age 20; Anne, age 18; Grégoire, age 10; Tarsille, age 4, and Blanche, age 2.  Only Ursule, Marguerite, and Anne survived the crossing; the others died at sea.  François Bourg of Cobeguit, age 50, crossed with second wife Émilie Thibodeau, age 44, and four of their children--Agnès-Blanche, age 12; Gertrude, age 10; Marie-Sébastienne, age 5, and Jean-Charles, age 3.  Also with them was Athanase, age 17, one of François's son from his first wife.  All four of the younger children died at sea, and François and Émilie died in a St.-Malo hospital a month after their arrival.  Only Athanase survived the crossing.  With François's family were kinsmen Théodore, age 13, son of Jean-Pierre Bourg, and Théodore's sister Marie-Josèphe, age 10.  They both survived the crossing.  François's daughter Marguerite-Josèphe Bourg, age 22, also from his first wife, crossed with husband Alexandre Robichaud, age 32, and three children, ages 6 years to 6 months.  With them also were cousin Théodose Bourg, age unrecorded, and Marguerite-Josèphe's younger brother Joseph, age 15.  All three of the children, along with cousin Théodose, died at sea.  Alexandre, Marguerite-Josèphe, and brother Joseph survived the crossing.  Pierre Bourg, age unrecorded, crossed with wife Marie-Josèphe Gautrot, age 46, four of their children--Françoise-Josèphe, age 22; Amboise, age 19; Jean-Pierre le jeune, age 14; and Marguerite-Josèphe, age 12--and four relatives--Victor Bourg, age 12, son of Jean-Pierre l'aîné; Victor's paternal aunt Marie-Madeleine Bourg, age unrecorded; Jean-Baptiste Hébert, age 6; and François Gautrot, age 80, Marie-Josèphe's father.  Only Marie-Josèphe, Jean-Pierre le jeune, Françoise-Josèphe, Victor, and Jean-Baptiste survived the crossing.  The other five members of the party either died at sea or in a St.-Malo hospital.  Alexandre Bourg of Cobeguit, age 40, crossed with wife Marguerite-Josèphe Hébert, age 30, and four daughters--Marie-Rose, age 11; Marguerite, age 9; Madeleine, age 7; and Anne-Dorate, age 4--as well as two other relations--François Breau, age 3, and Marguerite-Josèphe's younger brother François-Xavier Hébert, age 10.  Alexandre, Marguerite-Josèphe, Marie-Rose, and Marguerite survived the crossing, but the younger daughters, Madeleine and Anne-Dorate, along with François and François-Xavier, either died at sea or in a St.-Malo hospital soon after they reached the port.  Bénoni Bourg, age 23, and his pregnant wife Élisabeth-Josèphe Naquin, age 25, survived the crossing but died in a St.-Malo hospital soon after they reached the port.  Their newborn son also died, days before his mother passed.  Ursule Bourg, age 46, crossed with husband Joseph Breau, age 47, and nine children, ages 18 to 2.  All survived the crossing except Ursule, who died at Hôpital Rosais, St.-Servan, a month after reaching port, and the youngest child, a son, who died at sea.  Joseph Bourg, age 26, son of Abraham of Cobeguit, crossed with wife Marguerite-Josèphe Dugas, age 24.  Joseph survived the crossing, but his wife died at sea.  Anne Bourg, age 32, crossed with husband Alexis Dugas, age 32, and six children, ages 10 to newborn.  Only Alexis and his oldest daughter survived the crossing.  Wife Anne and the other children died at sea.  Madeleine-Josèphe Bourg, age 22, crossed with husband Alexis Doiron, age 36, and six children, ages 14 to 3.  Madeleine-Josèphe, Alexis, and their two oldest children survived the crossing, but four youngest children either died at sea or from the rigors of the crossing.  Marie-Madeleine Bourg, age 35, crossed with husband Jean-Baptiste Guérin, age 36, and four children, ages 9 to 2.  The two younger children died at sea.  Isabelle Bourg, age 37, crossed with husband François Hébert, age 44, and 10 children, ages 20 to newborn.  Isabelle and five of her childern either died at sea or in a St.-Malo hospital.  Marguerite-Josèphe Bourg, age 30, crossed with husband Charles Hébert, age unrecorded, and four children, ages 9 to 1.  Charles and the three youngest children died at sea.  Anne-Josèphe Bourg, age 22, crossed with husband Pierre Henry, age 25, and an 18-month-old son, who died at sea.  Marie-Madeleine Bourg, age 42, crossed with husband Ambroise Hébert, age 47, of Pointe à La Jeunesse, Île Royale, and eight children, ages 17 to 1.  Marie-Madeleine and the youngest three children died at sea.  Anne Bourg, age 30, crossed with husband Joseph Melanson, age 36, six children, ages 12 to 2.  The three youngest children died at sea, and Anne and one of her daughters died at St.-Malo soon after they reached the port.  Élisabeth Bourg, age 33, husband Ambroise Naquin of Cobeguit, age 34, and five of their children, ages 7 to several months, crossed on the British transport Supply, which left the Maritimes in late November 1758, took refuge in an English port in late December, and did not reach St.-Malo until the second week of March 1759.  Élisabeth, Ambroise, and two of their children survived the crossing, but the youngest children did not.  Françoise Bourg, age 20, brother Pierre, age 29, and her husband Joseph Naquin, age 28, all survived the crossing, but Joseph died the following May probably from the rigors of the crossing.  Cécile Bourg, age 24, crossed with husband Ignace Heusé, age 28, and her 2-year-old daughter Anne-Josèphe Longuépée from her first marriage.  They survived the crossing.  François-Xavier Bourg, age 20, of Cobeguit, traveled with the family of Charles Guédry, and he, too, survived the crossing.  Jean Bourg, age 43, of Cobeguit and Pointe à La Jeunesse, Île Royale, crossed with wife Françoise Benoit, age 37, and seven children.  Daughter Anne-Marie, age 8, died at sea, and the rigors of the crossing contributed to the death of Jean, Françoise, and 5-year-old Théodore.  However, six of their children--Marin or Martin, age 18; Luce-Perpétué, age 14; Gertrude, age 11; Marie, age 10; Joseph, age 9; and Jean-Baptiste, age 7--survived the long voyage. 

Island Bourgs who survived the crossing did their best to make a life for themselves in the teeming suburbs of St.-Malo.  After burying their widowed mother Marie-Madeleine Hébert, as well as their older brother Anselme, who died in February 1759, age 23, from the rigors of the crossing, Alain Bourg and his younger sister Luce-Perpétué settled at St.-Suliac, south of St.-Malo.  Early in 1761, Alain, now age 20, embarked probably from St.-Malo aboard the French corsair Le Tigre, which fell into British hands.  He was reported as a prisoner of war in England in early March of that year and was not repatriated to France from an English prison until 9 June 1763.  Still in his early 20s and working as a day laborer, he married Anne-Marie, daughter of fellow Acadians Joseph Comeau and Marguerite Hébert of Minas, at St.-Suliac in January 1764.  Anne-Marie may have come to France from England.  She gave Alain at least seven children at St.-Suliac, half of whom died in a smallpox epidemic:  Marie-Geneviève was born in December 1764; Joseph-Alain in February 1766 but died 9 days after his birth; Marie-Madeleine was born in April 1767 but died of smallpox at age 5 in February 1773; Pierre-Alain was born in August 1768 but, like his older sister, died of smallpox in February 1773, age 4; Marguerite-Tarsille was born in April 1770; Rosalie-Josèphe in September 1771 but also died of smallpox, age 15 months, in February 1773; and François was born in c1773.  Alain's sister Luce-Perpétué married Pierre, son of fellow Acadians Charles Hébert and Marguerite Dugas of Cobeguit and widower of Marie Robichaud, at Trigavou, southwest of St.-Suliac, in January 1762, while her brother was languishing in an English prison.  Pierre also had crossed to St.-Malo on one of the Five Ships.  The crossing took the lives of all four of his children, and his first wife died of smallpox at Ploubalay, southwest of St.-Malo, only a few months after their arrival.  Luce-Perpétué gave Pierre, who was twice her age, eight more children, at Pleslin, near Trigavou, and at Tréméreuc, north of Pleslin/Trigavou.  Only half of them survived childhood.  Pierre died at La Ville Hervy, Tréméreuc, in September 1781, age 37.  Alain and Luce-Perpétué's older sister Anne, widow of Jean-Baptiste Blanchard, also settled at St.-Suliac, where she remarried to Jean-Baptiste, son of fellow Acadians Joseph Dugas and Claire Bourg and widower of Marguerite Benoit and Madeleine Moyse, in September 1760.  Jean-Baptiste also had crossed on one of the Five Ships, with his second wife, who, along with both of their young children, died at sea.  Anne gave him three more children at St.-Méleor-des-Ondes, east of St.-Malo.  Joseph, son of Alexandre Bourg and Ursule Hébert, and wife Marguerite Aucoin settled at St.-Énogat, west of St.-Malo, where Marguerite gave him at least 10 children, most of whom survived childhood:  Joseph, fils was born in May 1760, Jean-Christophe on the last day of December 1761, Françoise-Charlotte in January 1764 but died the following April, Hélène-Germaine was born in March 1765, Marguerite-Josèphe in August 1767, Anne-Françoise in May 1769, Marie-Françoise in September 1771 but died at age 8 in February 1780, Isabelle-Laurence was born in August 1773, Constance in May 1775 but died 12 days after her birth, and Charles-Simon was born in July 1777.  Joseph's younger sister Marguerite also settled at St.-Énogat, where she married Joseph, son of fellow Acadians Pierre Doiron and Anne Forest, in February 1764.  Marguerite's husband, a sailor, evidently had signed up for corsair service againt the British during the Seven Years' War and fell into enemy hands.  He arrived at St.-Malo from a prison in England on 10 October 1763, four months before their marriage.  Marguerite gave him at least two children at St.-Énogat, one of whom, son Jean-Charles Doiron, died as an infant.  Joseph and Marguerite were among the Acadians in the St.-Malo area who chose to return to North America; Joseph died on Miquelon, a French-controlled island off the southern coast of Newfoundland, in 1772.  One wonders what became of Marguerite and her daughter Rose-Germaine Doiron.  Marguerite's younger sister Anne married Barthélemy, son of fellow Acadians Pierre Henry and Anne Aucoin, at St.-Énogat in February 1770; Barthélemy also had crossed on one of the Five Ships.  Anne gave him at least six children at St.-Énogat, Pleurtuit, Pleudihen, and St.-Suliac, all suburbs of St.-Malo.  Alexandre Bourg of Cobeguit, wife Marguerite-Josèphe Hébert, and daughters Marie-Rose and Marguerite settled at St.-Suliac.  Athanase Bourg, son of François, settled first at St.-Énogat then at St.-Suliac, where, at age 27, he married Luce, daughter of fellow Acadians Joseph Breau and Ursule Bourg, in February 1768.  Three of their sons were born at St.-Suliac:  Thomas-François-Joseph in December 1769 but died at age 15 months in March 1771, Joseph-Marin was born in February 1772, and François-Simon in c1773.  Athanase's older sister Marguerite-Josèphe and her husband Alexandre Robichaud, now childless, settled at St.-Énogat, where, between March 1760 and April 1773, seven more children were born to them, but only three survived childhood.  Athanase and Marguerite-Josèphe's younger brother Joseph also settled at St.-Énogat, where he married Anne, daughter of fellow Acadians Joseph Melanson and Anne Bourg, in January 1767.  Ten children were born to them at St.-Énogat, but only two of them survived childhood:  Marguerite-Théodose was born in November 1768; Anne-Marie in April 1770 but died at age 2 in May 1772; Isabelle-Charlotte was born in May 1771 but died the following December; Jeanne-Perrine was born in August 1772; Josèphe-Marguerite in September 1773; Anne in January 1775, Joseph in June 1776 but died the following September; Rose-Perrine was born in June 1777 but died in July; Joseph-Pierre was born in June 1778 but died in October; and Jean was born in June 1779 but died only six days after his birth.  Théodore and Marie-Josèphe Bourg, who had crossed with Athanase et al., settled at Pleslin, south of St.-Malo, where Marie-Josèphe died at age 13 in December 1762.  A year before his sisters death, Théodore moved to St.-Coulomb, northeast of St.-Malo, where he married Anne, daughter of fellow Acadians Joseph Granger and his second wife Marguerite Gautrot of Minas and widow of Pierre Bonnière.  Anne gave Théodore four children at St.-Coulomb, most of whom survived childhood:  Anne-Théodose was born in April 1765, Madeleine-Julienne in March 1767, Élisabeth-Hélène in April 1769 but died at age 2 in May 1771, and Théodore-Prosper-Étienne was born in December 1770.  Marguerite Bourg, oldest daughter of Louis of Île St.-Jean and widow of Jean-Baptiste Guillot, remarried to Jean, son of Jacques Metra and Jeanne Veuvre of Bernin, Lorraine, at Pleudihen in February 1765; she was one of the few Bourgs who married a non-Acadian in France.  She gave him a daughter at Pleudihen.  Marguerite's younger brother Charles and wife Madeleine Blanchard settled at Pleudihen, where seven children were born to them, but most did not survive childhood:  Cécile-Jean was in April 1760, Marie in November 1761 but died at age 1 1/2 in April 1763, Lucien was born in October 1763, Jean-Louis in January 1766 but died the following December, Marie-Madeleine was born in March 1767 but died at age 2 in May 1769, Anne-Françoise was born in April 1771 but died at age 2 in May 1773, and Jean-Charles was born in July 1773.  Marguerite and Charles's youngest sister Anne-Josèphe married Igance, son of fellow Acadians Jean Hamon and Marie Blanchard, at Pleudihen in May 1770.  She gave him a daughter there.  Meanwhile, their brother Louis, fils's widow Anne Pitre remarried to fellow Acadian Joseph, son of François Gautrot and Louise Aucoin and widower of Marie-Josèphe Hébert, at St.-Suliac in November 1764.  She gave him four more children there.  Charles Bourg, son of François of Cobeguit, married Marguerite, daughter of Pierre LeBlanc and Françoise Thériot of Rivière-aux-Canards, at Pleurtuit in February 1767.  They settled at St.-Énogat and were that rare Acadian couple who had no children.  Charles's younger brother Jean settled at St.-Servan, just south of St.-Malo, embarked probably from St.-Malo on the corsair La Biche in March 1760, was captured by the British, held as a prisoner in England, and repatriated to St.-Malo in May 1763 with other Acadians being held in English ports.  Jean married Marie, daughter of fellow Acadians Ambroise Dupuis and Anne Aucoin, at Plouër, southeast of Pleurtuit, in February 1768.  They settled at St.-Énogat, where Marie gave him four children, only half of whom survived childhood:  Marguerite-Marie was born in January 1769; Jean-Mathurin at Longrolay, south of St.-Malo, in February 1770 but died 2 days after his birth; Françoise-Geneviève was born at St.-Énogat in March 1771 but died at age 1 in May 1772; and Isabelle-Germaine was born in October 1772.  After the family returned from Poitou and Nantes in the late 1770s, Jean and Marie had four more children, including a set of twins, at St.-Énogat:  Françoise-Marie was born in August 1778, Yves-Jean was her twin, Antoine-Yves was born in April 1780, and Jean-Baptiste-Simon-Louis in c1785.  Charles and Jean's younger sister Françoise married François-Xavier, son of fellow Acadians Jean Henry and Madeleine Thériot, at St.-Énogat in February 1767.  François-Xavier also had crossed on one of the Five Ships.  Françoise gave him at least seven children there, all but one of whom survived childhood.  Jean Bourg, fils and wife Marie Aucoin settled at Le Coquenais near Pleudihen.  She gave him three children there:  Joseph-Firmin was born in April 1760, Rose-Perrine at Ville aux Genilles in July 1761, and Anne-Charlotte at La Coquenais in January 1764 but died the following October.  Marie died at La Coquenais in January 1764, two weeks after Anne-Charlotte's birth, and Jean, fils remarried to Anne-Josèphe, daughter of fellow Acadians Jean Daigle and Marie Breau of Grand-Pré, at Pleudihen in May 1767.  Anne-Josèphe gave him 13 more children there, most of whom survived childhood:  Marie-Josèphe was born at La Coquenais in March 1768, François-Marie in June 1769, Marguerite-Perrine at La Gravelle near Pleudihen in September 1770, Madeleine-Jeanne in April 1772 but died six days after her birth, Madeleine-Perrine was born in June 1773, Hélène in c1774 but died at age 3 in October 1777, Anne-Jeanne was born in February 1775, Charles-Alain in July 1776 but died at age 1 in October 1777, Jeanne-Anne was born in January 1778, Jean-Marie in May 1779, Anne-Josèphe in February 1781 but died the following November, Joseph-Marie was born in September 1782, and Charlotte-Françoise in May 1785.  Jean, fils's brother François and wife Anne Aucoin also settled near Pleudihen, where they had eight children, most of whom died in childhood:  Paul was born in October 1760 but died the first of November; Marie-Jacquemine was born at La Ville aux Genilles, near Pleudihen, in April 1762; Hélène at La Coquenais in September 1764; Anne-Grégoire in May 1767; Marguerite-Charlotte in September 1769 but died at age 15 in March 1785;  Françoise-Jeanne was born in May 1772 but died at age 7 in September 1779; and Madeleine-Marie was born in November 1774 but died at age 4 in September 1779.  Jean, fils and François's sister Marie married Paul, son of fellow Acadians Pierre Henry and Anne Aucoin, at Pleudihen in February 1760; Paul also had crossed on one of the Five Ships.  They settled at Le Coquenais, where, between February 1764 and January 1783, Marie gave him six children, almost all of whom survived childhood.  Jean, fils, François, and Marie's youngest brother Charles married Anne, daughter of fellow Acadians Antoine Thibodeau and Susanne Comeau, at Pleudihen in January 1768.  Three children were born to them at Village de la Villeger, near Pleudihen:  Marie-Françoise in April 1769 but died at nearby Mordreux, age 4 1/2, in September 1773; Pierre-Jean was born in August 1770; and Anne-Modeste in November 1771.  Joseph Bourg, son of Abraham, now a young widower, settled at Plouër, south of St.-Malo, but he did not remain there.  He remarried to Marie-Madeleine, daughter of fellow Acadians Joseph Granger and Angélique Richard of Minas and widow of Alain Bugeaud, all of Grand-Pré, at Pleurtuit in June 1760 and settled at St.-Coulomb, northeast of St.-Malo, and at St.-Servan, at the southern edge of the port, where Marie-Madeleine gave him six children, including a set of twins.  All but one of their children survived childhood:  Joseph was born at St.-Coulomb in April 1761 but died at age 1 1/2 in September 1762, Pierre was his twin, Marie-Josèphe was born in November 1762, Fabien-Joseph in April 1765, Jean-Baptiste was born at St.-Servan in December 1767, and Élisabeth-Blanche in November 1770.  Jean-Pierre Bourg, son of Pierre, settled with his widowed mother Marie-Josèphe Gautrot and older sister Françoise-Josèphe at Pleslin, south of St.-Malo, but he did not seek a wife there.  In 1768, he went to Paris to study for the priesthood under Abbé Jean-Louis La Loutre and pursued his studies until the death of the notorious abbé in 1772.  He returned to St.-Malo, where he worked as a foreman, and was still unmarried in 1785, the year he turned 40.  His sister Françoise-Josèphe also was still unmarried in 1785, when she would have been age 48.  Unlike Jean-Pierre, she never married.  Victor Bourg, who had come to St.-Malo with Marie-Josèphe Gautrot and her family, settled at St.-Servan, where he was still living in 1764, after which he disappears from history.  In May 1760, François-Xavier Bourg embarked on the corsair Jason probably from St.-Malo, was captured by the British, held in an English prison, and, along with other Acadians confined to English ports, was repatriated to St.-Malo in May 1763.  After his release, François-Xavier settled at Pleurtuit, where he married Élisabeth, daughter of fellow Acadians Pierre LeBlanc and Anne Thériot of Minas, in September 1763.  She gave him seven children, most of whom survived childhood:  Marie-Élisabeth was born at Crehen, near Pleurtuit, in November 1764 but died at age 2 1/2 in May 1767; Pierre-Marguerite was born in July 1766 but died the following January; François-Xavier, fils, also called Augustin-Xavier, was born in January 1768; Félix-Xavier in February 1770; Jean-Joseph-Marie in January 1772 but died at age 1 in April 1773; Marie-Élisabeth was born in October 1775; and Élisabeth-Félicité in July 1780.  Wife Élisabeth died by July 1781, when François-Xavier remarried to Marguerite-Pélagie, daughter of fellow Acadians Pierre Henry and Marie-Madeleine Pitre, at Pleurtuit.  She gave him another son:  Pierre-Jean-François was born at Pleurtuit in November 1783.  Marin Bourg of Cobeguit followed his parents to St.-Suliac and remained there with his younger siblings after their parents died.  In January 1763, Marin married Marie-Osite, daughter of fellow Acadians Olivier Daigle and Angélique Doiron, at Plouër,southwest of St.-Suliac.  Marie-Osite gave him at least nine children there, all of whom survived childhood:  Marie-Luce was born in January 1764, Joseph-Pierre in June 1765, Marguerite-Josèphe in June 1767, Marin-Joseph in July 1769, Rose-Madeleine in March 1771, Pierre-Jean-Baptiste in February 1773, Marie-Françoise-Madeleine-Josèphe in c1775, Françoise-Georges in c1778, and Guillaume-Jean in c1781.  Marin's younger sister Luce-Perpétué married Jean-Baptiste, son of fellow Acadians Pierre Hébert and Marguerite Bourg, at St.-Suliac in April 1766.  She gave him at least four children at St.-Suliac, all of whom survived childhood.  Their younger sister Gertrude married Marin, son of fellow Acadians Honoré Gautrot and and his first wife Marguerite Robichaud of Cobeguit, at St.-Suliac in May 1768.  She gave him at least three children there, two of whom survived childhood.  Sister Marie did not marry until August 1779, when she was age 31, and she married at Nantes, not one of the suburbs of St.-Malo.  One wonders what happened to Marin et al.'s younger brothers Joseph and Jean-Baptiste.  Pierre Bourg followed his younger sister Françoise and her husband Joseph Naquin to St.-Suliac, where she soon became a widow.  She remarried to René, fils, son of fellow Acadians René Guillot and Marguerite Doiron and widower of Marie-Rose Daigle, at St.-Suliac in August 1760.  She gave him at least eight more children.  At the age of 31, brother Pierre married Anne-Marie, daughter of Jacques Naquin and Jeanne Melanson of Cobeguit, at St.-Suliac in January 1761; Anne-Marie was Pierre's sister Françoise's first husband's sister.  She gave Pierre six children at St.-Suliac, most of whom did not survive childhood:  Marie-Suline was born in September 1763 but died of smallpox at age 10 in May 1773, Jeanne-Madeleine-Françoise was born in June 1765, Pierre-Olivier in April 1767, Marguerite-Victoire in December 1768, Anne-Perrine in January 1771 but died 10 days after her birth, and Ambroise-David was born in February 1772.  By 1774, they had moved to La Rochelle.  Ursule, daughter of Joseph Bourg and Françoise Dugas, married François, fils, son of François Moyse and Marie Brun of Annapolis Royal and widower of Marie-Madeleine Hébert, at St.-Suliac in November 1761.  She gave him seven more children, most of whom died in childhood.

Island Bourgs ended up in other French ports, including Cherbourg, Le Havre, Boulogne-sur-Mer, and La Rochelle.  Joseph Bourg, son of Jean-Baptiste, died at Cherbourg, age 47, in December 1758, probably from the rigors of the crossing.  Léonard Bourg, age 16, also died at Cherbourg that month, as did Tarsille Bourg, age 15.  One wonders how Joseph, Léonard, and Tarsille were kin.  Ambroise, son of Charles Bourg and Cécile Melanson, now a day laborer, and wife Anne-Josèphe, daughter of Claude Pitre and Isabelle Guérin, also ended up at Cherbourg.  Wife Anne-Josèphe, age 22, died there in December 1759, probably from the rigors of childbirth; their daughter Louise had been born less than a week before her mother's death.  Ambroise remarried to Marie-Modeste, daughter of fellow Acadians Jacques Moulaison and Cécile Melanson of Pobomcoup, at Très-Ste.-Trinité, Cherbourg, in July 1763; Marie-Modeste was age 18, and Ambroise was in his late 20s or early 30s.  Soon after their marriage, they moved to Le Havre on the other side of Normandy.  There, Marie-Modeste gave Ambroise three more daughters:  Marie-Victoire was born in May 1764, Amy-Modeste in April 1766, and Marie-Marguerite-Constance in December 1767.  The family then moved back to Cherbourg, where three more daughters were born:  Madeleine-Adélaïde in February 1770, Thérèse-Julie in November 1771, and Élisabeth-Céleste in March 1774.  Sadly, Marie-Marguerite-Constance died at Le Havre, age 5, in March 1773.  By February 1776, the family had moved to Pleurtuit, a suburb of St.-Malo.  There, five more children, including sons, were born to them:  Maximilien-Ambroise in February 1776 but died two weeks after his birth, Joseph-Faustin was born in March 1777, Pélagie in June 1779, Modeste in August 1781, and Ambroise, fils in July 1783.  Catherine, daughter of Charles Bourg and Marguerite Landry, married Pierre, fils, son of fellow Acadians Pierre Bertrand and Marie-Josèphe Moulaison of Pobomcoup, at Très-Ste.-Trinité, Cherbourg, in February 1764.  They were living at La Havre in 1766 but were back at Cherbourg in 1769.  Charles-Joseph, called Joseph, 22-year-old son of Charles Bourg and Marguerite Landry, married Rosalie or Rose, 19-year-old daughter of fellow Acadians Paul dit Grand Paul Doiron and Marguerite Michel of Chignecto, at Notre-Dame Parish, Le Havre, in January 1764.  Daughter Adélaide-Rose was baptized in Notre-Dame Parish in October 1765.  Anne-Marie Bourg, daughter of Martin of Port-Royal and wife of Alexis Aucoin, died in St.-Nicolas Parish, Boulogne-sur-Mer, in January 1766, age 75.  Meanwhile, in November 1759, the British deported a contingent of Acadians from the Cap-Sable area to Cherbourg, where they landed in mid-January 1760.  Abraham Bourg "de quartre Sables" died at Cherbourg in March 1760, age 24. 

In the spring of 1763, after prolonged negotiations between the French and British governments, the Acadians in England who had gone there from Virginia were repatriated to France.  Michel Bourg, second wife Brigitte Martin dit Barnabé, six of his children by his first wife--Mathurin, age 19; Marie-Madeleine, called Madeleine, age 17; Victoire, age 16; Charles, age 13; Marie, age 12; and Pierre, age 11--and three of her children by her first husband, Séraphin Breau, crossed the Channel aboard La Dorothée, which reached St.-Malo in late May 1763.  They settled in the suburb of St.-Suliac.  Michel's daughter Marie married Joseph, son of fellow Acadians Charles Richard and Catherine-Josèphe Gautrot, at nearby St.-Servan in January 1771.  Joseph had crossed from England to St.-Malo aboard the ship L'Ambition in May 1763.  Marie gave him at least two sons at St.-Servan.  Michel's daughter Madeleine married Joseph fils, son of fellow Acadians Joseph Gravois and Marie Cyr of Chignecto, at St.-Suliac in August 1763.  Joseph, fils, Brigitte Martin's nephew by marriage, had crossed from England to St.-Malo on La Dorothée with Brigitte, Michel, and Michel's children.  Joseph, fils and Madeleine settled at St.-Servan, where she gave him at least two daughters. 

In late fall of 1765, many of the Acadians repatriated from England moved on to Belle-Île-en-Mer off the southern coast of Brittany.  Madeleine-Josèphe Bourg and husband Alexis Doiron of L'Assomption, Pigiguit, and Pointe-Prime, Île St.-Jean, were counted at Bortereau, Locmaria, on the island, in 1765 with five of his children, two of them hers.  They had come to Belle-Île from St.-Énogat near St.-Malo, where they had lived since 1760.  They gave up their concession on the island in the 1770s and returned to St.-Malo.  In April 1783, Alexis, son of Joseph Bourg and Marie-Josèphe Guillerme, was born at Bangor on the island.  Marie, daughter of Ambroise Bourg, and her husband Joseph LeBlanc, and Marie's younger sister Anne and her husband Joseph Pitre, were counted on Belle-Île-en-Mer in 1767.  

Michel Bourg and his family were not among the Acadians from England who went to the lovely island.  In late February 1767, Joseph Gravois, fils took Madeleine and their two daughters back to England via the Channel islands and from there moved on to North America.  Michel, Brigitte, and other members of the family followed.  In 1774, Michel died at present-day Carleton on the Baie des Chaleurs, age 57.  His daughter Victoire married Basile, son of fellow Acadians Joseph LeBlanc and Madeleine Girouard, at Carleton in November 1776.  Brigitte Martin moved on to Canada, where she died at St.-Jacques de l'Achigan, below Montréal, in April 1779, age 64.  Michel's youngest daughter Luce married Michel, son of fellow Acadians Vincent Arseneau and Marguerite Poirier, at Carleton in November 1784.  Back in France, in 1767, Michel's oldest son Joseph-Mathurin, called Mathurin, and Brigitte's son Jean-Baptiste Breau, "went to Paris to study" for the priesthood, perhaps under Abbé Jean-Louis Le Loutre, and continued their studies until 1772, when the abbé died.  They then followed their family to Canada.  Mathurin was ordained at Montréal in September 1772, and Jean-Baptiste was ordained there in November.  Mathurin served as a missionary at Carleton and nearby Bonaventure, near his kinsmen, from 1773 to 1795.  He died at St.-Laurent, near Montréal, in August 1797, in his early 50s.  Jean-Baptiste served on the upper St. Lawrence at St.-Jacques de l'Achigan and L'Assomption.  Meanwhile, in March of 1767, Michel Bourg's son Charles, only age 17, "went to Jersey," one of the Channel islands, "with the intention of returning to Acadie."  One wonders what happened to him and his youngest brother Pierre after that date. 

In the early 1770s, Bourgs at St.-Malo and other port cities chose to become part of  a settlement scheme in the Poitou.  French authorities were tired of providing for the Acadians languishing in the port cities.  A French nobleman offered to settle them on land he owned near the city of Châtellerault.  Members of the family who went there included Alain Bourg, wife Anne-Marie Comeau, and their three children from St.-Suliac; Alexandre Bourg, wife Marguerite-Josèphe Hébert, and their two daughters from St.-Suliac; Athanase Bourg, wife Luce Breau, and their two sons from St.-Suliac; Charles Bourg, a laborer, wife Madeleine Blanchard, and their three children from Pleudihen; another Charles Bourg, this one a sailor, wife Anne Thibodeau, and their two children from Pleudihen; Jean Bourg, wife Marie Dupuis, and their two daughters from St.-Énogat; Joseph Bourg, second wife Marie-Madeleine Granger, and their five children from St.-Coulomb and St.-Servan; Pierre Bourg, wife Anne-Marie Naquin, and their two children; and Théodore Dugas, wife Anne Granger, and their three children.  Jean-Baptiste Bourg, a fisherman and carpenter, wife Jeanne Chaillou, and their son Jean, came to France from Île St.-Pierre or Miquelon, French-controlled islands off the southern coast of Newfoundland, in the late 1760s.  They, too, coming probably from La Rochelle, took part in the Poitou venture.  Church records show no new Bourg families created in Poitou, but some continued to grow there, while others, sadly, continued to shrink during their two years in the region.  Anne-Marie Comeau gave husband Alain Bourg another son in Poitou:  Jean-Pierre was baptized at Archigny, southeast of Châtellerault, in October 1774.  Alexandre Bourg, called a Canadian by the recording priest, died at Senillé, outside of Châtellerault, in October 1774, age 55.  Luce Breau gave husband Athanase Bourg another son:  Charles was baptized at Archigny in May 1775.  Madeleine Blanchard gave husband Charles Bourg another son:  Joseph-Florent was baptized in Notre-Dame Parish, Châtellerault, in January 1776 but died in early February.  Anne-Modeste, daughter of Charles Aucoin and Anne Thibodeau, died at Châtellerault in November 1774, age 3.  Meanwhile, Anne gave Charles another son:  Alexis was baptized in St. Jacques Parish, Châtellerault, in July 1774.  Marie Dupuis gave husband Jean Bourg another daughter:  Anne-Madeleine was born in Poitou in c1774 but died in St.-Jean-Baptiste Parish, Châtellerault, age 15 months, in September 1775.  Jean, son of Jean-Baptiste Bourg and Jeanne Chaillou of Île St.-Pierre, died at Monthoiron, southeast of Châtellerault, age 10, in July 1774.  But then Jeanne gave husband Jean-Baptiste another son:  Charles was baptized at Monthoiron in June 1775. 

From October 1775 through March 1776, dozens of Poitou Acadians, including the Bourgs, retreated in four convoys to the port city of Nantes, where they subsisted as best they could on government handouts and what work they could find there.  However, Jean Bourg and Marie Dupuis did not remain at Nantes.  By August 1778, they had returned to St.-Énogat, near St.-Malo.  The other Poitou Bourgs remained in the south Breton port.  Alain Bourg, who worked as a day laborer there, and wife Anne-Marie Comeau had five more children at Nantes:  Ambroise was baptized in St.-Similien Parish in July 1776 but likely died young, Jacques-Alain was born in June 1778 but died the following January, Joseph-André was baptized at St.-Nicolas Parish in November 1779, Jean-Marie in September 1781 but died at age 1 in January 1783, and Louis-Alexis was baptized in September 1783.  Sadly, daughter Marguerite-Tarsille died in St.-Nicolas Parish, age 12, in August 1782.  Jean-Baptiste Bourg died at Hôtel-Dieu, Nantes, in August 1777, age 44.  His widow, Jeanne Chaillou, did not remarry.  In her late 20s, Marguerite, daughter of Alexandre Bourg and Marguerite-Josèphe Hébert of Cobeguit, married Firmin, son of fellow Acadians Olivier Aucoin and Marguerite Vincent of Rivière-aux-Canards, in St.-Jacques Parish, Nantes, in May 1778.  Firmin's family had been exiled to Virginia in 1755 and deported to England in 1756; he was born there soon after their arrival and followed them to France in 1763.  Marguerite gave him at least one child at Nantes:  Firmin-Louis was born in St.-Jacques Parish in February 1779.  Firmin died probably at Nantes before August 1785.  Marguerite's older sister Marie-Rose died in St.-Jacques Parish in February 1782, age 33; she never married.  Athanase Bourg, a seaman and navigator, and wife Luce Breau had two more children at Nantes:  Mathieu-Athanase was baptized in St.-Jacques Parish in March 1779; and Marie-Rose died at St.-Martin de Chantenay, in June 1785, age 2 months.  Son François-Simon died in St.-Jacques Parish in June 1776; he was only 3 years old.  Charles Bourg the seaman and wife Anne Thibodeau had two more sons at St.-Martin de Chantenay, near Nantes:  Jacques-Charles was baptized in April 1776 but died at age 1 1/2 in December 1777, and François was born in 1777 but died at age 2 1/2 in August 1780.  Charles died by December 1781, when Anne remarried to Frenchman Yves-Cyprien, son of Jean Rouxeau and Charlotte Pingre of Ste.-Croix Parish, Nantes, in Ste.-Croix Parish.  Charles Bourg the laborer and wife Madeleine Blanchard had another son at St.-Martin de Chantenay:  Joseph-Florent, the second of that name, was baptized in October 1777.  Cécile Michel, widow of Louis Bourg and Charles's mother, died at St.-Martin de Chantenay in August 1781; she was 86 years old.  By 1785, Madeleine Blanchard was a widow with two young sons.  Her and Charles's oldest surviving son Lucien, a carpenter, married Marie-Élisabeth, daughter of fellow Acadians Pierre Trahan and Marguerite Duhon of Rivière-aux-Canards, at Nantes in the early 1780s.  Marie-Élisabeth had been born in Liverpool, England, in March 1759 and repatriated to Morlaix, France, with her family four years later.  Marie, daughter of Jean Bourg and Françoise Benoit of Cobeguit, had survived the crossing on Supply, followed her parents to St.-Suliac, watched them die from the rigors of the crossing, and witnessed her three older siblings marry in the St.-Malo suburbs.  Brother Marin did not go to Poitou but remained at Plouër, but older sisters Luce-Perpétué and Gertrude and their husbands did.  Marie likely followed them to Poitou and then to Nantes, where she married Étienne, son of fellow Acadians Jean Hébert and Marguerite Mouton and widower of Marie Lavergne, in St.-Nicolas Parish in August 1779.  She was 31 years old.  She did not live long enough to give Étienne more children.  She died in St.-Nicolas Parish in November 1780, and Étienne remarried within a year. Jean Bourg, a laborer, and wife Marie Dupuis had another child at Nantes before returning to St.-Énogat:  Marie was baptized in St.-Similien Parish in October 1776.  Joseph Bourg and wife Marie-Madeleine Granger had no more children in Nantes.  Their old son Pierre, the twin, now an assistant wood merchant, married Marguerite-Blanche, daughter of fellow Acadians Pierre Dugas and Marguerite Daigle of Cobeguit, at St. Martin de Chantenay in November 1784.  Pierre Bourg and wife Anne-Marie Naquin had two more children at Nantes:  Marie-Madeleine was baptized in St.-Similien Parish in April 1779 but died in St.-Nicolas Parish, age 3 1/2, in June 1782; and Jean-Marie was baptized in St.-Nicolas Parish in September 1781 but died at age 2 1/2 in January 1784.  But the couple buried more children there:  son Ambroise-David died in St.-Nicolas Parish, age 4, in May 1776; and Marguerite-Victoire died at age 16 in October 1784.  After Marguerite's death, of the 10 children Pierre and Anne-Marie had borne in France, only three were still living. 

When the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France the chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana, dozens of Bourgs--at least 95 of them, probably the majority of them still there--agreed to take it.  Other members of the family chose to remain.  During the French Revolution, Ursule Bourg, widow of François Moyse, was counted at Nantes, age 54, in the early 1790s.  Three Acadian Bourgs were counted at Pleurtuit, near St.-Malo, in 1793:  Françoise, age 52, widow of ____ Henry (probably François-Xavier), was a spinner; Joseph, age 63, perhaps a son of Alexandre, was a fisherman; Charles, son of Joseph, probably Charles-Simon, born in France in July 1777, was a boatman; and Marguerite, age 59, widow of ____ Doiron (probably Joseph), also was a spinner.  At St.-Malo in 1793, Revolutionary officials counted four more Acadian Bourgs:  Anne, a stocking maker, likely daughter of Joseph Bourg and Anne Melanson, born at St.-Énogat in January 1775; Isabelle, a day laborer, born at St.-Énogat in August 1773; Jeanne, a spinner, likely Jeanne-Perrine, Anne's older sister, born at St.-Énogat in August 1772; and Marie, a servant, likely Marie-Jacquemine, daughter of François Bourg and Anne Aucoin and widow of Olivier-Raphael Daigle, born at Pleudihen in April 1762, who married her husband at Pleudihen in January 1786. 

After the war with Britain finally ended in February 1763, Acadians being held in the seaboard colonies were allowed, more or less, to go where they pleased, but not until British officials counted them and discerned their intentions.  In June of that year, Pennsylvania officials compiled a list of Acadians still living in the province.  Among them were three brothers, sons of Alexandre Bourg dit Bellehumeur of Minas:  Paul, his wife Judith Hébert, and five children; Billien, actually Bénoni, Bourg, his wife Françoise LeBlanc, and four children; and Joseph, his wife Marie Landry, and six children.  In July, colonial officials in Maryland counted Marie-Josèphe, daughter of Alexandre Bourg dit Bellehumeur of Minas, her second husband Joseph Landry, and four children, at Oxford, on the colony's Eastern Shore.  At Halifax that August, colonial officials counted several Bourg families:  Cherle, or Charles, Bourque with his wife and 11 children; Joseph Bourque with his wife and five children; another Joseph Bourque with a wife and child; and Nastazie, or Anastasie, Bourque, widow of Jean-Baptiste Godin dit Lincour, with four children.  In South Carolina in August, officials counted several Bourgs and their families still living in the colony.  They included  Eustache Comeau, wife Cécile Bourg, daughter Madeleine, age 3, and two Dugon orphans; Joseph Bourg, age 14, and Jean Bourg, age 9, probably orphans; François Bourg, his wife, and a child; another François Bourg, his wife, and two children; and Jean Bourg, his wife, his father, and six children. Also that year, officials in Massachusetts counted Bourgs still lingering in the colony:  Marguerite Bourg, husband Jacques Vigneau dit Jacob Maurice, and five of their married sons and their families were counted at Boston.  Marie-Josèphe Bourg, wife of Jean-Baptiste Pellerin, and Anne Bourg, wife of Joseph Doucet, also lived in the colony.  Joseph Bourg, fils and wife Marguerite Amireau of Pobomcoup lived at Boston.  In Connectict that year, officials counted a number of Bourgs still living in various communities of the colony:  Joseph Bourg, probably the widower, who would have been age 66 that year, lived with a family of five.  Pierre Bourg lived alone.  Pierre's older brother Charles, widower of Cécile Doucet, also lived alone but remarried to Anne, daughter of Joseph Richard and Anne Bastarache, in Connecticut in February 1764.  Jean and Joseph Bourg were counted with their family of seven persons.  Marie Bourg, widow of Charles Landry, headed a family of nine.  Also counted in Connecticut that year was Marie Bourg, widow of Bernard LeBlanc

Some Bourgs joined fellow Acadians on îles St.-Pierre and Miquelon, French-controlled islands off the southern coast of Newfoundland.  Jean-Baptiste Bourg, a fisherman and carpenter, son of Abraham, married Jeanne, daughter of Claude Chaillou and Marthe Bastrate and widow of Nicolas Cuomel, on Île St.-Pierre in October 1763.  Their son Jean, fils, was born probably on the island in c1764.  They likely were among the Acadians sent to France in the late 1760s to relieve overcrowding on the islands.  From Le Rochelle, they joined other Acadians in Poitou by the summer of 1774--son Charles was baptized at Monthoiron, southeast of Châtellerault, in June 1775--and retreated to Nantes the following March.  Jean-Baptiste died there in August 1777.  Françoise, daughter of Michel Bourg, and husband Charles Gautrot revalidated their marriage on Île Miquelon in May 1766.  Anne, daughter of Abraham Bourg dit Bellehumeur and wife of Acadian resistance leader Joseph LeBlanc dit Le Maigre, died on Île Miquelon in July 1766, age 67.  Le Maigre was sent to France, probably in 1768 and went to Belle-Île-en-Mer, off the southern coast of Brittany, where Minas Acadians from Virginia and England had established an agricultural settlement in 1765.  The old resistance fighter died at Kervaux, on the island, in October 1772, age 75.  Marguerite Bourg, husband Jacques dit Jacob Maurice Vigneau the merchant, and their large family moved from Boston to Île Miquelon in the early 1760s and were counted there in 1767.  Marguerite died on the island in November 1770; she was 80 years old.  Husband Jacques dit Jacob, one of the heroes of Le Grand Dérangement, died there in May 1772, age 70.  In 1763 or 1765, Michel dit Michaud Bourg le jeune, son of Michel of Chignecto, and wife Marguerite-Josèphe Bourgeois, went to Île Miquelon from captivity at Fort Edward, Pigiguit, and were counted on the island in 1767.  Daughters Françoise, wife of Charles Gautrot, and Marie, wife of Joseph Gaudet dit Chaculo, also were counted on the island that year.  Michaud's older sister Marie and husband Jacques dit Petit-Jacques Bourgeois came to the island from Massachusetts in the early 1760s and were counted there in 1767 and 1776.  Michaud and Marie's younger brother Jean dit Jeannotte and wife Marie-Madeleine Arseneau were counted on the island in 1767 but moved on to Cocagne, on the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore, in 1770.  Their youngest sister, a second Marie, wife of Abraham Vigneau, was counted on Miquelon in 1767 and 1776.  Michaud, Marie, and Jeannotte's niece Anastasie, daughter of brother Pierre dit Canique Bourg and his second wife Marguerite Vigneau, married Joseph, fils, son of Joseph Dugas and Margerite LeBlanc, on Miquelon in April 1772.  Anne Boudrot, widow of Michel Bourg, son of Abraham, was counted on the island in 1767 with sons Michel, fils, Joseph, and Pierre, and daughters Anne and Madeleine.  Pierre-Paul, called Paul, Bourg, son of Pierre, married Madeleine, daughter of Paul Cyr and Marie-Josèphe Richard, on Miquelon in January 1764.  They had at least six children on the island:  Jean born in 1764, Joseph in 1766, Anne in 1770, Mélem in 1772, Pierre in 1774, and Louise in 1777.  Paul's brother Jean and wife Jeanne Chiasson were counted on the island in 1764 and 1766.  Acadians still living on St.-Pierre and Miquelon in the late 1770s were deported to France, most to La Rochelle, in 1778 after the British seized the islands during the American Revolution.  Marie Bourg, wife of Abraham Vigneau, reached La Rochelle in 1778 and died there in c1780.  Paul Bourg, described as a "charpentier de Miquelon," died in St.-Jean Parish, La Rochelle, age 36, in March 1779.  His daughter Louise died in St.-Jean Parish, age unrecorded, in April.  Paul's widow, Madeleine Cyr, returned to North America in the early 1780s and settled not on Île Miquelon but on the îles-de-la-Madeleine in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.  Three of her sons--Joseph, Mélem, and Pierre Bourg--married into the Haché, Boudrot, and Bourgeois families on the islands and created families of their own.  Marie Bourg, husband Petit-Jacques Bourgeois, and their children also went to France in 1778.  Petit-Jacques died at La Rochelle within a year of their arrival.  Marie did not remarry, nor did she return to North America.  She died at Port-Louis, Brittany, in July 1801, age 84. 

Most of the Acadians in New England, New York, and Pennsylvania chose to go to Canada.  Though now also a British possession, the northern province was populated largely by fellow French Catholics, many of them Acadian exiles.  So, in a colony nearly as old as Acadia, descendants of Antoine Bourg began the slow, inexorable process of becoming Canadiennes.  Especially after 1766, Bourgs could be found in present-day Québec Province at Batiscan, Bécancour, L'Assomption, Lavaltrie, Nicolet, St.-Grégoire, St.-Jacques de l'Achigan, and Trois-Rivières on the upper St.-Lawrence; at Chambly, St.-Antoine, St.-Charles, St.-Denis, and St.-Ours on the Richelieu; at Montmagny, St.-François-de-la-Rivière-du-Sud, St.-Joachim, and St.-Joseph-de-Beuce on the lower St. Lawrence; at Carleton and Bonaventure on the northern shore of the Baie des Chaleurs (they were especially numerous at Carleton); and on the îles-de-la-Madeleine in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.  Bourgs settled at Fortune Bay in southern Newfoundland.  They also could be found on lower Rivière St.-Jean and at Caraquet and Cocagne in present-day New Brunswick; and in Cumberland County, Nova Scotia.  Typical of most, if not all, Acadian families, the Acadiennes of Canada lost touch with their Cadien cousins hundreds of miles away, and, until the Acadian reunions of the twentieth century, may even have forgotten the others existed. 

Other Bourgs being held in the seaboard colonies chose to emigrate to the French Antilles, where they could live not only among fellow Roman Catholics, but also in territory controlled by France.  French officials were especially eager for Acadians in the British colonies to go to St.-Dominique, today's Haiti, to work on a huge naval base at Môle St.-Nicolas.  Although driven from North America by the Seven Years' War, the French were determined to hang on to what was left of their western empire.  The new naval base on the north shore of the big sugar island would protect the approaches to their remaining possessions in the Caribbean Basin.  The Acadians could provide a source of cheap labor.  To entice them to the tropical island, the French promised the Acadians land of their own.  It must have worked out for members of this family.  When fellow Acadians released from Nova Scotia and Maryland came through Cap-Français in the 1760s on their way to Louisiana, none of the Bourgs in St.-Domingue chose to join them.  François Bourg and Rosalie Cormier, settled at Môle St.-Nicolas, where their son François, fils died at age 3 1/2 in July 1776.  According to fils's burial record, his father also was dead by then.  Marie-Madeleine, daughter of Pierre Bourg and Cécle Cormier of Beaubassin and wife of Charles Gravois, died at Môle St.-Nicolas, age 44, in December 1777.  Another François Bourg, with wife Madeleinette Doucet, settled at Môle St.-Nicolas, where their son Jean-François was born in September 1778.  Perhaps this was the François Bourg who died at Môle St.-Nicolas, age 40, in August 1788.  Marie Bourg, wife of Pierre Hébert, died at Môle St.-Nicolas, age 58, in May 1785.  Bourgs settled in St.-Dominigue communities other than Môle St.-Nicolas.  Cécile, daughter of Madeleine Bourg, born in New England, father unrecorded, was baptized at Le Mirebalais, in the interior of the island, at age 2 in September 1764 but died the following December.  Madeleine Bourg, "an Acadian," died at Le Mirebalais, age 22, in October 1764.  Marguerite Bourg, wife of ____ Boudrot, died at Le Mirebalais in October 1764, age 55.  Paul Bourg, "an Acadian," died at Le Mirebalais, age 14, in October 1764.  Jean Bourg, "an Acadian," died at Le Mirebalais, age 20, in November 1764.  Marie Bourg, widow of Bernard LeBlanc, died at Le Mirebalais, age 75, in November 1764.  (One wonders if so many deaths from October to November 1764 at Le Mirebalais resulted from an epidemic, perhaps of malaria or yellow fever, ailments unknown in Acadia.)  Marie-Louise Bourg, daughter of Marie-Louise Comeau, died at Le Mirebalais, age 14, "on the farm of M. Bourg" near Le Mirebalais in July 1769.  Marguerite Bourg of "Marain, Acadia," died at age 23 at Croix-des-Bouquets, near Port-au-Prince, in October 1765.

Meanwhile, the Bourgs still in Nova Scotia faced a hard dilemma.  The Treaty of Paris of February 1763 stipulated in its Article 14 that persons dispersed by the war had 18 months to return to their respective territories.  However, British authorities refused to allow any of the Acadian prisoners in the region to return to their former lands as proprietors.  If Acadians chose to remain in, or return to, Nova Scotia, they could live only in small family groups in previous unsettled areas or work for low wages on former Acadian lands now owned by New England "planters."  If they stayed, they must also take the hated oath of allegiance to the new British king, George III, without reservation.  They would also have to take the oath if they joined their cousins in Canada.  After all they had suffered on the question of the oath, few self-respecting Acadians would consent to take it if it could be avoided.  Some Halifax exiles, including Bourgs, chose to relocate to Miquelon, a French-controlled island off the southern coast of Newfoundland.  Others considered going to French St.-Domingue, where Acadian exiles in the British colonies already had gone, or to the Illinois country, the west bank of which still belonged to France, or to French Louisiana, which, thanks to British control of Canada, was the only route possible to the Illinois country for Acadian exiles.  Whatever their choice, they refused to remain in L'Acadie.  So they gathered up their money and their few possessions and prepared to leave their homeland.  Of the 600 who left Halifax in late 1764 bound for Cap-Français, St.-Domingue, at least 17 were Bourgs. 

Acadians in Maryland endured life among English colonists who did not care much for the French "papists" who had been thrust upon them.  When word reached the Acadians there that they would be welcome in Spanish Louisiana, they pooled their meager resources to charter ships that would take them to New Orleans.  Marie-Josèphe Bourg, now a widow, and her four LeBlanc children were among the first contingent of exiles to leave Maryland for Louisiana, in June 1766.  They arrived at New Orleans via Cap-Français late that September.

A Bourg wife was one of the last Acadians to emigrate to Spanish Louisiana.  Marie-Madeleine, called Madeleine, daughter of Michel Bourg and his first wife Jeanne Hébert, was born at Grand-Pré in c1746, deported with her family to Virginia and then to England, and was repatriated to France in the spring of 1763.  That August, she married Joseph, fils, son of fellow Acadians Joseph Gravois and Marie Cyr of Chignecto, at St.-Suliac, near St.-Malo.  They may have known one another in England.  They did not remain in France very long.  Joseph took his family, including his in-laws, to England in 1767 and was counted at Windsor in 1770.  The following year, Joseph and Madeleine were at Baie St.-Marie--St. Mary's Bay--Nova Scotia, and were still there in 1774.  From 1775 to 1784, he, Madeleine, and their family resided at Carleton on the north shore of the Baie des Chaleurs, not far from where his brothers had found refuge 20 years earlier.  Madeleine's father, stepmother, and siblings also settled there.  Joseph and his growing family were living on Île St.-Pierre, a French-controlled island off the southern coast of Newfoundland, in the mid-1780s.  It was from there, in 1788, that they sailed to Louisiana on Joseph's own ship, the schooner Brigitte.294

Bourgeois

In 1755, descendants of Jacques dit Jacob Bourgeois and Jeanne Trahan could be found at Annapolis Royal and on Île St.-Jean, but they were especially numerous at Chignecto, which Jacob had founded in the early 1670s.  Le Grand Dérangement of the 1750s scattered this large family to the winds.  

The Acadians at Chignecto were the first to endure a disruption of their lives.  In the early 1750s, Canadian soldiers, assisted by Mi'kmaq warriors led by Abbé Le Loutre, burned Acadian homesteads in the British-controlled area east of Rivière Missaguash, forcing the habitants to move to the French-controlled area west of the river.  Bourgeoiss likely were among the refugees.  After yet another war erupted between Britain and France in 1754, the Chignecto Acadians were caught in the middle of it.  When British and New England forces attacked Fort Beauséjour in June 1755, Bourgeoiss likely were among the 300 Chignecto Acadians who were serving in the fort as militia.  They, too, along with the French troupes de la marine, became prisoners of war when the fort surrendered on June 16.  Lieutenant-Governor Lawrence was so incensed to find so-called French Neutrals fighting with French regulars at Beauséjour he ordered his officers to deport the Chignecto Acadians to the southernmost British colonies on the Atlantic seaboard.  Brothers Pierre, Michel, and Jacques dit Petit Jacques, sons of Charles Bourgeois, fils, ended up in South Carolina.  First cousin Olivier, son of Claude Bourgeois, and Olivier's second wife Marie Cormier ended up in Georgia. 

Not all of the Bourgeoiss sent to the southern colonies remained there until the end of the war.  In the spring of 1756, the governors of Georgia and South Carolina allowed the Acadians in their colonies who were not under arrest to return to their homeland as best they could.  Following the example of merchant Jacques Vigneau dit Maurice of Baie-Verte, 200 of the exiles purchased or built small vessels and headed up the coast.  In July, members of Vigneau's party were detained at Sandwich, Massachusettes, near Boston, and dispersed with other Acadian refugees to various communities.  Petit Jacques Bourgeois and his family may have been among them.  In late August, after weeks of effort, 78 more refugees from South Carolina, led by Michel Bourgeois, came ashore on Long Island, New York, and were detained by colonial officials.  On a list of "names of the heads of the French Neutral families, number of their Children returned from Georgia and distributed through the counties of Westchester and Orange," dated 26 August 1756, can be found Mishel Basua, that is, Michel Bourgeois, his unnamed wife, and four unnamed children, at Eastchester in Westchester County; and Peter Bishaur, probably his older brother Pierre, with no wife and children, at North Castle in Westchester County. 

Bourgeoiss at Annapolis Royal were deported to New England in the fall of 1755.  In 1757, Jeanne, daughter of Germain Bourgeois and his second wife Madeleine Dugas, was counted at Cambridge, Massachusetts, with husband Louis Robichaud dit Prudent and their children.  Four years later, in July 1761, Jeanne, called Jane, age 51, was counted with husband Lewis Robishow, age 55, and seven of their children; they were still at Cambridge.  Marie, daughter of Honoré Bourgeois and Marie-Madeleine Richard of Beaubassin, who had perished on the voyage from Île St.-Jean to France in 1758, married Pierre, son of François LeBlanc and Marguerite Boudrot, in Massachusetts in April 1760.  Jeanne's brother Claude, called Clode Bausway, age 64, wife Marie, called Mary, LeBlanc, age 51, and five of their children--Charles, age 25; Abab, probably Abraham, age 22; Jeremy, age 10; Marguerite, age 19; and Addla, age 17--were counted at Amesbury, Massachusetts, in July 1760; the colonial official who counted them noted that Mary and Jeremy were "weakly."  Claude died at Amesbury by 1763.  Also in July 1760, Claude's older brother Joseph, age 58, called a Bursway, was counted with wife Anne LeBlanc, age 58 (a sister of Claude's wife Marie), and four children--Anne, age 24; Lydia, age perhaps 26; Simon, age 14; and Marguerite, age 15--at Beverly, Massachusetts.  Jeanne, Claude, and Joseph's sister Marguerite, age 61 in July 1760, was counted perhaps with husband Joseph dit Cajetan LeBlanc and their family at Methuen; Cajetan was a brother of Claude and Joseph's wives Marie and Anne.  Anastasie, daughter of Claude Bourgeois le jeune and wife of Pierre Dupuis; her brother Joseph-Abel; and Claude, fils, son of Claude Bourgeois and Anne Blanchard, also had been sent to Massachusetts. 

Chignecto Bourgeoiss who escaped the British roundup took refuge at Malpèque on Île St.-Jean and at Cocagne and Miramichi on the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore and at Restigouche at the head of the Baie des Chaleurs.  In 1758, the exiles on the Gulf shore were joined by members of the family who had escaped from Île St.-Jean.  Joseph, son of Paul Bourgeois and his first wife Marie-Josèphe Brun of Malpèque, married Marie Girouard at Restigouche in November 1759.  Joseph's father Paul died at Miramichi in c1760,  in his mid-50s.  Michel Bourgeois, fils, whose parents and sisters had been exiled to South Carolina and were languishing in New York, married Marie Haché at Restigouche in January 1760.  Élisabeth, daughter of Joseph Bourgeois, was baptized at Restigouche that December.  Following the collapse of Acadian resistance in the region during the early 1760s, at least five of Paul Bourgeois's children--Joseph and Paul, fils and their unmarried siblings Marie, Michel, and Pierre--ended up as prisoners of war in Nova Scotia. 

Meanwhile, Annapolis and Chignecto Bourgeoiss who had escaped the British in 1755 moved on to Canada via the Rivière St.-Jean portage or the lower St. Lawrence.  Marie-Agnès, daughter of Guillaume Bourgeois and wife of Pierre Cottard, who she had married at Annapolis Royal in October 1738, died at Québec City in late September 1755, one of the first Acadian exiles to die in Canada; she was only 36.  Marie-Jeanne, daughter of Charles Bourgeois, fils and wife of Charles Héon, her second husband, who she had married at Beaubassin in May 1748, died at Québec City in January 1758, in her mid-60s, a victim, perhaps, of the smallpox epidemic that struck Acadian refugees in the area that fall and winter.

Living in territory controlled by France, none of the Bourgeoiss on Île St.-Jean were touched by the British roundup of their cousins in Nova Scotia during the fall of 1755.  Their respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  After the British captured the French fortress at Louisbourg in July 1758, they swooped down on Île St.-Jean and rounded up most of the Acadians there, Bourgeoiss among them, and deported them to St.-Malo.  Most of them did not survive the crossing.  Françoise Bourgeois, husband Pierre Hébert, and two of their daughters crossed on the British transport Duke William, the first of that name, which departed the maritimes in September and reached St.-Malo the first of November.  Françoise, Pierre, and daughter Modeste died at sea.  Daughter Marie-Josèphe died in a St.-Malo hospital during the first week of December from the rigors of the crossing.  Honoré Bourgeois, age 56, his second wife Marie-Madeleine Pichard, age 54, a native of St.-Léger, France, and two of their children from his first wife perished aboard the transport Violet, which left Chédabouctou Bay with a dozen other transports in late November and sank in a North Atlantic storm during the second week of December.  No island Bourgeois deported to St.-Malo seems to have made it to the Breton port. 

Island Bourgeoiss sent to other ports survived the crossing and did their best to make a life for themselves in the teeming slums of coastal France.  Marie-Madeleine, called Madeleine, daugher of Claude Bourgeois and Marie LeBlanc and widow of Joseph-Prudent Robichaud, landed at Cherbourg in Normandy, where she remarried to Charles, son fellow of Acadians Denis Boudrot and Agnès Vincent and widower of Cécile Thériot, at Très-Ste.-Trinité in August 1762.  She gave Charles two sons at Cherbourg and St.-Servan, near St.-Malo, where they moved in May 1766.  They also settled at Pleudihen near St.-Malo.  Madeleine remarried--her third marriage--to Étienne, son of fellow Acadians Jacques Térriot and Marie LeBlanc, at St.-Servan in February 1770.  She died at St.-Jacques, Nantes, in May 1780, age 53.  Jean-Baptiste Bourgeois, "Acadian," married Frenchwoman Henriette Bonneau probably in Poitou in c1774.  Their son Jacques-Augustin was born at Châtellerault, Poitou, in July 1775.  In March 1776, after the settlement venture in Poitou had failed, Jean-Baptiste, Henriette, "and family of 5 persons," perhaps children from a previous marriage, were among the Acadians who retreated from Châtellerault to to the port city of Nantes.  François Moreau Bourgeois, perhaps an Acadian, died in St.-Jean Parish, La Rochelle, in November 1780, age 70.  When, in the early 1780s, the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France the chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana, none of the Bourgeoiss still in the mother country agreed to take it.

After the war with Britain finally ended in 1763, Acadians being held in Nova Scotia and the seaboard colonies were allowed to leave, but not before British officials counted them and discerned their intentions.  In August 1763, colonial officials in Boston compiled a list of Acadians still in Massachusetts.  They included Petit Jacques Bourgeois, wife Marie Bourg, and two children, a son and a daughter; Joseph Bourgeois, wife Anne LeBlanc, and four of their children, two sons and two daughters; Jacques and Marie's daughter Marie-Anne, her husband Joseph, son of Jacques Vigneau dit Maurice, and two daughters; and Jacques and Marie's daughter Marie, her husband Jean dit l'Ecrivain, another son of Jacques Vigneau dit Maurice, and three children, a son and two daughters.  Joseph Bourgeois, who had been reported as "infirm" in July 1760, died at Beverly in 1764.  Claude Bourgeois, fils and two members of his family, as well as Abel Bourgeois, wife Marguerite Doucet, and their child, were counted in Connecticut in 1763.  In August 1763, colonial officials in South Carolina counted Olivier, son of Claude Bourgeois and Anne Blanchard, and second wife Marie Cormier, who had originally been sent to Georgia.  With them at Charles Town were four sons and six daughters.  Also counted in South Carolina that year were Charles Bourgeois, second wife Marie Pitre, and his daughter Marie, age 18, son Basile, no age given, and daughter Rose, age 12, from his first wife Anne Poirier; Pierre Bourgeois, wife Anne Aucoin, and son Jean-Marie, age 22; Marguerite Bourgeois, a widow; Rose Bourgeois, husband Paul Doiron, and three children; Marie-Josèphe, daughter of Guillaume Bourgeois and his second wife Catherine-Josèphe Thibodeau and widow of Joseph Forest, with a 12-year old son; Marie Bourgeois, son Jacques Hugon, a widower, and two of his children; Madeleine Bourgeois, a widow; and Catherine Bourgeois, another widow.  A listing of "Acadian Families Actually Distributed in New England[sic]," issued by the "Government of New York," undated but probably compiled in 1763, includes Paul Bourgeois, his unnamed wife and two unnamed children; Jacques Bourgeois and his unnamed wife; Michel Bourgeois, described as an "old man," and two unnamed children; and a second Michel Bourgeois, his unnamed wife, and seven unnamed children.  In June 1766, Abel Bourgeois and his family of four; Grégoire, perhaps Joseph-Grégoire, Bourgeois, and his family of eight; and Amand Bourgeois and his family of three, appeared on a "List of Names of the French" in Massachusetts "Who Wish to Go to Canada."

Many of the Bourgeoiss languishing in the northern seaboard colonies did move on to Canada.  Though now also a British possession, the northern province was populated largely by fellow French Catholics, many of them fellow Acadian exiles.  So, in a colony nearly as old as Acadia, the majority of the family's survivors began the slow, inexorable process of becoming Canadiennes.  Especially after 1766, descendants of Jacques dit Jacob Bourgeois could be found in present-day Québec Province at Montréal; Pointe-aux-Trembles just below Montréal; Laval northwest of Montréal; St.-Jacques de l'Achigan and L'Assomption farther down from Montréal; La-Prairie-de-la-Magdeleine and St.-Philippe-de-Laprairie across from Montréal; St.-Ours, St.-Antoine, St.-Denis, Chambly, and L'Acadie on the Richelieu; Trois-Rivières; Bécancour, St.-Grégoire, and Nicolet across from Trois-Rivières; Ste.-Anne-de-la-Pérade between Trois-Rivières and Québec; Québec City; Kamouraska below Québec City; and on the îles-de-la-Madeleine.  Bourgeoiss also settled in present-day New Brunswick on lower Rivière St.-Jean, and at Memramcook and Grand-Dingue on the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore; and in present-day Nova Scotia at Windsor, formerly Pigiguit, and at Grand-Étang near Chéticamp on the northwest shore of Cape Breton Island.  Typical of most, if not all, Acadian families, these Acadiennes of Canada lost touch with their Cadien cousins hundreds of miles away, and until the Acadian reunions of the twentieth century, may even have forgotten the others existed. 

Bourgeoiss from Nova Scotia and the northern seaboard colonies joined fellow Acadians on St.-Pierre and Miquelon, French-controlled islands off the southern coast of Newfoundland.  Marie Bourgeois and Pierre LeBlanc, who had married in Massachusetts in April 1760, sanctified their marriage on Miquelon in October 1763; they were still on the island in 1767.  Jean-Jacques dit Petit-Jacques, son of Charles Bourgeois, fils and Marie Blanchard, married to Marie Bourg, was deported to Massachusetts in 1755 and counted there in 1763; he and his family were counted on Miquelon in 1767 and 1776, so they likely had gone there in the early 1760s.  Petit-Jacques's sister Anne was counted on the island in 1767 with husband Jean Cyr, as was sister Madeleine and husband Michel Cyr.  Also on the island that year were Anne, daughter Claude Bourgeois and Anne Blanchard, with husband François Arseneau, and her sister Marguerite-Josèphe, with husband Michel dit Michaud Bourg; Jean-Joseph, called Joseph, son of Michel Bourgeois and Marguerite Girouard, wife Marguerite Hébert, and four of their children--Marguerite, age 11; Victoire, age 9; Anne, age 5; and newborn Joseph.  More children were born to Joseph and Marguerite on the island:  Pauline in 1771 and Françoise in 1774.  Daughter Marguerite, now age 18, married Jacques, son of Claude Poirier and Marguerite Cyr, on Miquelon in January 1774.  Another Joseph, this one son of Jacques Bourgeois and Marie Bourg of Beaubassin, was living on the island in January 1774 with wife Angélique, daughter of Jean Boudrot and Françoise Arseneau of Port-Toulouse, Île Royale, who he had married on Miquelon in January 1771.  Their sons Joseph, Jean, Simon or Siméon, and Jacques were born on island in 1771, 1774, 1776, and 1778.  In 1778, during the American Revolution, the British seized the Newfoundland islands and deported the Acadians there to France.  Anne, wife of Jean Cyr, died at La Rochelle in February 1779, age 66.  Brother Petit Jacques died there the following April, age 70.  Joseph and Angélique's son Jacques, born on Miquelon on the eve of the deportation, also died in St.-Jean Parish, La Rochelle, in April 1779; he was only 6 months old.  Joseph and Angélique's daughter Angélique was born in St.-Jean Parish in April 1780.  Anne, 18-year-old daughter of Joseph Bourgeois and Marguerite Hébert and a native of Miquelon, married seaman Basile, son of fellow Acadians Jean Arseneau and Madeleine Boudrot of Île St.-Jean, in St.-Jean Parish in April 1780.  Madeleine, younger sister of Petit Jacques, was back on Miquelon in 1784 and died there in May 1787, in her mid-70s.  Also on the island in 1784 were Marie-Anne, daughter of Petit Jacques Bourgeois and Marie Bourg and wife of Jacques Vigneau; sister Marie, wife of Jean Vigneau; brother Joseph with wife Angélique Boudrot and their sons Joseph, Jean, and Siméon; and Théotiste, daughter of Joseph Bourgeois and Marie Cyr of Beaubassin, and husband Pierre Arseneau dit Bénéry, who she had married at Restigouche in July 1760.  Claude, son of Charles Bourgeois and Madeleine Cormier of Chignecto, first came to Miquelon in 1764, the year he married Marie Vigneau there.  They were among the islanders who chose to go to La Rochelle in 1767 to escape overcrowding.  They returned to Miquelon in the 1770s, were deported to La Rochelle in 1778, and returned to Miquelon by 1784 with their seven of their children:  Jean, Marie, Michel, Charlotte, Victoire, Jacques, and Joseph.  Understandably fearful of being deported to France again, Claude took his family to the St. Lawrence valley, where he died at Nicolet in October 1801, in his late 60s.  Joseph Bourgeois and wife Angélique Boudrot also left Île Miquelon after they returned from La Rochelle, but they did not move on to Canada.  They settled, instead, on Îles-de-la-Madeleine in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, where five of their son--Joseph, Jean, Siméon, Charles, and Jacque--established families of their own. 

Other Bourgeoiss held in the British colonies chose to emigrate to the French Antilles, where, like their cousins on Île Miquelon, they could live not only among fellow Roman Catholics, but also in territory controlled by France.  French officials were especially eager for Acadians in the British colonies to go to St.-Dominique, today's Haiti, to work on a huge naval base at Môle St.-Nicolas.  Although driven from North America by the Seven Years' War, the French were determined to hang on to what was left of their western empire.  The new naval base on the north shore of the big sugar island would protect the approaches to their remaining possessions in the Caribbean Basin.  The Acadians could provide a source of cheap labor.  To entice them to the tropical island, the French promised the Acadians land of their own.  Several Bourgeois families from Chignecto were among the Acadians in the southern British colonies who took up the offer.  It must have worked out for them.  When fellow Acadians, including Bourgeoiss, held in Nova Scotia or Maryland during Le Grand Dérangement came through Cap-Français in the 1760s on their way to Louisiana, none of the St.-Domingue Bourgeoiss chose to join them.  They remained, instead, at Môle St.-Nicolas.  Henriette, daughter Olivier Bourgeois and Marie Cormier, was a native of Charleston, South Carolina; she married Basile, son of fellow Acadians Joseph Poirier and Marguerite Girouard of Pointe Beauséjour, Chignecto, at Môle St.-Nicolas in May 1776; the priest who recorded the marriage noted that the bride's mother was deceased at the time of the wedding.  Marie-Geneviève, daughter of Jacques Bourgeois and Marie Brun, died at Môle St.-Nicolas in August 1776, age 2.  François, son of Olivier Bourgeois and Marie Boudrot, was baptized at Môle St.-Nicolas in September 1776 but died there at age 6 in November 1781.  Marie-Madeleine, daughter of Denis Bourgeois and Marie-Madeleine Poirier, died at Môle St.-Nicolas in November 1776, age unrecorded.  Marie-Angélique, daughter of Olivier Bourgeois, a carpenter, and Marguerite Cyr of Pointe Beauséjour, married Charles, son of fellow Acadians Pierre Breau, laborer, and Anne Dupuis "of Sainte-Croix in Acadia,"at  Môle St.-Nicolas in November 1777.  Olivier of Pointe Beauséjour, who had been exiled with his second wife Marie Cormier and their family to Georgia in 1755 and who had remarried--his third marriage--to fellow Acadian Françoise Vincent, herself twice widowed, probably at Môle St.-Nicolas in c1776, died at the naval base in October 1778, age 55.  Suzanne-Émilie, daughter of Olivier Bourgeois and Marie Boudrot, was baptized at Môle St.-Nicolas, age 4 days, in January 1779.  Jacques Bourgeois of Pointe Beauséjour died at Môle St.-Nicolas in August 1779, age 40.  Madeleine, daughter of Olivier Bourgeois and his second wife Marie Cormier and widow of Bernard Graport, remarried to cousin Pierre, son of Michel Bourgeois and Marguerite Girouard, at Môle St.-Nicolas in February 1782; the priest who recorded the marriage noted that both the bride's and groom's parents were deceased at the time of the wedding.  Rosalie, daughter of Olivier Bourgeois and Marie Boudrot, died at Môle St.-Nicolas in August 1783, age 4.  Madeleine, daughter of Michel Bourgeois and Marie Doucet and widow of Louis Marchand, remarried to Michel, fils, son of Michel Monnot and Anne Plomcard of St.-Pierre, Dijon, France, at Môle St.-Nicolas in May 1785; Madeleine was a niece of Olivier Bourgeois l'aîné of Pointe Beauséjour; the priest who recorded her marriage noted that the groom "was a cannonier of the compagnie of M. Collin La Buissiere."  One wonders what happened to the St.-Domingue Bourgeoiss at Môle St.-Nicolas during the disturbances in French St.-Domingue/Haiti during the 1790s and early 1800s.

Meanwhile, the Bourgeoiss being held in Nova Scotia faced a hard dilemma.  The Treaty of Paris of February 1763 stipulated in its Article 14 that persons dispersed by the war had 18 months to return to their respective territories.  However, British authorities refused to allow any of the Acadian prisoners in the region to return to their former lands as proprietors.  If Acadians chose to remain in, or return to, Nova Scotia, they could live only in small family groups in previous unsettled areas or work for low wages on former Acadian lands now owned by New England "planters."  If they stayed, they must also take the hated oath of allegiance to the new British king, George III, without reservation.  They would also have to take the oath if they joined their cousins in Canada.  After all they had suffered on the question of the oath, few self-respecting Acadians would consent to take it if it could be avoided.  Some Halifax exiles, including Bourgeoiss, chose to relocate to Miquelon, a French-controlled island off the southern coast of Newfoundland.  Others considered going to French St.-Domingue, where Acadian exiles in the British colonies already had gone, or to the Illinois country, the west bank of which still belonged to France, or to French Louisiana, which, thanks to British control of Canada, was the only route possible to the Illinois country for Acadian exiles.  Whatever their choice, they refused to remain in L'Acadie.  So they gathered up their money and their few possessions and prepared to leave their homeland.  Of the 600 who left Halifax in late 1764 bound for Cap-Français, St.-Domingue, at least 18 were Bourgeoiss.295

Boutin

By 1755, descendants of Joseph Boutin the fisherman and Marie-Marguerite Lejeune dit Briard of Pigiguit could be found on Île Royale, perhaps at Pigiguit and Chignecto, and at Halifax, where they were among the first Acadians to take an unqualified oath to Britain's King George II.  Merchant Jean-François Boutin of Louisbourg, no kin to the fisherman, and his wife Marguerite-Catherine Milly-Lacroix, and their children could still be found in the French citadel when Le Grand Dérangement of the 1750s scattered these families to the winds.  

Under threat of starvation, Joseph Boutin's youngest son Paul, his wife Ursule Guédry, and Joseph's older son Charles and his family, left the settlement at Baie-des-Espagnols, Île Royale, where they had gone in 1749-50.  By August 1754, they slipped back into British Nova Scotia, hoping, perhaps, to return to their original homes at Pigiguit, but circumstances propelled them to the British stronghold at Halifax.  After they took the oath of allegiance to the British crown in late October 1754, Governor Lawrence ordered them sent with other Île Royale refugees to nearby Lunenburg, a Protestant German settlement near Mirliguèche, ancestral home of the Guédrys.  At Lunenburg, Paul, Charles, and their families were "victualled" by the British until September 1755, when, at the beginning of Le Grand Dérangement, the British imprisoned them on Georges Island, Halifax, with other Acadians at Lunenburg.  In late December, they were among the 50 Acadians at Georges Island herded aboard the British transport Providence and sent to North Carolina, where they landed probably at Edenton in January 1756.  They remained in the Chowan County area of North Carolina until c1760, when they moved to Pennsylvania.  Brother Charles and his wife may have died by then.   Paul's daughter Susanne-Catherine, born probably at Philadelphia in December 1761, was baptized at St. Joseph Catholic Church there in June 1762.  The family was still in Pennsylvania in June 1763 after the war with Britain had ended, but they did not remain in the Quaker colony much longer.  By 1764, they had moved to Baltimore to join relatives who had settled in Maryland after leaving North Carolina.

Paul's Boutin kin who remained on Île Royale, living in territory controlled by France, escaped the British roundup in Nova Scotia in 1755.  Their respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  After the fall of the French fortress of Louisbourg in July 1758, the victorious British swooped down on the rest of the island, rounded up most of the Acadians still there, and deported them to France that summer and fall.  Two sisters--Marie-Josèphe, called Josèphe, and Anne, also called Gillette-Théotiste, daughters of Pierre Boutin and Marie-Marcelle Trahan--were deported to St.-Malo aboard the British transport Duke William, which left the French Maritimes in early September.  With them were their mother and stepfather, Jean Pineau, and two Trahan uncles, Claude and Fiacre.  Josèphe, her mother, and one of her Trahan uncles died at sea.  Anne and her uncle Fiacre Trahan survived the crossing but died at the hospital in St.-Malo soon after the ship arrived in port; Fiacre was age 18 at the time of his death, and Anne was only 12.  Jean-Baptiste Boutin, not kin to any of the other Boutins of greater Acadia, ended up at Rochefort, where he died in November 1759, age 23.  François Boutin, also not kin to the Boutins of Pigiguit, who became a merchant like his father and grandfather, also was transported from Île Royale to France, but he did not remain there.  He married Rose-Eugènie-Claude-Victoire, daughter of Étienne-Valentin Borde and Justine-Georgette Leroy of Trou-au-Chat, at St.-Pierre-de-la-Martinique in February 1789.  

Meanwhile, back in North America, Paul Boutin and his family found themselves living among English colonists who, despite their colony's Catholic roots, did not care much for the French "papists" who had been thrust upon them.  When word reached the Acadians in Maryland that they would be welcome in Louisiana, where many of their relatives had gone, they pooled their meager resources to charter ships that would take them to New Orleans.  Paul Boutin had no close relatives in Louisiana, but his wife Ursule Guédry likely had cousins there.  Certainly life would be better in Louisiana, even under Spanish rule, than in a British colony where Acadians were treated like pariahs.213

Brasseur

By 1755, descendants of Mathieu Brasseur dit La Citardy and Jeanne Célestin dit Bellemère could be found in several major Acadian settlements:  at Chignecto, Chepoudy, and on Île St.-Jean, but especially in the Minas Basin, where Mathieu dit La Citardy had spent much of his life.  Le Grand Dérangement of the 1750s scattered this family even farther. 

The Acadians of Chignecto were the first to be rounded up by the British in the autumn of 1755.  Unlike many of their neighbors who found themselves on ships destined for the southern colonies of Georgia and South Carolina, the Brasseurs at Chignecto and Chepoudy eluded the British and fled north to the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore.  Some of them, including Mathieu's son Claude and his family, continued on to the St. Lawrence valley, where the Canadiens treated them with little respect.  The war caught up with them a few years later when the British captured Québec and Montréal in 1759 and 1760.  They remained nonetheless. 

Their Brasseur siblings and cousins in the Minas Basin did not escape the roundup there.  British forces transported Cosme dit Brasseux, his wife Élisabeth Thibodeau, Cosme's younger brother Jean, his wife Madeleine Roy, and their children to Maryland in the fall of 1755.  Sister Marie-Geneviève, a middle-aged spinster, also ended up in Maryland.  

Brother Joseph Brasseur and his family, also rounded up at Minas, suffered an even worse fate than his kinsmen who were deported to Maryland.  Joseph, his wife Marie-Rose Daigle, and their 5-year-old daughter Marie were among the Minas Acadians deported to Virginia.  In mid-November, when five transports appeared unexpectedly at Hampton Roads, the Virginia governor, Robert Dinwiddie, protested their deportation to his colony without his consent.  The following spring, they were shipped off to England, where they were grossly neglected and treated like common criminals and where hundreds of them died of smallpox.  By 1763, more than half of them were dead.  Joseph and his family were among the lucky survivors.  In fact, two more daughters had been added to the family during their ordeal at Southampton--Osite in October 1759, and Rosalie in January 1763.  In May 1763, after prolonged negotiations between the French and British governments, the Acadians in England were repatriated to France.  Joseph and his family sailed from England aboard the ship L'Ambition and settled at St.-Servan, near St.-Malo.  

In the early 1770s, Joseph, Marie-Rose, and daughters Marie and Osite (Rosalie probably died at St.-Servan), were part of the settlement scheme in the Poitou region.  After two years of  effort, the Brasseurs retreated with other disgruntled Poitou Acadians to the port city of Nantes, where they subsisted as best they could on government handouts or on what little work they could find there.  Marie-Rose died at Nantes in June 1781, in her early 50s.  Joseph may have died about that time, too.  In the early 1780s, the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France a chance for a better life in faraway Louisiana.  Marie and Osite Brasseur, now young women and still unmarried, agreed to take it.  

In North America, the Brasseurs who had moved to Île St.-Jean in the early 1750s escaped the fate of their kinsmen in Nova Scotia because they lived in territory controlled by France.  Their respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  After the fall of the French fortress at Louisbourg in July 1758, the victorious British swooped down on Île St.-Jean and deported most of the Acadians there to France.  Mathieu dit La Brasseur and his family, probably still living at Anse-du-Nord-Ouest, on the south coast of the island, were among the lucky few who got away.  They made their way to Restigouche at the head of the Baie des Chaleurs.  They were safe there for a year or so, until the late summer of 1760, when the British attacked the last French stronghold.  While destroying the French naval forces in Rivière Restigouche, the British captured 300 Acadians and sent them to prison compounds in Nova Scotia.  The Brasseurs among the 1,000 Acdians who escaped the British at Restigouche.  After the war with Britain finally ended in 1763, they moved north into Gaspesie on the north shore of the Baie des Chaleurs in present-day Québec Province.  

Perhaps one of Mathieu dit La Citardy's descendants ended up in the French Antilles.  Brigitte Brasseur, widow of Martial Tessier, ended up on the island of Martinique, where she remarried to François, fils, son of François Rousseau, ciselur en argent, and Catherine Paillet of Rouen, at Fort-Royal in September 1769.  Brigitte died on the island two years later, only 40 years old.  

After the war with Britain finally ended, the Brasseurs who had escaped the British at Chignecto and Chepoudy could be found on the upper St. Lawrence at Montréal and Ste.-Thérèse de Blainville and at Chambly on the lower Richelieu east of Montréal.  Their cousins who had avoided capture at Restigouche could be found at Carleton, Bonaventure, and Paspébiac on the south shore of the Gaspé Peninsula facing the Baie des Chaleurs.  Typical of most, if not all, Acadian families, the Acadiennes of Canada lost touch with their Cadien cousins hundreds of miles away, and until the Acadian reunions of the twentieth century, may even have forgotten the others existed. 

Meanwhile, the Brasseurs in Maryland endured life among English colonists who, despite their colony's Catholic roots, did not care much for the French "papists" who had been thrust upon them.  After the war with Britain ended, British officials counted the Acadians still living in the colony.  By then, Cosme had died, leaving Élisabeth Thibodeau a widow.  She did what she could to keep her family together.  A Maryland census of the so-called French Neutrals in the colony, conducted in July 1763, shows her and six of her Brasseur children at Georgetown, on the colony's Eastern Shore.  Two Brasseur orphans--Paul and Marguerite--were counted with the Joseph Castille family at Upper Marlborough, where Cosme's sister Marie-Geneviève, still unmarried, also lived, alone.  When word reached the Acadians in Maryland that they would be welcome in Louisiana, where many of their relatives had gone, they pooled their meager resources to charter ships that would take them to New Orleans.  There were no Brasseurs in Louisiana, but Élisabeth Thibodeau had a younger brother and sister, as well as many cousins, who had gone there from the prisons of Nova Scotia in 1765.  Certainly life would be better there than in a British colony where they were treated like pariahs.  The first continent of Maryland exiles left the colony for New Orleans in late June 1766 and got there the following September.  The Brasseaus were not a part of it.  Élisabeth Thibodeau, six of her children, son Pierre, his wife, and their infant daughter, left with the second contingent of Louisiana-bound exiles that departed Baltimore in April 1767 and reached New Orleans in July.  Cosme's sister Marie-Geneviève was now married to Pierre-Olivier Benoit, a widower five years her junior.  As part of the fourth and final contingent of Louisiana-bound refugees departing the colony, she, her husband, and three of her stepchildren boarded the English schooner Britannia at Port Tobacco, on the lower Potomac, the first week of January 1769.214 

Breau

By 1755, descendants of Vincent dit Vincelotte Breau and Marie Bourg could be found in many of the major Acadian settlements, at Annapolis Royal; Grand-Pré, Pigiguit, and Cobeguit in the Minas Basin; at Chepoudy and Petitcoudiac in the trois-rivières area west of Chignecto; and on Île St.-Jean and Île Royale in the French Maritimes.  Le Grand Dérangement of the 1750s scattered this large family even farther. 

Breaus from Minas and Annapolis Royal ended up in New England, especially in Massachusetts.  In late April 1757, a year and a half after the deportations, Bay Colony officials compiled a "List of the names & circumstances of the French Inhabitants of Nova Scotia now residing in the Town of Braintree."  The first family on the list included Pierre Braux, age 87, "invalid" and "incapable" of labor; wife Anne LeBlanc, age 77, "invalid, incapable"; Joseph Braux, age 51, "invalid, incapable"; Joseph Braux, fils, age 18, "capable"; Aman Braux, age 17, "capable"; John Saml. Braux, age 15, "invalid, incapable"; Margaret Braux, age 19, "invalid, subject to fits."  Here was Pierre, second son of family progenitor Vincelotte Breau; his second wife Anne LeBlanc; son Joseph, a widower; and four of Joseph's children.  Pierre, père died at Braintree in 1758.  Also counted at Braintree in 1757 was Pierre, père's younger son Amand dit Thomas, age 40, described as "capable"; wife Madeleine LeBlanc, age 36, "near her time," so "incapable"; Mary Braux, age 11 or 12, "weakly" and "incapable"; John Braux, age 9, "incapable"; Magdalen Braux, age 5, "incapable"; and Margaret Braux, age 3, "incapable" of work.  Joseph and Amand dit Thomas's brother Paul, age 43, and his family, probably including wife Marie-Josèphe Landry, were counted at Ipswich, Massachusetts, in 1757.  Joseph, Amand, and Paul's brother Pierre, fils, age 44, was being held on the island of Nantucket with wife Marie-Josèphe Dupuis and their children in 1758.  Meanwhile, cousin Alexis Breau, age 34, son of François, was counted at Milton, Massachusetts, in 1757, perhaps with wife Marguerite Barrieau.  Pierre, père's younger brother René was counted at Hanover, Massachusetts, in 1758.  The colonial official noted that René was age 89 at the time, but he was only 73.  He was not described as a widower, so his wife Marie Hébert may have been with him.  Charles Breau, son of René, also was deported to Massachusetts, where he married Marie-Osite, daughter of fellow Acadians Jacques Célestin dit Bellemère and Marie Landry.  In 1760, Simon Breau, son of Jean, was counted at Plymouth, Massachusetts, most likely with his wife Marie-Josèphe Michel.  That same year, Massachusetts officials counted Peter, Hannah, Ammon, Maudlin, Margaret, and Zabble Brow "from Braintree," now at Boston.  Still at Braintree that year was another Margeret Brow and Joseph Brow Junr.  At Weymouth that year was Joseph Brow and  "Hannah his wife," as well as Elixes Brow, "Margeret his wife," and "their children" Joseph, Firmin, Baltisar, Charles, Mary, and Betty.  At Hingham, officials counted Ammon Brow Ju. and Samel. Brow.  Paul Breau, wife Marie-Josèphe, and children "Joseph, John, Nanny?, Jno. Batits, Molly, Elizabeth, and Peter," were counted at Ipswich in July 1760.  Antoine Breau, son of Jean, and second wife Marguerite Doucet ended up in Connecticut. 

Breaus from Minas and Pigiguit were deported to Maryland and Virginia.  The ones sent to Virginia endured a fate worse than most of the other refugees deported from Minas in the fall of 1755.  The Virginia governor, Robert Dinwiddie, refused to allow the 1,500 Acadians sent to him to remain in the colony.  Many of the exiles died on the filthy, crowded ships while the Virginia authorities pondered their fate.  Acadians from one vessel were moved up to Richmond, two of the vessels were unloaded at Hampton, and two more at Norfolk.  A hand full of sturdy young Acadians managed to slip off the vessels and trek overland through fields and forests and across the mountains, to French territory, but most of them remained in Virginia.  Finally, in the spring of 1756, Governor Dinwiddie and Virginia's House of Burgesses made their decision ... the Acadians must go!  In May, the first shipment of Acadians left for England, and in two weeks all of them had gone--299 to Bristol, 250 to Falmouth, 340 to Southampton, and 336 to Liverpool--1,225 of the original 1,500.   Their ordeal only worsened in the English ports, where they were treated like common criminals.  Hundreds died from smallpox and other maladies.  The Breaus sent to Maryland remained in that colony for the rest of the war.  As in Massachusetts and other seaboard colonies, colonial officials in Maryland dispersed the "French Neutrals" to scattered communities, which, in the case of the Breaus, included Annapolis on the west side of Chesapeake Bay, Oxford on the Eastern Shore, and Port Tobacco on the lower Potomac, where most of them were held.  

Breaus who escaped the British in 1755 took refuge on Rivière St.-Jean or at Shediac, Richibouctou, and Miramichi on the Gulf of St. Lawrence, or at Restigouche at the head of the Baie des Chaleurs.  For several years they fought starvation, hard winters, and British raiding parties.  Others moved on to Canada.  Jean dit Jean-François Breau of Chepoudy, son of François of Annapolis Royal, Jean's second wife Marguerite Richard, and their many children arrived at Québec in 1757; sadly, six of his children died there that year, victims, perhaps, of the smallpox epidemic that struck Acadian refugees in the area that fall and winter.  Élisabeth, daughter of Antoine Breau and widow of Pierre Aucoin, remarried to Alexandre, son of fellow Acadians Charles Guilbeau and Anne Bourg and widower of Marguerite Girouard, at St.-Pierre-les-Becquets on the St. Lawrence between Québec and Trois-Rivières in November 1759.  Catherine, daughter of Jean Breau and his first wife Catherine Thibodeau, married Jean-Baptiste, fils, son of fellow Acadians Jean-Baptiste Landry and Marguerite Melanson, at St.-Joachim on the lower St. Lawrence in July 1760.  Théodore Breau, son of Jean-Baptiste and widower of Marie Michel, remarried to Élisabeth, daughter of Joseph Thibodeau and Anne Savoie, at Québec in February 1762.  Jean-Baptiste Breau, son of Chérubin, married Dorothée, daughter of Canadians Adrien Leclerc and Ursule Noël and widow of Ambroise Quentin at St.-Pierre-de-l'Île-d'Orléans below Québec in February 1763.

Breaus still at Cobeguit in September 1755, learning of the fate of their cousins in the other Fundy settlements, packed up their goods and their loved ones and headed cross country to Tatamagouche and other North Shore settlements.  From there, in what boats they could find, they crossed the Mer Rouge to French-held Île St.-Jean, where they joined their kinsmen who had chosen to go there years, even decades, earlier.  Living in territory controlled by France, none of the established Breaus on the Maritime islands, including the widow of Jean Breau of Minas and her six children at Port-Toulouse, were touched by the British roundup in Nova Scotia.  Their respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  After the fall of the French fortress at Louisbourg in July 1758, in which Pierre, 32-year-old son of Antoine Breau, was killed, the British swooped down on the rest of Île Royale and on Île St.-Jean and rounded up the Acadian habitants there, including the dead Pierre's siblings and cousins.  Some of the Acadians escaped from the islands and made their way north to the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore, but the majority of them, including Breaus, were deported to France. 

Many did not survive the crossing.  Antoine Breau, age unrecorded, crossed with wife Cécile Bourg and six children--Angélique, Cécile, Blaise, Suzanne, Modeste, and Jacques--on the British transport Duke William, which limped into St.-Malo the first of November.  Only Antoine and daughter Cécile survived the crossing.  Son Jacques died at sea.  Wife Cécile, Angélique, Blaise, and Suzanne died in St.-Malo hospitals soon after reaching the port.  The fate of daughter Modeste is unknown, but she likely did no survive the crossing.  Charles Breau, age 35, wife Marguerite LeBlanc, age 22, son Dominique, and niece Marguerite Breau, age 12, also crossed on Duke William.  Son Dominique died at sea.  Charles's wife Marguerite was pregnant when the family made the voyage.  Daughter Jeanne-Françoise died three days after her birth at St.-Servan, on the southern outskirts of St.-Malo, in mid-November.  Niece Marguerite died in a local hospital on November 19, and Charles died at St.-Servan in December, likely from the rigors of the crossing, leaving his young widow without a family.  Anne Breau, age 64, crossed with husband Antoine Aucoin, age 65, and son Antoine, fils, age 30, on the British transport Tamerlane, which reached St.-Malo in mid-January.  They all survived the crossing, but Anne died at St.-Suliac, a suburb of St.-Malo, in the following July, perhaps from the rigors of the crossing.  Most of the island Breaus crossed on one of the five British transports that left the Gut of Canso in late November and reached St.-Malo in late January 1759.  The death toll among the 1,033 passengers aboard those vessels reached nearly 50 percent, a number of them Breaus.  Chérubin Breau crossed with wife Marie Aucoin and five children--Xavier; Marie-Osite, age 15; Anne; Simon; and Perpétué.  Chérubin, Anne, Simon, and Perpétué died at sea.  Wife Marie and Xavier died in a St.-Malo hospital soon after reaching the port.  Only Marie-Osite survived the crossing.  Félix Breau, age 20, whose family back in Pigiguit had been deported to Maryland three years earlier, survived the crossing.  Françoise Breau, age 65, crossed with husband Pierre Blanchard, son Charles, age 21, and orphan Ignace Hamon, age 10, whose mother was a Blanchard.  Françoise and Pierre died at sea and Charles in a St.-Malo hospital the following April, perhaps from the rigors of the crossing.  Only Ignace survived the rigors of the crossing.  François Bourg, age 3, son of Blaise, crossed with the family Alexandre Bourg.  The 3-year-old died at sea.  Joseph Breau, age 47, crossed with wife Ursule Bourg, age 46, and nine children--Ursule, age 18; Élisabeth-Françoise, called Françoise, age 15; Luce, age 13; Anne-Josèphe, age 12; Angélique, age 9; Marie-Jeanne, age 8; Rosalie, age 7; Joseph-Gabriel, age 6; and Simon-Joseph, age 2.  Simon-Joseph died at sea, and wife Ursule died in a St.-Malo hospital in late February.  The rest of the family survived the crossing.  Anne-Marie Breau crossed with husband Jean Daigre, age 60, and six children, most in their teens.  Anne-Marie and daughter Isabelle died at sea.  Jean and the other five children survived the crossing, but Jean died in a St.-Malo hospital in mid-February.  Marguerite-Josèphe Breau, age 24, crossed with husband Simon Henry, age 30, and a 2-year-old daughter, who died at sea.  Alexis Breau of Cobeguit, age 36, crossed with wife Marie-Josèphe Guillot, age 37, age unrecorded, and seven children--Madeleine, age 13; Anne, age 11; Marie, age 9; Victoire, age 8; Charles, age 6; Élisabeth and Saban, ages unrecorded--and brother Joseph, age 21, aboard the British transport Supply, which left the Maritimes in late November 1758, took refuge in an English port in late December, and did not reach St.-Malo until the second week of March 1759.  All survived the crossing except Élisabeth and Saban.  Wife Marie-Josèphe was pregnant during the crossing.  A daughter, named Élisabeth-Renée after her recently deceased older sister, was born at St.-Malo on 9 May 1759 but died 11 days later.  Marie-Josèphe survived the rigors of childbirth and gave Alexis more children.  Marie-Madeleine Breau, age 12, daughter of Jean, also crossed on Supply, with her mother Madeleine Hébert, age 32, stepfather Charles Guédry, age 33, three stepsiblings, ages 6, 5, and 2, and 20-year-old François-Xavier Bourg.  They all survived the crossing. 

Island Breaus who survived the crossing did their best to make a life for themselves in the teeming suburbs of St.-Malo.  Antoine Breau, now a widower, settled with daughter Cécile at Pleurtuit, south of St.-Malo, and at St.-Suliac, south of Pleurtuit, where he remarried to fellow Acadian Marie Dugas, widow of François Henry, in April 1761.  Marie had crossed on one of the Five Ships with her husband and seven children, four of whom survived.  She gave Antoine another child:  François-Xavier was born at St.-Suliac in March 1762.  Antoine's daughter Cécile, age 18, married stepbrother Joseph, son of François Henry and Marie Dugas, at St.-Suliac in May 1764.  Cécile gave her stepbrother at least three children at St.-Suliac, one in Poitou, and four more at Nantes.  Marie-Osite, daughter of Chérubin Breau, only surviving member of her immediate family, went to live with Marie Charpentier, perhaps a kinswoman, at Pleurtuit.  Marie-Osite was still in her teens.  She never married.  Félix, son of the Jean-Baptiste Breau still languishing in Maryland, had crossed "alone" on one of the Five Ships.  In early December, at age 20, he became a sailor on the ship Le Duc de Choiseul, perhaps a privateer.  He was back at St.-Malo in late January 1760, when he married a local girl, Perrine, 21-year-old daughter of Joseph Thomas and Josseline Hyacinthe of St.-Servan.  Félix returned to sea duty, was captured by the British, and held as a prisoner of war in England until the end of the war.  He returned to St.-Malo in May 1763, probably with the Acadian refugees repatriated from England to France, and settled with his wife in her native St.-Servan.  In 1765-66, he was absent at sea aboard the frigate L'Aigle.  This was the same vessel that made three voyages from St.-Malo to Îles-Malouines, or islands of St.-Malo, today's Falkland Islands, from September 1763 to early 1766, bearing dozens of Acadian colonists.  Félix likely served on at least two of those voyages.  Meanwhile, Perrine gave Félix four children at St.-Servan:  Perrine-Julienne was born in April 1764, Félix-Mathurin in November 1770 after his father's adventure in the Falklands, Mathurin-Marin in November 1772, and Joseph-Pierre in March 1774.  Joseph Breau, now a widower, and 10 of his children, only one of them a son, Joseph-Gabriel, settled at Pleurtuit.  Joseph did not remarry.  His oldest daughter Marguerite-Josèphe had crossed to St.-Malo with husband Simon, son of fellow Acadians Jean Henry and Marie Hébert, who she had married at Port-Lajoie, Île St.-Jean, in January 1755.  With them was 2-year-old daughter Agathe, who died at sea.  Marguerite-Josèphe was pregnant during the crossing and gave birth to a son at St.-Servan in May 1759.  She gave Simon at least eight more children at St.-Servan, most of whom survived childhood.  Joseph's daughter Ursule married François, son of fellow Acadians Charles Pitre and Marguerite Doiron of Cobeguit, at Pleurtuit in March 1762.  François and two of his brothers had come to St.-Malo from Cherbourg in July 1759.  François died probably at Pleurtuit in late 1762.  The following July, his and Ursule's daughter Ursule-Françoise Pitre was born posthumously at St.-Bue, near Pleutuit.  Ursule did not remarry.  Joseph's daughter Françoise married Paul, fils, son of fellow Acadians Paul Landry and Marguerite Bourg, at St.-Suliac in January 1766.  Paul, fils had come to St.-Malo from Morlaix in 1763.  Françoise gave him at least three children at St.-Suliac before he died there in October 1770, age 24.  Joseph's daughter Anne-Josèphe married Jacques, son of fellow Acadians Thomas Doiron and Anne Girouard, at St.-Suliac in July 1765.  She gave him at least four children there and at St.-Servan.  Joseph's daughter Luce, at age 22, married Athanase, son of fellow Acadians François Bourg and his first wife Marguerite Hébert, at St.-Suliac in February 1768.  She gave him at least three children at St.-Suliac.  Joseph's daughter Marie-Jeanne died at St.-Suliac in September 1769, age 20, still unmarried.  Alexis Breau had been a farmer at Cobeguit and on Île St.-Jean, but he worked as a carpenter and day laborer in France.  After infant daughter Élisabeth-Renée died in May 1759, wife Marie-Josèphe Guillot gave him two more children at Trigavou, south of St.-Malo:  Pierre was born in August 1762 but died at age 5 in May 1767, and Marguerite-Blanche was born in May 1765.  Meanwhile, daughter Marie died at Trigavou in November 1764, age about 15.  Alexis's younger brother Joseph, age 21 when he reached St.-Malo, signed up for duty aboard Le Duc de Choiseul in December 1759.  His service aboard the vessel was short-lived:  he died at Port-de-Paix, French St.-Domingue, in November 1760.  Marie-Madeleine, daughter of Jean Breau, followed her mother and stepfather Charles Guédry to Bonnaban, near St.-Malo, to Pleurtuit, and then to St.-Suliac, where she died in February 1763, age about 17.

Island Breaus ended up in other French ports, including Rochefort, Bordeaux, and Nantes.  Élisabeth, daughter of Étienne Breau, a boilermaker, and Jeanne Maurice, perhaps a Vigneau, was born at Rochefort in October 1760.  François Breau, a picklock and widower of Marie Seime or Seimet, married local girl Jeanne, daughter of Jean Tresorier and Marie Poinsteau of Muron, northwest of Rochefort, at Notre-Dame Parish, Rochefort, in August 1763.  One wonders if Éteinne and François were Acadians.  Jean-Baptiste, son of Ambroise Breau and Marie Michel, was a resident of Notre-Dame Parish and had been living there for nearly a decade when he married Marie-Élisabeth Girard, widow of Jean Martin, probably a Frenchwoman, in St.-Louis Parish, Rochefort, in January 1768.  Agnès, daughter of the Pierre Breau who had died in the siege of Louisbourg in 1758 and Marguerite Guédry of Cobeguit and Port-Dauphin, Île Royale, married Joseph-Olivier, called Olivier, son of fellow Acadians Joseph Leprince and Marie-Osite Melanson dit Pitre of Minas and Île St.-Jean, at Notre-Dame Parish, Rochefort in August 1770.  Oliver was working as a sailor at the time of the marriage.  François, son of Michel Breau, a calker, and Marianne Trujon, was baptized at Notre-Dame Parish, age unrecorded, in October 1771.  Was Michel an Acadian?  Pierre, fils, a sailor, son of Pierre Breau and Anne-François Dupuis of Rivière Ste.-Croix, Pigiguit, married Marie, daughter of fellow Acadians Vincent Deveau and Marie Buot of Beauséjour, Chignecto, in Ste.-Croix Parish, Bordeaux, in June 1770.  They had at least four children in Ste.-Croix Parish:  Marie was born in May 1772, Marguerite in May 1774, Pierre in c1775 but died at age 4 in September 1779, and Jeanne was born in February 1778.  By 1779, Pierre was serving as maitre d'equipage, or boatswain, in the French naval service.  Pierre, fils, son of Pierre Breau and Marguerite Guédry, either landed at Nantes in 1758 or went there from Rochefort in the 1760s.  No matter, he was residing at Nantes by c1770, "one of the first Acadians" to live there. 

In the spring of 1763, after prolonged negotiations between the French and British governments, the Acadians in England who had gone there from Virginia were repatriated to France.  Among them were several Breaus from Minas.  In May 1763, Honoré Breau, age 28, son of Pierre, crossed the Channel from England aboard La Dorothée wth the family of Germain Boudrot, his cousin.  Honoré married Élisabeth dite Maillet, daughter of fellow Acadians Victor LeBlanc and Marie Aucoin and stepdaughter of Grégoire Maillet, at Plouër, south of St.-Malo, in February 1766.  She gave him at least four children there and at St.-Servan:  Jean-Charles-Pierre was born at St.-Servan in November 1766, Olive-Élisabeth in February 1769, Marie-Madeleine in February 1771, and Pierre-Paul at Plouër in November 1772 but died at age 11 months in October 1773.  Marie-Madeleine Vincent, widow of Alexandre Boudrot, who died at Bristol in August 1756, had remarried to Joseph Breau probably at Bristol in c1760.  Their son Joseph, fils was born in February 1761.  By May 1763, she was a widow again.  At age 38, she crossed to France aboard La Dorothée with sons Jean-Baptiste Boudrot, age 9, and Joseph Breau, fils, age 2, and settled at St.-Suliac.  She remarried to fellow Acadian Pierre Dugas at St.-Servan in January 1764.  Joseph, fils became a sailor.  Brigitte Martin dit Barnabé, age 48, widow of Séraphin Breau, who had died in England, crossed aboard La Dorothée with second husband Michel Bourg, six of his children by his first wife, and three of her children by her first husband--Jean-Baptiste Breau, age 20; Marie Breau, age 18; and Marie-Madeleine Breau, age 17.  They settled at St.-Suliac and St.-Servan.  Along with his stepbrother Mathurin Bourg, Jean-Baptiste studied for the priesthood in Paris from 1767 to 1772, perhaps under Abbé Jean-Louis Le Loutre.  In 1772, he followed his mother, stepfather, and stepsiblings to North America to complete his studies at Montréal.  Mathurin was ordained at Montréal in September 1772, and Jean-Baptiste was ordained there in November.  Mathurin served as a missionary at Carleton and nearby Bonaventure, near his kinsmen, from 1773 to 1795.  Jean-Baptiste served on the upper St. Lawrence at St.-Jacques de l'Achigan and L'Assomption.  Sister Marie married Jean-Baptiste, fils, son of fellow Acadians Jean-Baptiste Dugas and Marguerite Benoit, at St.-Suliac in February 1764.  Jean-Baptiste had come to St.-Malo from the Maritimes in late 1758 aboard one of the Five Ships.  Marie gave him at least five children there and at St.-Servan, La Gousnière, and St.-Mélior-des-Ondes.

In the early 1770s, Breaus at St.-Malo and other port cities chose to become part of a settlement scheme in the Poitou region.  French authorities were tired of providing for the Acadians languishing in the port cities.  A French nobleman offered to settle them on land he owned near the city of Châtellerault.  Members of the family who went there included Félix Breau the sailor, wife Perrine Thomas, and their four children from St.-Servan; Honoré Breau, wife Élisabeth LeBlanc dit Maillet, and their three children from St.-Servan and Plouër; and Joseph Breau and his family, including son Joseph-Gabriel, from Pleurtuit.  Honoré and Élisabeth had at least one more son in Poitou:  Élie was born near Archigny, southeast of Châellerault, in August 1774.  After two years of effort, they, along with cousin Félix and his wife, gave up on the venture.  From October 1775 through March 1776, dozens of Poitou Acadians, including the two Breau families, retreated in four convoys to the port city of Nantes.  Other members of the family remained in Poitou.  Joseph-Gabriel Breau, son of Joseph, married Marguerite, daughter of fellow Acadians André Templé and his first wife Marie Deveau, at Archigny in September 1777.  Marguerite gave Joseph-Gabriel at least three children there:  Joseph le jeune was baptized there June 1778, Gabriel in September 1779, and Angélique in April 1781.  The following year, however, they had joined their fellow Acadians at Nantes.  Meanwhile, Anne Breau died at Archigny in May 1782, age 50.  One wonders who her parents may have been, if she had a family, and why she had remained in Poitou. 

At Nantes, the Acadians there subsisted as best they could on government handouts and what work they could find.  Félix Breau, still a sailor, and wife Perrine Thomas had at least three more daughters at Nantes, but they did not remain there:  Françoise-Perrine was born probably at Chantenay, then a suburb of Nantes, in early 1776 but died at age 10 months in November 1776; Marie-Henriette was baptized at St.-Martin de Chantenay in October 1777 but died at age 1 1/2 years in March 1779; and Marie-Thérèse was born at Nantes in c1779 but died at St.-Servan, age 2, in September 1781.  Honoré Breau, who worked as a laborer and carpenter, and wife Élisabeth dite Maillet LeBlanc had at least four more children at Nantes:  Jeanne was baptized in Ste.-Croix Parish in May 1776, Pierre-Paul in June 1779, and twins Rose-Marie and Charles at St.-Martin de Chantenay in October 1781.  Son Élie, born in Poitou, died at Chantenay, age 9, in August 1783.  Pierre Breau, fils, who had lived in Nantes since c1770, married Geneviève, daughter of fellow Acadians Jean dit La Garenne and Anne Potier of Île St.-Jean, at St.-Martin de Chantenay in August 1780.  Anne-Madeleine, 32-year-old daughter of Alexis Breau and Marie-Josèphe Thibodeau of Minas, "resident of the Parish of Saint-Martin of Chantenay for 3 years," married Étienne, son of fellow Acadians Jean Hébert and Marguerite Mouton and widower of Marie Lavergne and Marie Bourg, at St.-Martin de Chantenay in August 1781.  She gave him another daughter in May 1785.  Joseph-Gabriel Breau, now a seaman, and wife Marguerite Templé joined their fellow Acadians at Nantes by May 1782, when they buried their year-old daughter Angélique in St.-Nicolas Parish.  But the couple were blessed with at least two more daughters at Nantes:  Reine-Élisabeth was baptized at St.-Martin de Chantenay in April 1783, and Eulalie at St.-Nicolas church in June 1785.  Joseph-Gabriel's widowed father Joseph, now an invalid, died in St.-Nicolas Parish in May 1782, age 70.  Joseph Breau, fils, son of Marie-Madeleine Vincent and stepson of Pierre Dugas, with whom he had gone to Poitou, married Marie-Blanche, daughter of fellow Acadians Louis-Athanase Trahan and Marguerite LeBlanc of L'Assomption, Pigiguit,at St.-Martin de Chantenay in May 1785.  Marie-Blanche had been born at Borderun, Sauzon, on Belle-Île-en-Mer in August 1767, so, unlike her husband, she had not endured the voyage from England to France.  Joseph, fils's mother, meanwhile, died at Chantenay in January 1785, age 63. 

When the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France the chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana, at least 21 Breaus--including Alexis, Anne-Josèphe, Anne-Madeleine, Cécile, Honoré, Joseph, Joseph-Gabriel, Luce, Marie-Osite, both Ursules, and their families--agreed to take it.  Others chose to remain in the mother country, among them Félix Breau the sailor of St.-Servan, who had family in the Spanish colony.  Also remaining was Pierre Breau, fils of Île Royale and St.-Martin de Chantenay.  Jean-Baptiste Breau the boatswain and his wife Marie Deveau of Ste.-Croix, Bordeaux, also chose to remain.  Their daughter Marie, age 26, married Jean-Baptiste, fils, 31 1/2-year-old son of Jean-Baptiste Darrigrand, former postmaster, and Jeanne Gallien of Benesse, Department of Landes, in Ste.-Croix Parish, Bordeaux, in December 1798 (30 Frimaire year 7 on the Revolutionary calendar).  Jean-Baptiste, fils was a ship captain, and, the Bordeaux priest noted, Jean-Baptiste Breau, père was deceased at the time of the marriage.  Jean-Baptiste Breau, père's daughter Jeanne married Jean, son of Martin Thiac and Élisabeth Gaudric of Bordeaux, in Ste.-Croix Parish, Bordeaux, in September 1802 (26 Fructidor, year 10, in the Revolutionary calendar).  Jean Thiac was a blacksmith. 

In North America, conditions got only worse for the Acadians who had escaped the British roundups.  After the fall of Québec in September 1759, the British gathered their forces to attack the remaining French strongholds in New France, one of which was the Acadian refuge at Restigouche at the head of the Baie des Chaleurs.  Athanase, son of Ambroise Breau and Marie Michel, married Marie, daughter of Joseph LeBlanc and Isabelle Gaudet of Annapolis Royal, at Restigouche in February 1760.  After the British attacked the post that summer, they shipped 300 captured Acadians to prisoner-of-war compounds in Nova Scotia, among them Athanase and his bride, who ended up at Fort Edward, where the Pigiguit Breaus had once called home.  But most of the weary refugees escaped this latest British roundup and remained at Restigouche.  Rosalie, daughter of Joseph Breau, fils of Cobeguit and Anne Arseneau, was baptized at Restigouche in February 1761. 

After the war with Britain finally ended, Acadians being held in the seaboard colonies and British Nova Scotia were allowed to leave, but not until British officials counted them and discerned their intentions.  Alexander Brew, with nine persons in his family, and Joseph Brew with three persons, both families recently of Hingham, Massachusetts, were counted at Boston in the early 1760s.  Breaus in Massachusetts also appeared on an undated list entitled "... All Those Who Wish to Pass to the French Colonies":  Alexis, perhaps Alexandre, Broux with "9 from his family"; Paul Broux also with "9 from his family"; Joseph Broux with "2 from his family"; and Aman Broux with "8 from his family."  In August 1763, colonial officials compiled a "General List of the Acadian Families Actually Distributed to New England," in the "Province of Massachusetts," "Government of Boston," on which appeared Aman Bodot, probably Breau, wife Isabelle, two sons, and three daughters; Joseph Brox, wife Anne, and a daughter; Jean Bodot, wife Anne, two sons, and three daughters; Aman Breaux, wife Magdelaine, three sons, and four daughters; Joseph Broux; Simon Broux; René Broux, wife Mariee, and a daughter; François Roux, perhaps Breau, wife Nanette, and two daughters; Allexis Braux, wife Margueritte, and four sons; Paul Broux, "his wife," and a daughter; Charle Breux, wife Elizabeth, and two sons; and Pierre Broux, five sons, and four daughters. Many members of the family were still in the Bay Colony three years later.  In June 1766, Massachusetts officials complied a "List of Names of the French Who Wish to Go to Canada."  On it appeared Alexis Bro and his family of nine, Joseph Brau and his family of six, Pierre Bro and his family of nine, Joseph Bro and his family of five, Aman Bro and his family of five, Charles Bro and his family of nine, and Amon Bro and his family of 11.  At least one of the Breaus in Massachusetts chose to remain among the English.  Simon Breau died at Plympton, Massachusetts, in March 1804, age unrecorded.  His burial record called him beau-frère (brother-in-law) of Hannah Mitchell, that is, Anne Michel, sister of his wife Marie-Josèphe, daughter of Joseph Michel and Marie Boudrot.  One wonders what motivated Simon to remain in Massachusetts.  In 1763, Antoine Brau, with "nine persons" in his family; "the widow Brau and one child; and Joseph Brau and "nine persons" in his family, appeared on a "General List of the Acadian Families Distributed in the Government of Konehtoket Who Desire to Go to France."  In June 1763, Pennsylvania officials compiled a list of Acadians still in the colony.  They included:  Pierre Bro, "boy without a family"; Jean Bro, wife Josette, and four children; and Margueritte Bro, "widow with four children."  In July 1763, colonial officials found a dozen Breau families in Maryland, most of them still concentrated on the lower Potomac:  At Port Tobacco, officials counted Charles Breau of L'Assomption, Pigiguit, wife Claire Trahan, son Pierre, daughters Marie, Marguerite, Élisabeth, Anne-Gertrude, and Madeleine, and orphan Anne Lejeune; Charles's oldest son Antoine, wife Marguerite Landry, sons Joseph and Charles and daughters Perpétué and Scholastique; Marguerite Landry, called a widow (though her husband Simon-Pierre, another son of Charles Breau, was still very much alive in 1763), son Jean-Baptiste-Pierre (called Pierre) and daughter Marie-Anne; Jean-Charles Breau of Pigiguit, wife Marie Benoit, son Michel, daughter Marguerite, and orphan Augustin-Rémi Boudrot; Jean or Janvier Breau, wife Osite Landry, and daughter Pélagie; Joseph-Charles Breau, wife Marie-Josèphe Landry, son Joseph-Marie, daughter Marguerite, and orphan Marie-Rose Landry; Élisabeth ____, widow of ____ Breau, son Paul and daughter Marguerite; Marguerite Gautrot, widow of Pierre Breau, and daughters Marguerite, Marie-Josèphe (called Josette), and Marie-Rose (called Rose); Honoré Breau of Pigiguit, wife Anne-Madeleine Trahan, daughters Madeleine, Marie, and Marguerite, and orphan Blaise Lejeune; and Honoré's older brother Alexis of Pigiguit, wife Madeleine Trahan, sons Honoré le jeune, Joseph, and Charles, daughters Marie and Anastasie, and orphan Bibianne Breau.  At Oxford, on Maryland's Eastern Shore, officials counted Alexis and Honoré's older brother Jean-Baptiste, second wife Marie-Rose Landry, sons Jean and Amand, and daughters Marguerite, Madeleine, Anne, Cité (probably Esther), and Marie.  At Annapolis, officials counted Pierre Breau, wife Marguerite, perhaps Marie-Marguerite LeBlanc, and daughter Marie.  At Halifax in August 1763, colonial officials counted several Breau families being held there:  Cycles Brau widow with six children; Joseph Brou with a wife and two children; and Jean Brou with a wife and child.  In South Carolina that same month, colonial officials counted several Breaus still lingering in the colony:  Amant Bro and his unnamed wife were counted with three children.  Félicité Brau was counted with husband Pierre Boucher and a 3-year-old son.  Also with the family was 12-year-old Anne Brau, perhaps Félicité's younger sister.  Vital Brau, age 10, was counted with the family of Michel Doiron.  Théotiste Braud was counted with husband François Poirier and three children, ages 15, 13, and 2.  Also with the family was Marguerite Braud, age 15, perhaps Théotiste's younger sister.  In June 1766, Massachusetts officials complied a "List of Names of the French Who Wish To Go To Canada."  It included Alexis Bro and nine member of his family, Joseph Brau and his family of six, Pierre Bro and his family of nine, another Joseph Bro and his family of five, Aman Bro and his family of five, Charles Bro and his familu of nine, and another Aman Bro and his family of 11. 

A family of Breaus held at Halifax chose to join fellow Acadians on Île Miquelon, a French-controlled islands off the southern coast of Newfoundland.  Amand, son of Jean Breau and Anne Gautrot of Minas, married Théotiste, daughter of fellow Acadians Jacques Bonnevie and Marguerite Lord of Annapolis Royal, at Halifax, where there was no priest.  They sanctified their marriage on Île Miquelon in October 1765 and were still on the island two years later.  However, as the Massachusetts "wish list" indicates, most of the Acadians in the northern colonies chose to go to Canada.  Though now also a British possession, the northern province was populated largely by fellow French Catholics, many of them Acadian exiles.  So, in a colony nearly as old as Acadia, descendants of Vincelotte Breau began the slow, inexorable process of becoming Canadiennes.  Especially after 1766, Breaus could be found in present-day Québec Province at Québec City; L'Acadie, La-Prairie-de-la-Magdeleine, L'Assomption, St.-Grégoire-de-Nicolet, St.-Jacques de l'Achigan, St.-Philippe-de-la-Prairie, St.-Pierre-de-Sorel, and Trois-Rivières on the upper St. Lawrence; La Présentation, St.-Antoine-de-Chambly, St.-Denis, St.-Joseph-de-Chambly, and St.-Ours in the Richelieu valley; at Charlesbourg, St.-Charles-de-Bellechase, and St.-Joachim on the lower St. Lawrence; at Bonaventure on the north shore of the Baie des Chaleurs; and on Îles-de-la-Madeleine in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.  Breaus also settled in present-day New Brunswick at Grande-Digue, Néguac, Richiboutou, and St.-Charles-de-Kent on the Gulf of St. Lawrence; and at Memramcook, near the family's old settlement at Chepoudy.  Typical of most, if not all, Acadian families, the Acadiennes of Canada lost touch with their Cadien cousins hundreds of miles away, and until the Acadian reunions of the twentieth century, may even have forgotten the others existed. 

Other Breaus languishing in the seaboard colonies chose to go to the French Antilles, where they could live not only among fellow Roman Catholics, but also in territory controlled by France.  French officials were especially eager for Acadians in the British colonies to go to St.-Dominique, today's Haiti, to work on a new naval base at Môle St.-Nicolas.  Although driven from North America by the Seven Years' War, the French were determined to hang on to what was left of their western empire.  The new naval base on the north shore of the big sugar island would protect the approaches to their remaining possessions in the Caribbean Basin.  The Acadians could provide a source of cheap labor.  To entice them to the tropical island, the French promised the Acadians land of their own.  It must have worked out for most of them.  When fellow Acadians released from Nova Scotia and Maryland came through Cap-Français in the 1760s on their way to Louisiana, none of the Breaus in St.-Domingue chose to join them.  Jeanne, daughter of Jean Breau and Anne Chiasson dit La Vallée and widow of Jacques Michel, fils, died at Le Mirebalais in March 1765, age 56.  One wonders if she would have remained in the sugar colony if she had lived a bit longer.  Her son Pierre Michel, a widower in his late 20s who had just lost his wife, Marguerite Poirier, as well as his mother, moved on to New Orleans later that year, perhaps with the refugees from Halifax.  One suspects that, had she lived, Jeanne would have followed her son to Louisiana.  Félicité Breau, "an Acadien," married Jean, also called Pierre, Boucher probably in South Carolina during the late 1750s.  In August 1763, colonial officials there counted them with a 3-year-old son.  At least six more children were born to them at Môle St.-Nicolas in c1764, c1766, c1770, c1775, 1777, and c1780, before the couple filed a "testimony of marriage" at Môle St.-Nicolas on 2 April 1783.  Evidently Jean/Pierre, "maitre de port and extremely ill" at the time, and his devoted Acadian wife, were attempting to legitimize their children before he died, which occurred the following day.  Anne Breau of Annapolis Royal married Frenchman Jean Soucaire or Souchier probably at Môle St.-Nicolas before 1776.  She died there in July 1788, age 39.  She likely was the Anne Brau, age 12, counted with the family of Jean/Pierre Boucher and Félicité Breau in South Carolina.  Anne's son Pierre-Félix, called Félix, Soucaire had been born at the naval base the month before her death, so Anne may have died from the rigors of childbirth.  Félix died the following October, joining three of his older brothers--Antoine, Marin, and Jean, fils--in an early grave.  Charles, son of Pierre Breau and Anne Dupuis of Rivière-Ste.-Croix, Minas, married fellow Acadian Marie-Angélique _____ of Pointe-Beauséjour, Chignecto, at Môle St.-Nicolas in November 1777.  Charles Breau, master carpenter, and Marie-Angélique Bourgeois, had at least three daughters at Môle St.-Nicolas:   Marie-Madeleine was baptized, age 1 month, in November 1778; Marie-Angélique-Geneviève was born in December 1781 but died the following September; and Victoire-Perpétué was in November 1783.  Vital "of St-Charles in Beausejour," son of Charles Breau and Marie Peltier, married Frenchwoman Marie-Anne Vaudrille, widow of Lise Quatrehommes of St.-Regret, France, "a soldier of the Legion in the Company of d'Usson," at Bombarde, south of Môle St.-Nicolas, in October 1788.  One wonders where "St-Charles in Beausejour" may have been:  Minas?  Chignecto?  Marie-Modeste Breau of Annapolis Royal, widow of Jean-Claude Monnier, died at Môle St.-Nicolas, age 40, in December 1788. 

Breaus still in Nova Scotia faced a hard dilemma.  The Treaty of Paris of February 1763 stipulated in its Article 14 that persons dispersed by the war had 18 months to return to their respective territories.  However, British authorities refused to allow any of the Acadian prisoners in the region to return to their former lands as proprietors.  If Acadians chose to remain in, or return to, Nova Scotia, they could live only in small family groups in previous unsettled areas or work for low wages on former Acadian lands now owned by New England "planters."  If they stayed, they must also take the hated oath of allegiance to the new British king, George III, without reservation.  They would also have to take the oath if they joined their cousins in Canada.  After all they had suffered on the question of the oath, few self-respecting Acadians would consent to take it if it could be avoided.  Some Halifax exiles, including Breaus, chose to relocate to Miquelon, a French-controlled island off the southern coast of Newfoundland.  Others considered going to French St.-Domingue, where Acadian exiles in the British colonies already had gone, or to the Illinois country, the west bank of which still belonged to France, or to French Louisiana, which, thanks to British control of Canada, was the only route possible to the Illinois country for Acadian exiles.  Whatever their choice, they refused to remain in L'Acadie.  So they gathered up their money and their few possessions and prepared to leave their homeland.  Of the 600 who left Halifax in late 1764 bound for Cap-Français, St.-Domingue, at least 10 of them were Breaus.

Meanwhile, the many Breaus in Maryland endured life among English colonists who, despite their Catholic roots, did not care much for the French "papists" who had been thrust upon them.  When word reached them that the Spanish would welcome them in Louisiana, where some of their relatives had gone, they pooled their meager resources to charter ships that would take them to New Orleans.  Breaus were part of the first and second continents from Maryland who reached Louisiana in September 1766 and July 1767, but the great majority of them were part of the third contingent, which reached New Orleans in February 1768.  They could not have anticipated the cold reception awaiting them in the Spanish colony.296

Broussard

By 1755, descendants of François Brossard and Catherine Richard of the haute rivière could be found at Annapolis Royal; Grand-Pré and Ste.-Famille, Pigiguit, in the Minas Basin; Village-des-Beausoleils on the upper Petitcoudiac in the trois-rivières area; Port-Toulouse on Île Royale; and Rivière-du-Nord-Est on Île St.-Jean.  Le Grand Dérangement of the 1750s scattered this large family even farther. 

After yet another war erupted between Britain and France in 1754, the Acadians were again caught in the middle of it.  When British and New England forces attacked Fort Beauséjour at Chignecto in June 1755, Broussards from the upper Petitcoudiac were among the area Acadians who were serving in the fort as militia, though they may have left the fort a few days before it surrendered on June 16.  Governor Lawrence was so incensed to find so-called French Neutrals fighting with French troupes de la marine at Beauséjour that he ordered his officers to deport the Chignecto Acadians to the southernmost British colonies on the Atlantic seaboard.  In mid-October 1755, the British transported Alexandre dit Beausoleil and his nephew Victor to South Carolina aboard the British warship HMS Syren.  They were transported in chains, under heavy guard, along with other Acadian "troublemakers."  They reached Charles Town in late November and were held in close confinement on Sullivan's Island outside of the city.  

Before the deportation ships arrived at Chignecto, some of the Acadians being held at Fort Lawrence managed to escape, Joseph dit Beausoleil among them.  He rejoined his wife and younger children at Petitcoudiac, and they headed into the wilderness north of their home, not only hiding from the British patrols sent out to capture them, but also engaging in what today is called guerrilla warfare, including privateering in the Bay of Fundy to harass British shipping.  For a time, Beausoleil's "headquarters" was at Shediac on the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore, where he coordinated his resistance activities with Canadian Lieutenant Charles Deschamps de Boishébert, who had commanded French forces on Rivière St.-Jean. 

Although at first held in close confinement in South Carolina, Alexandre and Victor had been allowed to go to the workhouse in Charles Town, from which they escaped with seven companions.  They made their way through the coastal swamps and marshes of the Santee River valley into the Carolina backcountry.  After months of avoiding British settlers and colonial militia, assisted no doubt by Indians friendly to the French, they made their way to French Fort Duquesne on the upper Ohio, from there to Canada, and then down the Rivière St.-Jean portage back to L'Acadie.  According to Carl Brasseaux, "Only two Acadians are known to have completed the trek"--Alexandre and Victor Broussard.  Amazingly, Alexandre was in his late 50s at the time, but the rigors of advancing old age could not stop him from rejoining his family.  He and Victor appeared at the Acadian settlement on Rivière St.-Jean in June 1756, about the time that 50 or so other Chignecto Acadians deported to the southern colonies returned to the St.-Jean valley by open boat after a harrowing ordeal of their own.  Alexandre and Victor did not remain on Rivière St.-Jean but moved on to Shediac, where they reunited with their family and re-joined the Acadian resistance. 

British forces deported the Acadians at Minas in late October 1755, sending them to Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and New England.  The Broussards at Minas went to Maryland.  Claude Broussard of Ste.-Famille, Pigiguit, who had remarried at Annapolis Royal in November 1754, in his late 50s, died in Maryland.  Claude's son Jean and his wife Anne Landry were deported to Maryland with son Firmin, age 3.  Jean and Anne had at least one more son in Maryland--Jean, fils, born in c1760.  Jean, père died in Maryland in c1766 on the eve of the family's movement to Louisiana.  Wife Anne was pregnant at the time of his death.  Augustin, son of perhaps Charles Broussard of Grand-Pré, was only 7 years old when he landed in Maryland in 1755.  He soon became an orphan.  

The Broussards at Annapolis Royal escaped the British round up there in the fall of 1755, spent a terrible winter in the woods and along the Fundy shore, crossed the bay to the French-controlled side in March 1756, and made their way north to the Rivière St.-Jean settlements before joining their kinsmen at Shediac and Miramichi on the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore, where they fought starvation, hard winters, and British raiding parties.  Jean-Baptiste fought with older brothers Alexandre and Joseph dit Beausoleil in the Acadian resistance.  When his brothers "surrendered" to British forces at Fort Cumberland, formerly French Fort Beauséjour, in late 1759, Jean-Baptiste refused to join them and took his family to Québec.  One account says that his wife, two children, and his mother-in-law died on the way to Canada.  One of his daughters by his first wife remarried at Île Jesus, near Montréal, in June 1761.  Jean-Baptiste died at Mascouche near Montréal in July 1770, in his late 60s--five years after his older brothers had died in faraway Louisiana.  

The Broussards on Île Royale and Île St.-Jean, living in territory controlled by France, escaped the British roundups in Nova Scotia during the fall of 1755.  Their respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  After the fall of the French fortress at Louisbourg in July 1758, the victorious British swooped down on the islands and deported most of the Acadians there to France.  The crossing to the mother country devastated the family.  Marie Broussard crossed with husband Honoré Préjean and nine children aboard the British transport Queen of Spain, which left the Maritimes in September and reached St.-Malo in mid-November.  Every one of the family died at sea.  Jean-Baptiste, age 37, son of Claude Broussard of Pigiguit, wife Osite Landry, age 28, sons Joseph, age 7, Grégoire, age 2, and daughters Madeleine, age 9, Marguerite, age 5, and Rosalie, age 3, crossed on one of the five British transports that left the Gut of Canso in late November and reached St.-Malo in late January 1759.  The death toll among the 1,033 passengers aboard those vessels reached nearly 50 percent, a number of them Broussards.  Jean-Baptiste's son Jean-Baptiste-Paul was born aboard ship in December.  Only wife Osite and two of her children--Madeleine and newborn Jean-Baptiste-Paul--survived the crossing.  Marguerite, Rosalie, and Grégoire died at sea.  Jean-Baptiste, père died in a St.-Malo hospital a month after they reached the port, and son Joseph died a month after that.  Osite remarried to fellow Acadian Augustin Boudrot at Pleudihen near St.-Malo in August 1760 and gave him at least nine children.  Jean-Baptiste Broussard's unmarried younger brothers Charles, age 26, and Firmin, age 21, also crossed to St.-Malo on one of the Five Ships.  Firmin and Charles survived the crossing, but the ordeal proved to be too much for Firmin, who died at Buet near St.-Malo in late April 1759 and was buried at nearby Pleudihen.  Brother Pierre-Paul Broussard dit Courtiche, age 32, crossed on one of the Five Ships with wife Madeleine Landry, age 31, sons Jean-Baptiste, age 8, and Pierre, age 1, and daughters Isabelle, age 6, and Marie-Marguerite, age 4.  Pierre-Paul, Madeleine, and two of their children survived the crossing, but two of the children--Jean-Baptiste and Marie-Marguerite--died at Pleudihen in April 1759 no doubt from the rigors of the crossing.  Pierre-Paul's younger unmarried brother François, age 22, also crossed with them and died at the hospital in St.-Malo in February 1759.  Pierre-Paul and Marguerite settled at Pleudihen and had more children in the area--Joseph-Osithe was born at Buet in March 1760 but died at Pleudihen in August 1761, Charles-Jean was born at Bas Champs in June 1763, Jean-Joseph at La Coquenais in March 1766, and Marie-Josèphe at Bas Champs in August 1768.  Charles settled at Pleudihen and married Anne, daughter of fellow Acadians Joseph Aucoin and Anne Trahan, at nearby Plouër in October 1764.  They settled at La Coquenais near Pleudihen, where at least three children were born to them--Marie-Isabelle in March 1766, Joseph-Charles in November 1767, and Madeleine-Josèphe in December 1769.  

Some of the Broussards who were deported to France from Île St.-Jean in 1758 ended up in ports other than St.-Malo.  Joseph Broussard of Grand-Pré and Île St.-Jean and his sons Charles, age 15, and Jean, age 13, landed at Cherbourg, where Joseph died in January 1759, age 45, probably from the rigors of the crossing.  Charles married Frenchwoman Bonne-Jacqueline-Françoise Castel probably at Cherbourg in c1764.  They had at least five sons, all born probably at Cherbourg--Jean-Charles-Joseph, François, Jacques, Pierre in March 1771, and Joseph-Dominique, called Dominique, in May 1772.  Daughter Bonne-Marguerite was born at Cherbourg in September 1773.  Charles's younger brother Jean married Marguerite, daughter of fellow Acadian Honoré Comeau, at Cherbourg in July 1773.  In the early 1770s, Charles, Jean, and their families participated in a venture in the Poitou region that attempted to settle Acadians from the port cities on a nobleman's land near Châtellerault.  Charles's son Louis was born near Vienne, Poitou, in February 1774.  Jean's sons Jean-Baptiste and Joseph were born near Vienne in May 1774 and November 1775.  After two years of effort, the venture failed, and Charles, Jean, and dozens of other frustrated Acadians retreated with their families to the port city of Nantes in December 1775.  Two years later, the Broussards were residing at Chantenay near Nantes, where Charles and Bonne-Jacqueline had two more sons--Guillaume-Médard, born in June 1776 but died two months later, and Jean le jeune, born in February 1778 but died at age 3 in September 1780.  Jean and Marguerite also had at least two more children at Chantenay--twins Florence-Adélaïde and Pierre, born in October 1777, but Pierre died at age 10 months in July 1778.  Charles remarried to Euphrosine, daughter of fellow Acadian Pierre Barrieau, at St.-Martin-de-Chantenay in June 1784.  Jean-Baptiste-Paul Broussard, the newborn who had survived the crossing from the Maritimes to St.-Malo in 1758-59, married Marie, daughter of fellow Acadian Étienne Melanson, at Pleudihen in June 1784.  Their son Jean-Pierre was born at La Coquenais, near Pleudihen, in March 1785.  

In the early 1780s, the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France a chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana, where many of their kinsmen had settled decades before.  Brothers Charles and Jean Broussard of Chantenay took up the offer.  However, their Broussard cousins still at Pleudihen--brothers Pierre-Paul dit Courtiche and Charles, and their nephew Jean-Baptiste-Paul--chose to remain in France.  

In North America, Joseph dit Beausoleil Broussard and his fellow Acadians harassed the British as best they could.  In late 1756, they abandoned their "headquarters" at Shediac and moved north to a new camp at Miramichi, also on the Gulf of St. Lawrence, to put more distance between themselves and the British forces at Fort Cumberland.  Their resistance exacted a terrible price.  Obtaining food, clothing, and shelter for their families, especially during the winter, continually burdened the resistance fighters and limited their effectiveness against a well-fed, well-supplied, and comfortably-sheltered foe.  Joseph's wife Agnès was among the many Acadians who died of sickness or starvation at Miramichi during the terrible winter of 1756-57.  Some historians insist that all of the children at Miramichi died that winter.  Son Victor's twin sons may have been among the many who perished.  After the terrible ordeal at Miramichi, some of the resistance fighters retreated farther up the coast towards the French outpost at Restigouche at the head of the Baie des Chaleurs.  The Broussards moved south, instead, to the woods north of Rivière Petitcoudiac, an area they knew intimately, and continued their forays into British Nova Scotia, on sea as privateers as well as on land as hit-and-run partisans.

By the autumn of 1759, after four years of unimaginable hardship made worse by the fall of Louisbourg and Québec, which cut them off from French assistance, the Broussards and their compatriots responded to a British offer of amnesty.  They agreed to surrender to Colonel Joseph Frye, the commander at Fort Cumberland, to spare their families the horror of another Acadian winter.  Older brother Alexandre volunteered to be held as hostage at Fort Cumberland until Joseph and other resistance leaders surrendered the following spring.  However, the British reneged on their amnesty offer, and the Broussards and their fellow partisans continued their struggle from Restigouche.  The British attacked the French stronghold in July 1760 and captured Joseph, Alexandre, and 300 other Acadians and transported them to the prison compound on Georges Island, Halifax harbor.  Joseph also spent time in confinement at Fort Edward, Pigiguit.  There, he managed to communicate with Acadian partisans still on the loose in the area, so the British returned him to Georges Island, where he and his extended family spent the next few years surviving as best they could. 

In the prison camps of Nova Scotia--at Fort Cumberland and Fort Edward as well as on Georges Island--the Broussards were joined by hundreds of other Acadians whom the British had rounded up at Miramichi, Restigouche, Cap-Sable, Rivière St.-Jean, and other places of refuge in greater Acadia.  Many were kin to the Broussards by blood or by marriage and thus were part of their extended family.  They included Acadians named Arseneau, Babineau, Bergeron, Bernard, Boudrot, Bourg, Bourgeois, Breau, Brun, Caissie dit Roger, Comeau, Cormier, Darois, Doucet, Dugas, Gautrot, Girouard, Godin, Guénard, Guédry, Guilbeau, Hébert,  Hugon, Landry, LeBlanc, Léger, Martin, Michel, Pellerin, Pitre, Poirier, Prejean, Richard, Robichaud, Roy, Saulnier, Savoie,  Semer, Surette, Thibodeau, Trahan, and Vincent.  The Broussards, still led by Joseph dit Beausoleil, did what they could to keep these kinsmen close. 

Ironically, beginning in the summer of 1761, dozens of the young Acadians being held in Nova Scotia prisons--only men who had not been part of the partisan resistance, so none were Broussards--were enticed to return to their former lands and rebuild and maintain the earthen barriers that had transformed the Fundy settlements into an agricultural paradise.  The New England "planters" who in 1760 had begun to occupy Acadian farmland in the Annapolis and Minas basins had no idea how to maintain the dykes and aboiteaux that kept the fertile fields from becoming tidal marsh again.  The young Acadians worked diligently for their New England "masters" and were paid in Canadian card money.  Despite their plunge from landowners to mere laborers on their former lands, many of them harbored the forlorn hope of living on their fathers' farms again. 

This was not to be.  Charles Lawrence, the great nemesis of all Acadians, died at Halifax in 1760 not long after his promotion to governor, but he was succeeded by Jonathan Belcher, Jr., who hated and feared the Acadians as much as Lawrence ever did.  In July 1762, encouraged by Belcher, the Nova Scotia council ordered the deportation of the Acadian prisoners from the colony--600 of them, including the detainees on Georges Island as well as men held at Fort Edward and Annapolis Royal without their families!  In late August, five ships carried the Acadians to Boston, but the Massachusetts authorities  refused to take them.  In mid-October, the prisoners returned to Halifax and were escorted back to Georges Island.  Broussards likely were among them. 

The war with Britain finally ended with the Treaty of Paris of February 1763.  Article 14 of the treaty gave all persons dispersed by the war 18 months to return to their respective territories.  However, British authorities refused to allow any of the Acadian prisoners in the region to return to their former lands as proprietors.  If Acadians chose to remain in Nova Scotia, they could live only in the interior of the peninsula in small family groups, away from their lands along the Fundy shore, or they could continue to work for low wages as laborers on their former lands, now, or soon to be, controlled by New England "planters."  If the Acadians stayed, they must also take the hated oath of allegiance to the new British king, George III ... without reservation.  

Most of the Acadians held in Nova Scotia during the last months of the war were still there in the autumn of 1764.  Nova Scotia's new governor, Montague Wilmot, "tender'd to them" the oath of allegiance as well as "offers of a settlement in this Country."  Most of the Acadians rebuffed the oath as well as the offer.  British leaders in Halifax, led by former lieutenant governor and current colonial chief justice Jonathan Belcher, Jr., still felt threatened by the Acadian presence in Nova Scotia.  They were especially fearful of Beausoleil Broussard and other resistance leaders.  Belcher encouraged Governor Wilmot to remove the Acadians from the province despite orders from London to keep them in Nova Scotia and entreaties from the New England "planters" to retain them as cheap but highly skilled labor.  Wilmot resisted Belcher at first, so the chief justice hatched a scheme to send the Acadians from Halifax to Baskenridge, New Jersey, to work as indentured servants on an English nobleman's land; Belcher's father just happened to be the governor of New Jersey at the time, and the nobleman was one of his father's political allies.  Governor Wilmot also received a proposal to send 30 Acadian families to New York colony to work as indentured servants there.  Luckily for the Acadians, neither scheme came to fruition.  Infected, finally, by Belcher's fear of Acadian treachery, Wilmot proposed to his uncle, the powerful Earl of Halifax, the deportation of the Acadian "prisoners" in Nova Scotia to the British West Indies, but the earl ignored his nephew's scheme.  Determined to be rid of the Acadians, Wilmot conceived a plan that he was certain would discourage them from remaining in Nova Scotia.  First, he crafted a new ironclad oath for them that insulted their Roman Catholic faith.  Most compellingly, and against every directive from his superiors in London, he gave the resistance leaders and their families a hard choice:  either submit to deportation to the British West Indies or remain imprisoned at Georges Island. 

Nova Scotia was no longer a welcome place for the descendants of its original settlers. 

Too proud to work for wages, unwilling to work as indentured servants in colonies where they could lose their religion as well as their culture, unable to return to their precious farms in the upper Fundy basins, and determined not to take the hated oath, the Broussards and their kinsmen had to find a suitable place to put down new roots.  The St. Lawrence valley was a poor choice; they were hearing stories of how the French Canadians treated with contempt Acadian refugees who had settled among them.  Besides, Canada was as much a British possession now as Nova Scotia, and settling on the St. Lawrence would require them to take the oath.  Nor was it likely that Wilmot would allow the troublesome Broussards and their partisan compatriots to settle as close as Québec to their former lands in greater Acadia.  The Illinois country on the upper Mississippi was a viable option, but the British would not let them take the shortest route there via Canada, and France had just ceded the eastern part of Illinois to Britain.  Moreover, Indian uprisings, including one led by the Ottawa chief Pontiac, were ravaging the western frontier, and the fighting there could last for years.

But there were other regions of North America still controlled by France, such as the west bank of the Illinois country in today's Missouri, which they would have to reach via New Orleans.  Rumors of a Spanish cession notwithstanding, the French also retained control of New Orleans and the west bank of the lower Mississippi in what was left of French Louisiana.  France also controlled St.-Domingue, today's Haiti, in the Caribbean Basin, where hundreds of Acadian exiles from the British seaboard colonies recently had gone to start a new life in the French West Indies.  However, letters from Acadians in St.-Domingue detailed the horrors of the climate and maltreatment there at the hands of French officials.  There was always the mother country itself, where the British had deported hundreds of Acadians earlier in the war and to where the Acadians held in England had been recently repatriated.  But even with permission from the French crown to repatriate to the mother country, a cross-Atlantic voyage would be difficult and expensive ... as would a voyage from Halifax to the French West Indies.  There was much for the Broussards and their kinsmen to consider, and time was running out.  

After much deliberation, the old resistance fighters and their kin chose to go to French St.-Domingue.  No higher authority planned their move from Halifax to the Caribbean Basin, though Wilmot was happy to provide them with rations for the voyage.  Pooling the money their sons had saved from months of labor on land their fathers once had owned, the Broussard party left Halifax in late November 1764 aboard a chartered English schooner--over 200 men, women, and children.  They reached Cap-Français, St.-Domingue, in January and could see even in that winter month that the island's climate was unsuitable for them.  They had hoped to reunite with relatives there, but many of the St.-Domingue Acadians were either dead or dying from tropical diseases, starvation, and overwork.  Just as disturbing, there was little chance of acquiring productive farm land for themselves in the island's plantation-slave economy.  They could see no future for their children in St.-Domingue, despite its being a French colony.  

So the Broussard party welcomed aboard a hand full of St.-Domingue Acadians related to members of the party, sailed west through the Florida Strait into the Gulf of Mexico, and then on to the lower Mississippi River, gateway to the Illinois country.  They reached Louisiana in February 1765, their arrival at La Balize, near the mouth of the river, a complete surprise to the French caretaker government still in control of the colony.

The hand full of Broussards in Maryland endured life among English colonists who, despite their Catholic roots, did not care much for the French "papists" who had been thrust upon them.  When word reached them that the Spanish would welcome in Louisiana, where some of their relatives had gone, they pooled their meager resources to charter ships that would take them to New Orleans.  Broussards were part of the first and second continents from Maryland who reached Louisiana in September 1766 and July 1767.198

Brun

By 1755, a few of the descendants of Vincent Brun and his second wife Renée Breau had moved to Minas, Chignecto, Chepoudy, Petitcoudiac, and Île St.-Jean, but the great majority of them remained in the Annapolis River valley, where they had lived for generations.  Le Grand Dérangement of the 1750s scattered this large family even farther. 

The first Acadians rounded up by British forces in the fall of 1755 were the ones in the Chignecto area, including the trois-rivières settlements of Chepoudy and Petitcoudiac.  Governor Lawrence was so incensed that some of the Chignecto Acadians had fought with the French in the defense of Fort Beauséjour that summer, that he ordered them deported to the southern-most colonies of Georgia and South Carolina.  One Brun wife ended up in South Carolina, where she was counted as a widow in 1763.  Some of the Bruns, including Claude, a grandson of Vincent Brun, managed to elude the British at Chignecto and escape north to the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore.  Claude died in his early 80s at Rivière-Ouelle on the lower St. Lawrence in March 1760, so he and some of his family made it all the way to Canada.  A grandson of Claude's brother Abraham married at Restigouche, at the head of the Baie des Chaleurs, in January 1760.  

British forces rounded up the Acadians in the Annapolis River valley in the fall of 1755 and deported them to Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, and North Carolina.  The ship headed for North Carolina, the Pembroke, never made it to that colony.  The Acadians seized the vessel, took it to Baie Ste.-Marie and then crossed the Bay of Fundy to the lower Rivière St.-Jean and escaped into the interior of present-day New Brunswick.  Bruns may have been aboard the Pembroke.  The ships bound for New England and New York, however, reached their destinations.  Bruns were definitely on some of those vessels. 

Some Bruns at Port-Royal escaped the British roundup and made their way north to Rivière St.-Jean or to Shediac, Richibouctou, Miramichi, and Restigouche on the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore, where they fought starvation, hard winters, and British raiding parties.  Some moved on to Canada.  A great-granddaughter and a great-grandson of Vincent Brun died at Québec City in November 1757 and May 1758, respectively. 

Living in territory controlled by France, the hand full of Bruns on Île St.-Jean escaped the British roundups in Nova Scotia in the fall of 1755.  Their respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  After the fall of the French fortress at Louisbourg in July 1758, the victorious British rounded up most of the Acadians on Île St.-Jean and deported them to France.  Marie-Madeleine, daughter of Charles Brun and Anne Caissie of Pointe Beauséjour, Chignecto, was among the deportees  She married Pierre, son of fellow Acadians Jean Labauve and Agnès Saulnier of Rivière-aux-Canards, at St.-Martin des Champs, Morlaix, France, in September 1770.  She died in France by October 1784, when her husband remarried at St.-Martin-de-Chantenay, near Nantes.  

Back in North America, the Bruns who found refuge on the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore did not enjoy their freedom for very long.  After the fall of Québec and Montréal in 1759 and 1760, British forces attacked Restigouche, the last French stronghold in North America, in the summer of 1760.  Some of the Acadians there managed to escape, but others fell into British hands and ended up as prisoners of war in Nova Scotia, especially at Halifax.  About that time, Acadians who had resisted the British in present-day southeastern New Brunswick also surrendered and ended up as prisoners in Nova Scotia.  One of them was Anne Brun, wife of Jean-Baptiste, son of Acadian resistance leader Alexandre Broussard dit Beausoleil and his wife Marguerite Thibodeau.  

In the early 1760s, even before the war with Britain ended, South Carolina authorities encouraged the Acadians in their colony to emigrate to French-held St.-Domingue, today's Haiti, where the French used them as cheap labor on a new naval base at Môle St.-Nicolas on the north side of the island.  Anne-Marie, another daughter of Charles Brun and Anne Caissie, married Jacques Godichon of Gonnave, Anjou, d'Angers, France, at Môle St.-Nicolas in February 1782.  

After the war with Britain finally ended, one Brun wife, Agnès, widow of Paul Doucet, left Massachusetts in 1764 with an infant daughter and joined her fellow Acadians at Halifax.  Most of the Bruns who left New England and New York, however, headed north to Canada to join their kinsmen already there.  Though now also a British possession, the northern province was populated largely by fellow French Catholics, many of them Acadian exiles.  So, in a colony nearly as old as Acadia, descendants of Vincent Brun began the slow, inexorable process of becoming Canadiennes.  Especially after 1766, Bruns could be found on the upper St. Lawrence or along the Richelieu River at St.-Anne-de-la-Pérade, Bécancour, Nicolet, St.-Philippe-de-Laprairie, L'Acadie, Maskinongé, St.-Michel-d'Yamaska, Yamachiche, Verchères, Pointe-du-Lac, St.-Denis-sur-Richelieu, and at Québec City; on the lower St. Lawrence and Rivière Chaudière at St.-Marie-de-Beuce, Ste.-Famille and St.-Pierre on Île d'Orléans, Rivière-Ouelle, Cap-St.-Ignace, Rivière-du-Loup, and Kamouraska; and at Carleton on the southern Gaspé Peninsula.  Bruns also lived in present-day New Brunswick on Rivière St.-Jean and at Memramcook, and in Nova Scotia on Baie Ste.-Marie.  

Meanwhile, the Acadians being held at Halifax faced a hard dilemma. The Treaty of Paris of February 1763 stipulated in its Article 14 that persons dispersed by the war had 18 months to return to their respective territories.  However, British authorities refused to allow any of the Acadian prisoners in the region to return to their former lands as proprietors.  If Acadians chose to remain in, or return to, Nova Scotia, they could live only in small family groups in previous unsettled areas or work for low wages on former Acadian lands now owned by New England "planters."  If they stayed, they must also take the hated oath of allegiance to the new British king, George III, without reservation.  They would also have to take the oath if they joined their cousins in Canada.  After all they had suffered on the question of the oath, few self-respecting Acadians would consent to take it if it could be avoided.  Some Halifax exiles, including one Brun wife, chose to relocate to Miquelon, a French-controlled island off the southern coast of Newfoundland.  Others considered going to French St.-Domingue, where Acadian exiles in the British colonies already had gone, or to the Illinois country, the west bank of which still belonged to France, or to French Louisiana, which, thanks to British control of Canada, was the only route possible to the Illinois country for Acadian exiles.  Whatever their choice, they refused to remain in L'Acadie.  So they gathered up their money and their few possessions and prepared to leave their homeland.  Of the 600 who left Halifax in late 1764 bound for Cap-Français, St.-Domingue, two were Bruns.197

Bugeaud

By 1755, descendants of surgeon/notary Sr. Alain Bugeaud and Élisabeth Melanson could be found at Pigiguit in the Minas Basin and on Rivière-du-Nord-Est and Rivière-du-Moulin-à-Scie in the interior of Île St.-Jean.  Le Grand Dérangement of the 1750s scattered this family even farther. 

Joseph, fils and Étienne Bugeaud, the two sons of Joseph, père who had remained at Pigiguit when the rest of their family moved to Île St.-Jean, were rounded up by the British in the fall of 1755 and deported to Maryland.  The surgeon's son Paul l'aîné, who also had remained at Minas, was deported with members of his family to Pennsylvania.  

When the British rounded up their cousins in the Minas Basin in the fall of 1755, the Bugeauds on Île St.-Jean, living in territory controlled by France, remained unmolested.  Their respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  After the fall of the French stronghold at Louisbourg in July 1758, the victorious British swooped down on Île St.-Jean, rounded up most of the Acadians there, and transported them to France.  Joseph Bugeaud's younger sons Paul le jeune, Charles, François-Placide, and Mathurin escaped the British roundup on the island, crossed the Mer Rouge to the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore, and eventually found refuge at Restigouche, at the head of the Baie des Chaleurs.  But most of their Bugeaud kinsmen fell into British hands.  The result was devastating to the family:  Alain Bugeaud, père, his wife Madeleine Boudrot, and seven of their children were deported to France, but they never made it.  They were among the hundreds of Acadians who disappeared without a trace when two of the British transports bound for St.-Malo, the Violet and the Duke William, foundered in a North Atlantic storm in December.  Alain, père's son Alain, fils, age 34, his wife Marie-Madeleine Granger, age 28, and two of their children--Simon, age 8, and Marie-Louise, age 3--crossed aboard one of the five British transports that left the Gut of Canso in late November 1758 and reached St.-Malo in late January 1759.  The voyage destroyed this family, too:  Marie-Louise was buried at sea, and Alain, fils and Simon died in French hospitals in February and March 1759, probably from the rigors of the voyage.  Only Marie-Madeleine survived the ordeal; she remarried to fellow Acadian Joseph Bourg, a survivor of the crossing, in June 1760 and helped create an entirely new family.  Alain, fils's first cousin Jean Bugeaud, a widower, lost two of his three young children--Joseph, age 5, and Xavier, age 3--aboard one of the transports.  Jean died in a French hospital two months after he reached France, probably from the rigors of the voyage.  Only Jean's daughter Marie-Rose, age 6, survived the ordeal.  She resided probably with relatives at St.-Servan, near St.-Malo, from 1759-61.  After 1761, she disappears from history, probably into an early grave.  Alain, fils and Jean's cousin Marie-Madeleine Bugeaud, wife of Sr. Charles Jousseaume, lost two of her four children aboard one of the transports.  She, her husband, and her surviving children left St.-Malo for La Rochelle, his native city, in March 1759.  

In the early 1780s, when the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France a chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana, over 1,500 Acadians accepted the offer, but none of them were Bugeauds.  Marie-Madeleine Granger, once married to Alain Bugeaud, fils, was among the Acadians who went to Louisiana.  She went with her second husband, Joseph Bourg, and four of their children, but none of her children were Bugeauds.  

Back in North America, the Bugeauds from Île St.-Jean who had taken refuge on the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore also enjoyed a relatively short respite from capture.  After the fall of Québec in September 1759, the British attacked the French stronghold at Restigouche the following summer.  The Bugeaud brothers, along with other Acadian refugees, again slipped away from the determined enemy.  Some of the escapees moved on to Canada, but the Bugeauds moved no farther than Carleton and Bonaventure in Gaspésie on the north shore of the Baie des Chaleurs, where, after the war finally ended, the British let them be.  In the early 1800s, at least one family of Bugeauds from Gaspésie moved south to Caraquet, in present-day northeastern New Brunswick.  Bugeauds from the Gaspésie region may have been part of the Acadian exodus to the St. Lawrence valley beginning in the early 1760s.  Meanwhile, the Bugeauds sent to Pennsylvania in 1755 chose to join their kinsmen in Canada.  Typical of most, if not all, Acadian families, these Acadiennes of Canada lost touch with their Cadien cousins hundreds of miles away, and until the Acadian reunions of the mid-twentieth century, may even have forgotten the others existed. 

The Bugeauds in Maryland endured life among Englishmen who, despite their colony's Catholic roots, did not care much for the French "papists" who had been thrust upon them.  Colonial authorities, calling them Bigeos, counted Joseph Bugeaud, fils, his younger brother Étienne, and their families at Oxford on Maryland's Eastern Shore in July 1763.  Joseph, fils and his wife Anne, daughter of fellow Acadians Jean LeBlanc and Jeanne Bourgeois, who he had married at Pigiguit in c1750, were counted with four children at Oxford, a son and three daughters.  Anne gave birth to another daughter in the colony less than two years later.  Étienne and his wife Brigitte, daughter of fellow Acadians Jean-Baptiste Chênet and Anne Potier of Île St.-Jean, who he had married probably at Pigiguit in c1750, had four young children at Oxford, two sons and two daughters.  Also in their household was Marie Bresseau, probably Brasseur, a widow.  Étienne's wife Brigitte died probably at Oxford soon after the July 1763 census.  A few years later, when word reached the Acadians in Maryland that the Spanish would welcome them in Louisiana, where many of their compatriots from Halifax had gone, they pooled their meager resources to charter ships that would take them to New Orleans.  The Bugeauds had no close relatives in Louisiana, though Joseph, fils's wife Anne LeBlanc may have had cousins there.  No matter, the brothers signed up with the first contingent leaving the colony, which left for New Orleans in June 1766.211

Caissie dit Roger

In 1755, descendants of Roger dit Jean Caissie and Marie-Françoise Poirier could be found at the family's base at Chignecto and on Île St.-Jean.  Le Grand Dérangement of the 1750s scattered this family to the winds. 

The Acadians at Chignecto were the first to endure a disruption of their life.  In the early 1750s, Canadian soldiers, assisted by Mi'kmaq warriors led by Abbé Jean-Louis Le Loutre, burned Acadian homesteads in the British-controlled area east of Rivière Missaguash, forcing the habitants to move to the French-controlled area west of the river.  Caissies may have been among the refugees.  After yet another war erupted between Britain and France in 1754, the Chignecto Acadians were caught in the middle of it.  When British and New England forces attacked Fort Beauséjour in June 1755, Chignecto Acadians served in the fort as militia.  They, too, along with the French troupes de la marine, became prisoners of war when the fort surrendered on June 16.  Governor Lawrence was so incensed to find so-called French Neutrals fighting with French regulars at Beauséjour that he ordered his officers to deport the Chignecto Acadians to the southernmost British colonies on the Atlantic seaboard.  Caissies were among them.  Joseph Caissie, his wife, and five children, as well as Alexandre Caissie, his wife, and six children, were shipped to South Carolina aboard the British transport Edward Cornwallis, which reached Charles Town in mid-November.  Aboard the transport Endeavor, which arrived in Charles Town harbor at the same time, was Marie-Josèphe Caissie, wife of François Lapierre, and their three children.  In August 1756, colonial officials dispatched 30 Acadians from Charles Town to Prince Frederick Winyaw, a rural Anglican parish farther up the coast at present-day Plantersville.  Among the party was Pierre Caissie

Not all of the Caissies sent to the southern colonies remained there until the end of the war.  In the spring of 1756, the governors of Georgia and South Carolina allowed the Acadians in their colonies who were not under arrest to return to their homeland as best they could.  Following the example of merchant Jacques Vigneau dit Maurice of Baie-Verte, 200 of the exiles purchased or built small vessels and headed up the coast.  In late August, after weeks of effort, 78 exiles from South Carolina, led by Michel Bourgeois, came ashore on Long Island, New York, and were detained by colonial officials.  On a list of "names of the heads of the French Neutral families, number of their Children returned from Georgia and distributed through the counties of Westchester and Orange," dated 26 August 1756, can be found John Kase, likely Jean Caissie, at Westchester; and Peter Cassing, likely Pierre Caissie, in Orange County. 

Joseph Caissie and his second wife Marie Gaudet ended up in Pennsylvania.  Marguerite Caissie, granddaughter of Roger, with husband François Mangeant dit Saint-Germain of Paris, former collector of rents at Minas, and their son Anselme dit Samuel, ended up in Maryland.  In the late 1750s, they were among the "French Neutrals' assisted by the influential Carrolls, including a future signer of the Declaration of Independence.  In c1762, probably in Maryland, Anselme married Rose ____.  He was the only one of his parents' seven children to create a family of his own. 

Caissies at Chignecto, evidently the majority of them there, escaped the British roundup and found refuge at Shediac, Miramichi, and Restigouche on the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore.  Others moved on to Canada.  Madeleine Gaudet, widow of Roger Caissie's youngest son Michel, died at Québec in November 1757.  Rosalie, 27-year-old daughter of Jean Caissie and his second wife, married Raymond dit Sansrémission, son of François Léger and Marie-Louise Lapierre of Bordeaux, at Montréal in October 1760.

The Caissies on Île-St. Jean, living in territory controlled by France, escaped the British roundup in Nova Scotia during the fall of 1755.  Their respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  After the fall of the French fortress of Louisbourg in July 1758, the British swooped down on Île St-Jean and deported most of the Acadians there to France.  Some escaped to the Gulf of St. Lawrence, but others fell into British hands.  The crossing to France destroyed entire families.  Marie, daughter of Roger and widow of Pierre Deveau; Jacques, son of Roger's son Jean by Jeans's second wife, Jacques's wife Marie-Josèphe Olivier, and their children; Jacque's sister Marie-Blanche, husband Charles Pothier, and their children; and their younger sister Jeanne, her husband Jean-Baptiste Butteau, and their children--died aboard one of the two British transports lost at sea during the crossing to St.-Malo.  Marie, age 51, daughter of Jean Caissie, crossed with husband Michel Grossin and seven children, ages 21 to 5, aboard one of the five British transports that left the Gut of Canso in late November and reached St.-Malo in late January 1759.  Marie and five of her children survived the crossing.  Husband Michel and two of the children, however, either died at sea or in a local hospital not long after the family reached the port.  Marie's younger sister Cécile, age 45, crossed on one of the Five Ships with husband Pierre Grossin, Michel's brother, and nine children, ages 22 to 2.  Cécile, Pierre, and seven of their children survived the crossing, but two of the children died at sea or in a local hospital.  Marie and Cécile Caissie's younger brother Michel, age 38, crossed on one of the Five Ships with wife Marguerite Henry, age 27, and five children--Marie-Osite, called Osite, age 8; Marie-Gervaise, age 7; Jean, age 5; Paul, age 3; and Pierre, age 1.  Michel, Marguerite, and daughter Osite survived the crossing, but the four youngest children died at sea.  Marie, Cécile, and Michel Caissie's sister Madeleine, age unrecorded, widow of Jean-Baptiste Habel dit Duvivier and wife of Louis Le Monnier, age 35, crossed on one of the Five Ships with six of her children from her first marriage, ages 23 to 5.  (Her second husband Louis had fought in the siege of Louisbourg, was captured by the British, and would be held as a prisoner in England for the rest of the war.)  Madeleine and four of her children survived the crossing, but two of the children died at sea.  Marie, Cécile, Michel, and Madeleine Caissie's brother Paul, age 27, a widower, and son Paul, fils, age 2, ended up at Cherbourg in Normandy but joined their kinsmen at St.-Malo.  

Island Caissies who survived the crossing did their best to make a life for themselves in the teeming suburbs of St.-Malo, but not all of them remained there.  Michel Caissie settled with wife Marguerite Henry and their daughter Osite at St.-Servan, on the edge of St.-Malo.  Marguerite gave him at least eight more children there, most of whom survived childhood:  Michel-Claude was born in July 1760; Jean-Baptiste in January 1762; Pierre-Paul in September 1764; Marie-Marguerite in April 1766; Françoise-Théodose in March 1768; Henriette-Victoire, also called Marie-Victoire, in December 1769 but died at age 2 1/2 in May 1772; Amand-Louis was born in October 1771; and Geneviève-Sophie-Ulalie in October 1774.  After moving from Cherbourg, where he had been transported with older sister Marguerite and her family, Michel's younger brother Paul and his son Paul, fils settled at St.-Servan then at Paramé, northeast of St.-Malo.  Paul remarried to Marie-Anne, daughter of fellow Acadians Pierre Haché and Cécile Lavergne and widow of François Chiasson, at Paramé in June 1760.  Marie-Anne also had crossed from Île St.-Jean aboard one of the Five Ships and had lost her husband and three children at sea.  She gave Paul at least two more children at Paramé, both of whom died young:  Marie-Geneviève was born in March 1761 but died at St.-Mélior-des-Ondes, age 1 1/2, in December 1762; and an unnamed girl, age unrecorded, died at home in Paramé in August 1762.  Marie-Anne died at Paramé in August 1762, age 31, and Paul remarried again--his third marriage--to Françoise, daughter of François Cadieux and Marie Blanchard of St.-Servan, at St.-Servan in July 1763.  She gave Paul no more children; he died in a hospital in St.-Malo in October 1763, age 32.  Son Paul, fils, only 7 years old when his father died, remained at St.-Servan.  Michel and Paul's older sister Marie, at age 56, remarried to Charles, son of fellow Acadians Jacques Hébert and Marguerite Landry and widower of Marguerite LeBlanc, at St.-Malo in March 1764.  Charles, age 54 at the time of his remarriage, also had crossed on one of the Five Ships and lost his wife at sea.  Needless to say, Marie gave him no more children.  They settled not only at St.-Malo, but also at nearby St.-Énogat and St.-Servan.  Marie, Michel, and Paul's sister Cécile, now a widow, settled at Paramé, where, at age 46, she remarried to Nicolas, fils, son of Nicolas Bouchard and Anne Veau dit Sylvain of St.-Thomas, Canada, and widower of Acadian Marie-Anne Chiasson, in June 1760.  Nicolas had been counted at Rivière-du-Nord-Est on Île St.-Jean in 1752, so one wonders if he had known Cécile and her husband back on the island.  He also had crossed from Île St.-Jean aboard one of the Five Ships and lost his wife at sea.  Cécile gave him no more children.  In 1763, sister Madeleine's husband Louis Le Monnier arrived at St.-Malo from a prisoner-of-war camp in England and rejoined his family at Paramé. 

In 1758-59, Marguerite, widow of Christophe Delaune and sister of Michel et al., crossed with her children, along with younger brother Paul, not to St.-Malo but to Cherbourg in Normandy.  Paul, with his young son, moved on to St.-Malo, Marguerite remained at Cherbourg, where she remarried to Joseph, son of fellow island Acadians Guillaume Le Prieur dit Dubois and Madeleine Poitevin and widow of Marie Quimine, at Très-Ste.-Trinité in October 1759.  They were still at Cherbourg in 1761 and 1772 but moved to Nantes, on the southern side of Brittany, where hundreds of fellow Acadians resided, by 1785. 

In April 1764, Cécile Caissie, husband Nicolas Bouchard, and their children, as well as sister Madeleine Caissie and her husband Louis Le Monnier, left France for the French colony of Cayenne in Guyane, South America, aboard the ship Le Fort.  Madeleine was pregnant when the family left France; daughter Marie-Jeanne Le Monnier was baptized at age 6 weeks "by a midwife ... because of necessity" aboard Le Fort in September 1764.  Cécile's husband Nicholas was an early casualty of the venture; he died at Sinnamary, Cayenne, in February 1765, age 42.  Cécile remarried again--her third marriage--to Frenchman Alexis, son of Jean-Isaac Hilairet and Marie David of Lansac, Sainte, France, at St.-Sauveur, Cayenne, in July 1765.  Cécile died at St.-Sauveur in August 1768, surrounded by her loved ones; she was 54 years old.  Meanwhile, younger sister Madeleine also died in Guyane, at St.-Joseph, Sinnamary, in August 1765, age 45. 

When the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France the chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana, none of the Caissie's still living in the mother country agreed to take it.  Marguerite Caissie, wife or widow of Joseph Le Prieur, died at Chantenay, near Nantes, in January 1787, age 71.  In 1793, French Revolutionary officials counted a number of Caissies, called Quessy, "in the area around St.-Malo," most of them children of the now-deceased Michel Caissie:  Marie-Osite, age 46, no husband mentioned; Jean-Baptiste, age 31, a sailor, no wife mentioned; Pierre, age 29, also a sailor, no wife mentioned; Françoise, age 25, wife of ____ Jouanne, described as poor; Geneviève, age 18, wife of _____ Tardier; Bonaventure, also a native of St.-Servan, age 6; Marguerite, age 5; and Marie, age 3.  Pierre-Michel Quessy, born at St.-Servan in October 1787, also may have been a son of Michel.  Also counted in the St.-Malo area that year was their first cousin Paul Quessy, fils, age 36, also a seaman, no wife mentioned. 

In North America, conditions got only worse for the Acadians who had escaped the British roundups of 1755 and 1758.  After the fall of Québec in September 1759, the British gathered their forces to attack the remaining French strongholds in New France, one of which was the Acadian refuge at Restigouche, at the head of the Baie des Chaleurs.  In the summer of 1760, the British attacked Restigouche, defeated the French, captured 300 Acadians, many of whom were serving as militia, and dragged them off to prisoner-of-war compounds in Nova Scotia.  Caissies evidently were among them.  In August 1763, British officials counted nine members of the family at Fort Cumberland, formerly French Fort Beauséjour, not far from their old homesteads at Chignecto.  The official called the family members Quessy.  Here were Joseph, son of Michel Caissie and Madeleine Gaudet of Chignecto, wife Marie-Josèphe Lapierre, and seven of their children:  Marie, Jean-Baptiste, Anastasie, Madeleine, Pierre, Joseph dit Maître, and Étienne. 

After the war with Britain finally ended, Acadians being held in the seaboard colonies theoretically were allowed to leave, but not until British officials counted them and discerned their intentions.  In June 1763, officials in Pennsylvania counted Joseph Quisse, likely Caissie, his wife Marie Gaudet, and a child living in that colony.  In July 1763, at Annapolis, Maryland officials counted Marguerite Caissie, age 67, widow of François Mangeant dit Saint-Germain of Paris and former collector of rents at Minas, her son Anselme, and his wife Rose.  In South Carolina that August, colonial officials counted Marie-Josèphe Quessy, husband François Lepierre, and a 13-year-old son; and Française Quesy, age 12, with the family of Simon LeBlanc and Marie Arseneau

In the early 1760s, at least one Caissie chose to follow dozens of her fellow Acadians to French St.-Domingue, today's Haiti.  Françoise, daughter of Jean Caissie and wife of Claude Tandeau of Montauban, France, and Chignecto, died at Port-au-Prince in May 1764, age 40. 

Most of the Caissies in the seaboard colonies chose to go to Canada.  Though now also a British possession, the northern province was populated largely by fellow French Catholics, many of them Acadian exiles.  So, in a colony nearly as old as Acadia, descendants of Roger Caissie began the slow, inexorable process of becoming Canadiennes.  Especially after 1766, Caissies could be found in Canada at at Québec, at Batiscan and Champlain on the upper St. Lawrence between Québec and Trois-Rivières; at Bonaventure, Carleton, Miguasha, Newport, and Paspébiac in Gaspésie, on the north shore of the Baie des Chaleurs; and at Baie-de-Vins, Cocagne, Grande-Digue, and Richibouctou in present-day eastern New Brunswick.  They were especially numerous at Bastiscan.  Typical of most, if not all, Acadian families, the Acadiennes of Canada lost touch with their Cadien cousins hundreds of miles away, and, until the Acadian reunions of the twentieth century, may even have forgotten the others existed. 

The war with Britain over, the Acadians being held at Halifax and other prison compounds in Nova Scotia--Catherine, wife of Jean-Baptiste Bergeron; and young cousins Jean, Jean, and Joseph--faced a hard dilemma.  The Treaty of Paris of the February 1763 stipulated in its Article 14 that persons dispersed by the war had 18 months to return to their respective territories.  In the case of the Acadians, however, this meant that they could return only to French soil.  Chignecto and Île St.-Jean were no longer French territory.  British authorities refused to allow any of the Acadian prisoners in the region to return to their former lands as proprietors.  If Acadians chose to remain in, or return to, Nova Scotia, they could live only in small family groups in previous unsettled areas or work for low wages on former Acadian lands now owned by New England "planters."  If they stayed, they must also take the hated oath of allegiance to the new British king, George III, without reservation.  They would also have to take the oath if they joined their cousins in Canada.  After all they had suffered on the question of the oath, few self-respecting Acadians would consent to take it if it could be avoided.  Some Halifax exiles, including Breaus, chose to relocate to Miquelon, a French-controlled island off the southern coast of Newfoundland.  Others considered going to French St.-Domingue, where Acadian exiles in the British colonies already had gone, or to the Illinois country, the west bank of which still belonged to France, or to French Louisiana, which, thanks to British control of Canada, was the only route possible to the Illinois country for Acadian exiles.  Whatever their choice, they refused to remain in L'Acadie.  So they gathered up their money and their few possessions and prepared to leave their homeland.  Of the 600 who left Halifax in late 1764 bound for Cap-Français, St.-Domingue, four of them were Cassie dit Rogers.

The Acadians in Maryland endured life among British colonists who did not care much for the French "papists" who had been thrust upon them.  When word reached Maryland that the Spanish government in Louisiana was welcoming Acadians to that colony, most of the exiles prepared to charter ships that would take them to New Orleans.  Marguerite Cassie, widow of François Mangeant, her son Anselme, and daughter-in-law Rose were not among.  They chose, instead, to remain in Maryland, where, in the late 1750s, when François was still alive, they had been assisted by the influential Carroll family.  Marguerite's son Anselme was counted by federal census takers at Baltimore in 1790 and 1800, one of the remarkable number of Acadians still residing in the state of Maryland.297

Carret

When the British struck at Chignecto in the summer of 1755, captured Fort Beauséjour, and deported the local Acadians to British colonies along the Atlantic coast, most of the sons of Pierre Carret, père, the old soldier, and Angélique Chiasson ended up in South Carolina.  Jean and Germain Carret and their families sailed aboard the British ship Edward Cornwallis, which left Chignecto in October 1755 and reached Charleston a month later.  Brother Joseph and his family sailed on the British sloop Endeavour, which accompanied the Edward Cornwallis to South Carolina.  Pierre, fils's family, however, seems to have escaped the deportation of October 1755 and made their way north to the St. Lawrence valley, where one of Pierre's daughters married at St.-Laurent, Île d'Orleans, just downriver from Québec, in June 1763.  

In South Carolina, the old soldier's descendants endured the prejudice and neglect they encountered there as best they could.  In late January 1756, not long after he had reached the British colony, Charles-Ignace Carret was declared a lunatic; he had perhaps been unhinged by his experiences aboard one of the British transports.  When the war with Britain finally ended in early 1763, the Acadians remaining in South Carolina were allowed to leave the colony.  Many of them emigrated to French St.-Domingue, today's Haiti, where they hoped to make a new life for themselves.  Among them were descendants of Pierre Carret.  Marie-Thérèse Carret, wife of Jean Grisard or Guisard, whom she had married in St.-Domingue in February 1776, died of a fever at Môle St.-Nicolas, on the north shore of the island, in July 1788; she was 45 years old.  Likely born at Chignecto, she probably was the daughter of one of the younger sons of Pierre Carret.  

The old soldier's daughters and their families who had emigrated to Île St.-Jean in the late 1740s or early 1750s lived in territory controlled by France, so they escaped the British roundup in Nova Scotia in 1755.  Their respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  After the fall of the French fortress at Louisbourg in July 1758, the victorious British swooped down on the island, rounded up most of its Acadian habitants, and deported them to France.  One of Pierre Carret's daughters, Marie, age 40, made the crossing to France aboard one the five British transports that left the Gut of Canso in late December 1758 and reached St.-Malo in late January 1759.  With her was her husband, Jean Henry, and six of their children.  All of the family survived the terrible crossing except the youngest, daughter Anastasie, age 6.  Pierre Carret's daughters and their families remained in France, enduring life there as best they could.  When, in the early 1780s, the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France the chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana, most of the Acadians took it, but none were descendants of Pierre Carret the soldier.  

The Carrets who did go to Louisiana were descendants of the old soldier's namesake, Ignace dit Saint-Jacques Carret of Pointe-à-la-Jeunesse, Île Royale, and his wife Cécile Henry.  Like their namesakes on Île St.-Jean, their respite from British oppression ended after the fall of the French fortress at nearby Louisbourg.  The Acadians and Frenchmen on Île Royale also were packed off to France in late 1758.  The deportation devastated this branch of the Carret family.  They sailed on one or more of the five British transports that left the Gut of Canso in late November and reached St.-Malo in late January 1759.  Ignace, père, age 84 according to the passenger list, and his wife Cécile, age 65, survived the crossing despite their advanced ages.  So did unmarried sons Honoré, age 25, and Ignace, fils, age 13, who traveled with them.  But eight members of the family did not survive the crossing, including three other unmarried sons who traveled with them:  Joseph, age 31, died in the hospital at St.-Servan, near St.-Malo, in March 1759, soon after reaching France.  François, age 21, died in a local hospital in February 1759.  And Zenon, age 20, died probably in the St.-Malo hospital three days after his brother François died.  Married son Charles, age 37, a widower, traveled with three children--daughters Susanne, age 5, and Rosalie, age 2, and son Pierre, age 4.  All three of the children died at sea.  Charles died in the hospital at St.-Servan in early March 1759.   Ignace's married son Jean, age 35, also a widower, accompanied his two daughters--Marie-Rose, age 9, and Thérèse, age 7--aboard one of the Five Ships.  The girls survived, but Jean died in the hospital probably at St.-Malo in February 1759.  

Ignace, père and his remaining family settled in the teeming St.-Malo suburbs.  Honoré married Françoise, daughter of fellow Acadians Charles Benoit and Marie-Madeleine Thériot, at St.-Servan, on the edge of St.-Malo, in March 1759.  They lived for a while at Châteauneuf, south of St.-Malo, where Honoré worked as a day laborer.  They returned to St.-Servan in 1760 and were still there in 1772.  Son Pierre-Marin was born at St.-Servan in July 1761, and Jean-Marie in February 1765 but died at age 2 1/2 in November 1767.  Brother Ignace, fils, also a day laborer, married Mari-Madeleine, called Madeleine, daughter of fellow Acadians Jean Clémençeau and Françoise Gautrot, at St.-Servan in October 1767.  Daughter Marie-Madeleine was born at St.-Servan in September 1768 but died soon afterwards.  Son Eustache-Ignace was born at St.-Malo in March 1770, and Jean le jeune a year later.  Ignace, fils and his family also settled at St.-Servan.  Honoré and Ignace, fils's brother Jean's daughter Marie-Rose married Grégoire, son of fellow Acadians Claude Benoit and Élisabeth Thériot, at St.-Servan in February 1770.  Meanwhile, Ignace, père's wife Cécile Henry died at St.-Suliac, near Châteauneuf, in August 1761, age 65.  Ignace, père died at St.-Suliac three months later, age 74.  

In the early 1770s, French officials came up with a scheme to settle Acadians on farmland owned by an influential ful nobleman in the Poitou region near the city of Châtellerault.  Honoré and Ignace, fils remained at St.-Servan, but their niece Marie-Rose Carret and her husband Grégoire Benoit went to Poitou with the other Acadians.  After two years of effort, most of the Poitou Acadians, including Marie-Rose and Grégoire, retreated to the coastal city of Nantes, where they lived on government subsidies and what work they could find.  By 1784, Honoré and Ignace, fils and their families also had left St.-Servan and settled with their fellow Acadians at Nantes.  When the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France the chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana, members of this branch of the Carret family jumped at the opportunity.215

Célestin dit Bellemère

In 1755, descendants of André Célestin dit Bellemère and Perrine Basile still could be found at Grand-Pré.  The British rounded up son Antoine Célestin's family that autumn and deported them to Maryland.  Like other Minas families in the colony, the Célestins endured life among Englishmen who, despite their colony's Catholic roots, did not care very much for the French "papists" who had been thrust upon them.  In July 1763, colonial authorities counted the families of Charles, Pierre, and Joseph Célestin and their single brothers Honoré and Antoine at Annapolis.  Amazingly, when over 600 of the Maryland Acadians sailed to New Orleans in four expeditions from 1766 to 1769, none of the Célestins joined them.  Surrounded by fellow exiles and French expatriates, they settled at Frenchtown in Baltimore, where their transition from Acadien to Americain went faster for them than for their Acadian cousins who had gone on to the Spanish colony. 

Antoine's older brother Jacques dit Jacob Bellemère and his family also were rounded up by the British in the fall of 1755, but they were sent to Massachusetts and Virginia.  Jacques's daughter Marie-Osite married a Breau in Massachusetts and followed him to Canada in 1767.  Meanwhile, her cousins in the Old Dominion suffered a fate much worse than she and her kinsmen who had been sent to Maryland.  Governor Robert Dinwiddie and Virginia's House of Burgesses refused to allow the exiles to remain in the Old Dominion.  Finally, in the spring of 1756, Dinwiddie and the burgesses made their decision ... the Acadians must go!  In May, the first shipment of Acadians left for England, and in two weeks all of them had gone--299 to Bristol, 250 to Falmouth, 340 to Southampton, 336 to Liverpool--1,225 of the original 1,500.  During the rest of the war, the British treated the Acadians in their midst like incarcerated criminals.  until the Acadians in England were repatriated to France in the spring of 1763, Jacques dit Bellemère's family was held at Southampton.

One of Antoine's descendants seems to have gotten to France before his kinsmen.  Pierre Bellemer, age 22, died at Cherbourg, Normandy, in December 1758, perhaps soon after he arrived aboard a deportation ship from one of the French Maritime islands.  The Très-Ste.-Trinité parish priest who recorded Pierre's burial did not give his parents' names or his place of birth, so one wonders how, or if, he was kin to the Célestin dit Bellemères.

Several of Jacques dit Bellemère's children survived the ordeal at Southampton and ended up in France.  Jacques's son Bruno, born probably at Grand-Pré in c1723, married fellow Acadian Anne Breau, widow of ____ Gautrot, in England in 1759.  After repatriation, they and two of their children--Pierre, born in c1760, and Marie-Marguerite in c1763, plus two of Anne's sons by her first marriage--reached St.-Malo aboard the ship L'Ambition in late May 1763 and settled at St.-Servan, near St.-Malo.  Son Pierre died at St.-Servan in June 1763, age 3 1/2.  Bruno and Marie had at least five more children at St.-Servan between 1765 and 1773:  Jean-Pierre, born in March 1765, died at age 4 in March 1769; Josèphe-Marie was born in November 1766; Rosalie-Geneviève in August 1768 but died at age 4 1/2 in February 1773; Michelle-Françoise was born in April 1771 but died 10 months later; and Perrine-Victoire was born in January 1773 but died the following March.  In the early 1770s, Bruno and Marie became part of a settlement scheme in Poitou that ended tragically for them.  Daughter Marie-Marguerite died near Châtellerault at age 11 1/2 in August 1774.  After Marie-Marguerite's death, only daughter Josèphe-Marie remained.  Bruno died at L'Hopital de Châtellerault in December 1774, in his early 50s.  Wife Anne Breau may have died by then:  When most the Acadians abandoned the Poitou venture in late 1775 and 1776 and retreated to the port city of Nantes, Josèphe-Marie traveled not with her widowed mother but as an orphan with the family of François Boudrot and his second wife Euphrosine Barrieu

Jacques dit Bellemère's son Joseph, born probably at Grand-Pré in c1728, also came to France aboard L'Ambition, with his wife Marguerite Boudrot, who he had married in England in c1759, and two children:  Joseph, fils, born in c1760, and Marie in c1762.  Also with them was Joseph, père's younger sister Félicité, born at Minas in c1741.  They settled at St.-Servan near St.-Malo, where Marguerite gave Joseph three more children:  Marie-Marguerite, born in October 1763 but died the following August; Anne-Marie, born in December 1765; and Jean-Baptiste in February 1767 but died the following May.  Joseph, père died at Hotel-Dieu, St.-Malo, in August 1767; he was 39 years old.  Wife Marguerite died at St.-Servan the following October.  Félicité, who may have raised her two nieces and a nephew, bore a "natural son," Jean-Jacques Bellemère, at St.-Servan in June 1768.  The boy's baptismal record says nothing of who his father might have been.  Félicité was still at St.-Servan in 1772. 

Jacques dit Bellemère's daughter Marguerite, born at Grand-Pré in c1735, married Jean-Baptiste, son of fellow Acadians François LeBlanc and Jeanne Hébert and widower of Marie Landry, at Southampton, England, in August 1758.  Their son Moïse was born at Southampton in September 1761.  They, too, were repatriated to France aboard L'Ambition in May 1763.  Marguerite and Jean-Baptiste had more children in France, at least three more sons and two daughters.  Jean-Baptiste died at Chantenay, near Nantes, in September 1782; he was 58 years old.  One wonders what happened to Marguerite.  She did not go to Louisiana. 

Jacques dit Bellemère's daughter Anastasie, born at Grand-Pré in May 1739, married fellow exile Jean-Baptiste Boudrot probably at Southampton and went with him and two of their children to France aboard L'Ambition in May 1763.  She gave Jean-Baptiste at least five more children in France, including a daughter born in Poitou in 1779 who died at Archigny a year and a half later.  Jean-Baptiste also may have died in Poitou.  Anastasie did not remain there.  At age 45, in August 1784, she remarried to Honoré, 70-yar-old son of Jean-Baptiste Comeau and Anne-Marie Thibodeau of Ste.-Famille, Pigiguit, and widower of Marguerite Poirier, at St.-Martin-de-Chantenay. 

In the early 1780s, the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France the chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana.  Anastasie Bellemère, her husband Honoré Comeau, and three of her Boudrot sons, one of them married, agreed to take it.  Anastasie's niece, Josèphe-Marie, the only surviving child of brother Bruno, also agreed to go there.  The other Bellemères chose to remain in France.192

Chaillou

Jeanne Chaillou, born in c1733, place unrecorded, married Jean-Baptiste, son of Abraham Bourg le jeune and Marie Dugas, on Île St.-Pierre, a French-controlled island off the southern coast of Newfoundland, in October 1763.  Their son Jean was born perhaps on Île St.-Pierre in c1764, and daughter Marie-Geneviève was born on nearby Île Miquelon in c1767.  

Soon after Marie-Geneviève's birth, French authorities determined that îles St.-Pierre and Miquelon were overcrowded and that the Acadian refugees there must be transported to France.  The first of them left in early October 1767 and landed in the ports of St.-Malo, Brest, Lorient, and Rochefort.  More followed in November.  Jean-Baptiste Bourg, wife Jeanne Chaillou, and their children evidently were among the deportees.  Between 1769 and 1775, Jeanne gave Jean-Baptiste three more children, all sons:  Jean-Baptiste, fils at La Rochelle in c1769; André in c1771; and Charles at Monthoiron, Poitou, in January 1775.  The family's presence in Poitou in the early 1770s reveals that it was part of the Acadian settlement venture near the city of Châtellerault, which had commenced in early 1773.  In March 1776, Jean-Baptiste, Jeanne, and their children retreated with other Poitou Acadians to the port city of Nantes.  Jean-Baptiste died there in August 1777, age 44. 

In the early 1780s, the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France a chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana.  Jeanne Chaillou and her four Bourg children agreed to take it.216

Chiasson

By 1755, descendants of Guyon Chiasson dit La Vallée of La Rochelle and his two wives Jeanne Bernard and Marie-Madeleine Martin could be found in the St. Lawrence valley, where they had gone as early as the late 1690s; on Île St.-Jean; and at Chignecto.  Le Grand Dérangement of the 1750s scattered them even farther. 

The first Acadians in Nova Scotia rounded up by the British in the fall of 1755 were the ones at Chignecto.  After yet another war erupted between Britain and France in 1754, the Chignecto Acadians were caught in the middle of it.  When British and New English forces attacked Fort Beauséjour in June 1755, Chignecto settlers, perhaps including Chiassons, pressured by the French, served in the fort as militia.  They, too, along with the French troupes de la marine, became prisoners of war when the fort surrendered on June 16.  Governor Lawrence was so incensed to find so-called French Neutrals fighting with French regulars at Beauséjour that he ordered his officers to deport the Chignecto Acadians to the southernmost British colonies on the Atlantic seaboard.  Chiassons were among them.  Abraham, son of Gabriel dit Pierre, his wife Marie Poirier, and five children, including son Paul, were shipped to South Carolina aboard the British transport Cornwallis.  Also aboard that vessel were Anne Chiasson, her husband Charles Doucet, and their nine children.  Jean Chiasson, a bachelor, went to South Carolina aboard the sloop Endeavor.  Madeleine Chiasson, wife of François Cormier, also ended up in South Carolina.  At least one Chiasson from South Carolina, Paul, son of Abraham, left the colony in late 1763 for Cap-Français, French St.-Domingue, with hundreds of his fellow Acadians. 

Some of their kinsmen escaped the roundup at Chignecto and fled to the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore, where, at Shediac and Mirimichi, they survived as best they could.  Later, they moved on to Restigouche at the head of the Baie des Chaleurs.  Pierre, son of Abraham Chiasson, and Pierre's new wife Osite Landry, along with hundreds of other Acadians, eluded the British for a number of years but eventually were captured or surrendered.  

When the British rounded up their cousins still at Chignecto, the many Chiassons of Île St.-Jean, living on an island still controlled by France, remained unmolested.  Their respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  After the fall of the French fortress at Louisbourg in July 1758, the victorious British rounded up the Acadians on the island and deported them to France.  The crossing to France decimated this branch of the family.  Two Chiasson wives--Judith, daughter of Gabriel dit Pierre and wife of Pierre Le Prieur dit Dubois l'aîné, and her cousin Marie, daughter of Sébastien and wife of Jean-Baptiste Vécot--and both of their families were lost at sea when their ship, the British transport Violet, sank in a North Atlantic storm in December.  There were no survivors.  Many Chiassons and their families also crossed on the five British transports that left the Gut of Canso in late November and reached St.-Malo in late January.  Most of them did not survive the crossing.  François Chiasson, père, age 60, and his son Louis, age 17, died in St.-Malo hospitals soon after the crossing; François's wife Anne Doucet died at sea; only son Chrysostôme, age 12, survived the ordeal.  François, fils, age 31, died at sea, along with daughter Marie, age 12, son François III, age 6, Marie-Geneviève, age 4, Jean-François, age 3, and an unnamed infant, probably Marie-Madeleine, age 1; only his wife Marie-Anne Haché dit Gallant, age 26, survived the crossing.  Jean-Baptiste, called Jean, age 30, another of François, père's sons, survived the crossing, but he lost his wife Louise Precieux, age 25, in a St.-Malo hospital in February.  At least two of their children--Jean, age 6, and Anne, age 4--died at sea.  Marie Chiasson, age 27, wife of Nicolas Bouchard, age 32, died at sea along with two of their four children.  Françoise Chiasson, age 54, her husband Guillaume Patry d'Evran, age 53, and their three children survived the crossing.  Not so Marie-Josèphe, another daughter of Gabriel dit Pierre Chiasson, who died at sea along with husband Jacques Quimine, age 60; only their 23-year-old daughter Françoise survived the crossing.  Marie-Josèphe, called Josèphe, age 24, daughter of François Chiasson, père, and her husband Michel Grossin, age 25, survived the crossing.  Josèphe was pregnant when she left Île St.-Jean and gave birth to a son at St.-Malo in early February, soon after they reached the mother country.  The baby died three weeks after his birth, and Josèphe died at Paramé near St.-Malo in June 1759.  Jean Chiasson remarried to Marguerite-Josèphe, daughter of fellow Acadians Jean-Baptiste Dugas and Marguerite Benoit, at St.-Mélior-des-Ondes near St.-Malo, in June 1761.  She gave him two more sons:  Jean-Baptiste, born at La Blanche near St.-Melior-des-Ondes, in January 1763; and Joseph-François, at St.-Servan near St.-Malo in November 1765.  Marie-Josèphe died at St.-Servan in June 1766, and Jean remarried--his third marriage--to Frenchwoman Anne-Perrine, daughter of Jacques Joanne and Perrine Charpentier of St.-Malo, at St.-Servan in January 1769.  She gave him another son: Pierre-Louis, born at St.-Servan in October 1769.  

Chiassons from Île St.-Jean landed at other French ports, including Cherbourg and Rochefort.  Marie-Madeleine, daughter of Guyon dit LaVallée and his second wife, married to Joseph De La Forestrie of Île St.-Jean, died at Cherbourg in Normandy in August 1759, age 70, not long after she made the crossing from Île St.-Jean.  Madeleine Chiasson, her parent's names unrecorded, died at Cherbourg in August 1762, age 25.  Anne, daughter of Jean-Baptiste Chiasson, was at Cherbourg in March 1767.  Basile, son of Pierre Chiasson of Pointe Beauséjour was still a child when he was taken to Île St.-Jean in the 1750s.  He also ended up at Cherbourg in 1759.  He married fellow Acadian Monique Comeau at Cherbourg in c1772.  Their unnamed child died there in April 1773.  Pierre Chiasson, a butcher, died at Rochefort in August 1763, age 61.  Catherine Chiasson, widow of Pierre Fragneau, married French day laborer Jacques, son of Gabriel Rayne and Anne Bouchet of Gane, Bourbonois, at Rochefort in August 1764. 

In the early 1770s, Jean Chiasson from St.-Servan and Basile Chiasson from Cherbourg participated in an attempt by French authorities to settle Acadians on marginal land owned by an influential nobleman in the Poitou region.  Basile and his wife Monique had two more daughters in Poitou:  Anne-Adélaïde, baptized at St.-Jean l'Evangeliste, Châtellerault, in April 1774; and Anne-Marie-Marthe, baptized at the same church in October 1775.  Jean's third wife gave him his first daughter in Poitou:  Anne-Rosalie, baptized at St.-Jacques, Châtellerault, in May 1775.  The settlement failed after two years of effort.  In November and December 1775, Basile and Jean retreated with dozens of other Poitou Acadians and their families to the port city of Nantes, where they subsisted as best they could on government handouts.  Basile worked as a sailor and a cooper.  Jean worked as a carpenter.  Basile and Monique had at least three sons at Nantes:  Louis-Basile, baptized at Ste.-Croix in December 1780 but died at age 21 months in August 1782; Charles-Albert was born in c1783; and Louis-Joseph in September 1784.  

During the American Revolution, in late 1778, a Chiasson family, that of Joseph, married to Anne Vigneau, came to France from the French-controlled island of Miquelon off the southern coast of Newfoundland.  Their son Jean-Joseph was born at La Rochelle in February 1781; and another son, Étienne-Isidore, died eight days after his birth in April 1783.  They probably returned to Miquelon in 1784 after the British returned the island to France.  

In the early 1780s, the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France the chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana.  Fed up with life in a mother country that had long neglected its Acadian children, Jean and Basile Chiasson, still at Nantes, agreed to take it.  Both families originally booked passage on L'Amitié, the fifth of the Seven Ships, but Basile's infant son Louis-Joseph was too ill to travel when L'Amitié left Paimboeuf, the port for Nantes, in late August 1785.  Louis-Joseph died the following month, and Basile and his family sailed on La Caroline, the last of  the Seven Ships, which left Nantes in late October.  

Back in North America, some of the Chiassons of Île St.-Jean had managed to escape the British roundup of 1758.  Joseph, son of François Chiasson, père, fled from the island with his wife Anne Haché dit Gallant and joined their Chignecto cousins on the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore.  Their son Jean-Baptiste was baptized at Restigouche in February 1761, which means they had escaped capture when the British attacked Restigouche the previous summer.  After the war ended, Joseph and his family moved down to Nipisiguit, now Bathurst, on the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore, where they were living in 1772, and then they moved to Miscou, an island on the southern end of the Baie des Chaleurs, later in the decade.  Their sons settled at Carleton and Paspébiac on the southern coast of the Gaspé Peninsula in present-day Québec Province, and at Caraquet in northeastern New Brunswick.  Other Chiassons who had escaped the British also settled at Rustico and Tignish on Île St.-Jean, renamed Prince Edward Island in 1798; at Chéticamp, Grand-Étang, and Margaree on Cape Breton Island, formerly Île Royale; on Île Miquelon; and on the Îles-de-la-Madeleine in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, now part of Québec Province.  Typical of most, if not all, Acadian families, these Acadiennes of Canada lost touch with their Cadien cousins hundreds of miles away, and until the Acadian reunions of the twentieth century, may even have forgotten the others existed. 

When the war with Britain finally ended, the Acadians being held as prisoners in Nova Scotia faced a hard dilemma.  The Treaty of Paris of February 1763 stipulated in its Article 14 that persons dispersed by the war had 18 months to return to their respective territories.  However, British authorities refused to allow any of the Acadian prisoners in the region to return to their former lands as proprietors.  If Acadians chose to remain in Nova Scotia, they could live only in the interior of the peninsula in small family groups and work for low wages on former Acadian lands now owned by New Englander "planters."  If they stayed, they must also take the hated oath of allegiance to the new British king, George III, without reservation.  They would also have to take the hated oath if they joined their cousins in the St. Lawrence valley.  After all that they had suffered on the question of the oath, no self-respecting Acadian would consent to take it if it could be avoided.   Some Halifax exiles, including Chiassons, chose to relocate to Île Miquelon.  Others considered going to French St.-Domingue, where Acadian exiles in the British colonies, including at least one Chiasson, already had gone; or to the Illinois country, the west bank of which still belonged to France; or to French Louisiana, which was the only route possible to the Illinois country for Acadian exiles.  Whatever their choice, they refused to remain in L'Acadie.  So they gathered up their money and their few possessions and prepared to leave their homeland.  Of the 600 who left Halifax in late 1764 bound for Cap-Français, St.-Domingue, five were Chiassons.

Pierre Chiasson may have heard through the Acadian grapevine that his parents, who had been deported from Chignecto to South Carolina in 1755, died in that British colony but that his younger brother Paul had survived the ordeal and emigrated to French St.-Domingue with hundreds of other Acadians from the British Atlantic colonies in late 1763.  Acadian prisoners from Halifax and other Nova Scotia compounds, the first of them led by the Broussard dit Beausoleils, began leaving Halifax in November 1764 on chartered vessels heading for Cap-Français, on the north shore of St.-Domingue.  Pierre and his family, including a 3-year-old nephew, Jean-Baptiste, son of Pierre's brother Joseph, joined one of the later expeditions that left Halifax for the island port.  One could be certain that if Pierre knew his younger brother Paul was still languishing on St.-Domingue, he would search for him as soon as he reached Cap-Français.217

Clémençeau

By 1755, descendants of Jean Clemençeau dit Beaulieu and his legitimate wife Anne Roy could be found at Port-Toulouse, Île Royale; on Île St.-Jean; and at Chignecto.  His illegitimate son Jean-Pierre and his family were at Grand-Pré.  Le Grand Dérangement of the 1750s scattered this family even farther.

In the fall of 1755, British forces deported the Acadians at Minas to Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and New England.  Jean-Pierre Clemençeau, his second wife Françoise Gautrot, and at least two of their daughters--Marie and Marie-Madeleine, called Madeleine--ended up in Virginia, where they endured a fate worse than most of their fellow refugees from Minas.  In mid-November, when five transports appeared unexpectedly at Hampton Roads, the Virginia governor, Robert Dinwiddie, protested their deportation to his colony without his consent.  The following spring, they were shipped off to England, where they were grossly neglected and treated like common criminals and where hundreds of them died of smallpox. 

One of Jean Clemençeau's daughters, Marguerite dit Beaulieu, wife of Jean-Baptiste Lejeune dit Briard, counted with her family on Île St.-Jean in August 1752, died at St.-Jean, Île d'Orléans, below Québec City, in November 1756.  She and her family may  have returned to Nova Scotia in the early 1750s and escaped the British roundup there, or they may have left Île St.-Jean for Canada when they learned of the deportations.  

Jean Clemençeau's descendants on Île Royale, living in territory controlled by France, escaped the British roundup in Nova Scotia.  Le Grand Dérangement caught up to them with a vengeance, however, with the fall of the French fortress at Louisbourg in July 1758.  Later in the year, the victorious British rounded up most of the Acadians on Île Royale and transported them to France.  Jean's daughter Marie-Anne, widow of Nicolas Lavigne, and five of her children crossed to St.-Malo on the British transport Queen of Spain.  Marie-Anne died on the crossing, along with three of her younger children.  Marie Clemençeau, age 20, wife of Antoine Haché dit Gallant, and two of his relatives, crossed on one of the five British transports that left the Gut of Canso in late November and reached St.-Malo in late January 1759.  They all survived the crossing and settled in the St.-Malo area.  

The Acadians in England endured life in the port cities as best they could.  By 1763, more than half of them were dead, including most likely Jean-Pierre Clemençeau and his wife.  In May of that year, after prolonged negotiations between the French and British governments, the Acadians in England were repatriated to France.  Among them were Jean-Pierre's two daughters--Marie, now 12, and Marie-Madeleine, now 11--who sailed to France aboard the ship L'Ambition with relatives and settled in the St.-Malo area, where at least one of their cousins had gone.  Marie-Madeleine was the first to marry.  She wed Ignace, fils, son of fellow Acadians Ignace Carret and Cécile Henry, at St.-Servan, near St.-Malo, in October 1767.  Marie married Pierre, fils, son of fellow Acadians Pierre Trahan and Madeleine Comeau and widower of Marguerite LeBlanc, Élisabeth Darois, and Madeleine Vincent, at St.-Donatien, near Nantes, France, in February 1783; she was in her early 30s, and Pierre was old enough to be her father.  She gave him another daughter, Louise-Renée, baptized at St.-Martin-de-Chantenay, near Nantes, in January 1784. 

Meanwhile, in the early 1770s, their cousin Marie Clemençeau, her husband Antoine Haché dit Gallant, and their children were part of an attempt by French authorities to settle Acadians languishing in the port cities on marginal land in the Poitou region owned by an influential nobleman.  The venture failed after two years of effort, and in late 1775 Marie and her family retreated to the port city of Nantes with dozens of other Poitou Acadians.  Marie died at Chantenay, near Nantes, in November 1782; she was only 40 years old.  

In the early 1780s, the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France a chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana.  Sisters Marie and Marie-Madeleine Clemençeau and their husbands agreed to take it.218

Clément

Two, perhaps three, families bearing the surname Clément lived in greater Acadia.  The largest of them were, in fact, Vincents who took their ancestor's given name as a dit and then transformed it into a family name.  In 1755, descendants of Clément, youngest son of Pierre Vincent and Anne Gaudet of Port-Royal, lived on Île St.-Jean, where they had gone in c1750 to escape British authority in Nova Scotia.  Meanwhile, Jean Clément, a fisherman, native of Jeffrets, Diocese of Coutances, France, not kin to the Vincent Cléments, came to Île Royale, today's Cape Breton Island, in the early 1720s, married Marie-Josèphe Druce, an Acadian from Minas with an English father, at Port-Toulouse in c1726, and was with his family at St.-Esprit on the island's Atlantic coast in 1752.  

When the British rounded up the Acadians in Nova Scotia in the fall of 1755, the Cléments on the Maritime islands, living in territory controlled by France, remained unmolested.  Their respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  After the fall of the French fortress at Louisbourg in July 1758, the British rounded up most of the island Acadians.  Vincent Cléments escaped the British roundup on Île St.-Jean and made their way north to Canada.  Others fell into British hands and were deported to France, where they settled at St.-François du Havre in Normandy; Pertuit near St.-Malo in Brittany; and at Morlaix in the western part of that region.  By the early 1770s, some of them had returned to North America and settled on Île St.-Pierre, a French-controlled island off the southern coast of Newfoundland.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana. 

Jean-Baptiste Clément, a carpenter, born probably in France in c1744, likely was not a kinsman of the Vincent Cléments or of Jean Clément of Île Royale.  According to French church records, he and his wife Josette Mirande were from Île Miquelon, near Île St.-Pierre.  In 1778, during the American Revolution, the British captured the two islands and deported the French and Acadian habitants and fishermen to France.  Jean-Baptiste and Josette ended up at La Rochelle, where two children were born to them:  Louise in August 1780, and Michel in January 1782.  Jean-Baptiste died at La Rochelle in June 1782; he was only 38 years old. 

Hilaire, son of Jean Clément and Marie-Josèphe Druce, was only age 12 and living with relatives probably at St.-Espirit in late 1758 when the British rounded up most of the other Acadians on Île Royale and deported to France.  Hilaire, his older sister Marguerite, her husband François Hardy, and six-year-old nephew Hilaire Hardy made the crossing aboard the British transport Queen of Spain, which reached St.-Malo in mid-November.  Marguerite did not survive the ordeal.  

Hilaire Clément lived in France for over a quarter century, working as a domestic.  In the early 1770s, still a bachelor in his late 20s and living at Trigavou, near St.-Malo, he took part in a settlement venture in the Poitou region and found a wife there.  While living at Monthoiron, south of Châtellerault, he married Tarsile, daughter of fellow Acadians François Naquin and Angélique Blanchard, at Leigné-les-Bois in October 1774.  Their daughter Marie was born at nearby Bonneuil-Matours in July 1775.  In March 1776, Hilaire and his family left Poitou with most of the other disgruntled Acadians and retreated to the port city of Nantes.  There they survived as best they could on government handouts and what work Hilaire could find as a domestic servant and a carpenter.  They had three more children at Nantes:  Jean-Hilaire was born at Chantenay, near Nantes, in November 1776; Madeleine in February 1779 but died the following August; and François was born in October 1780.  Wife Tarsile died at Nantes in April 1784; she was only 38.  Son François died by September 1784, when Spanish officials counted the family at Nantes and noted that Hilaire had only two children left in his household.   

About the time of Tarsile's death, the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France a chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana.  Hilaire Clément, a widower with two young children, agreed to take it.219

Closquinet

Descendants of Louis Closquinet dit Dumoulin of Île St.-Jean and Marguerite Longuépée, living in territory controlled by France, escaped the British roundup of their fellow Acadians in Nova Scotia in the fall of 1755.  Their respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  After the fall of the French stronghold at Louisbourg in July 1758, the British rounded up most of the Acadians on Île St.-Jean and deported them to France.  Marie Closquinet, age 34, who was pregnant, her husband Pierre-Mathurin Girard, age 39, along with two of their children, ages 6 and 4, and a domestic servant, crossed on the British transport Supply, which left the Gut of Canso in late November but did not reach St.-Malo until early March 1759.  Also aboard the Supply were Marie's brother Louis, fils, age 29, and his wife Anne Jacquimin, age 26; brother Joseph, age 28, his wife Françoise Boudrot, age 20, and their sons Pierre le jeune, age 6, and Grégoire, age 2; and sister Louise, age 24, her husband Charles Savary, age 31, and their sons Jean-Charles, age 2 1/2, and infant Charles, fils.  All of them survived the crossing except for Louise's infant son Charles, fils, who died at sea.  Her husband Charles Savary died in a St.-Malo hospital in late April, doubtlessly from the rigors of the crossing.  

During their time in France, the family's name evolved from Closquinet to Clossinet.  Marie and her family lived at Châteauneuf, a suburb of St.-Malo, in 1759-60, where a daughter was born in March 1759 but died less than two months later.  They lived at nearby St.-Servan from 1760-64, where another daughter was born in April 1760.  In April 1764, the entire family left France for Cayenne in South America aboard the ship Le Fort.  They were counted at Sinnamary, Cayenne, in March 1765.  The census taker noted that Marie and husband Pierre Girard were suffering from fièvre at the time.  Did Pierre die in Cayenne?  Marie evidently remarried to Charles, son of fellow Acadians Jean Comeau and Marguerite Turpin, either in Cayenne or back in France. 

Louise Clossinet remarried to Charles, son of fellow Acadians Étienne Trahan and Françoise Reine, at Châteauneuf  in August 1759.  A daughter was born at Châteauneuf in October 1760, and another daughter at nearby St.-Servan in March 1764.  Meanwhile, in April 1760, Louise's husband Charles shipped out on the corsair L'Hercules to fight the British but was promptly captured and held as a prisoner of war.  He remained in England until June 1763, when he was finally repatriated to France.  In April 1764, Louise and her family also left for Cayenne aboard the ship Le Fort.  When French authorities counted the settlers at Sinnamary in March 1765, Charles Trahan and his two daughters were not on the list.  Louise appeared in the census with her sister Marie-Madeleine's family, so one suspects that Louise's second husband and her daughters had died by then.  Louise remarried to Antoine-Joseph-Christophe Verge, place unrecorded; this was her third marriage.  One wonders if she, too, returned to France. 

Louis Clossinet, fils and his wife Anne Jacquemin lived at St.-Servan, near St.-Malo, from 1759-64.  Anne died at St.-Servan by November 1774, when Louis, fils remarried to Marie-Marguerite, called Marguerite, daughter of fellow Acadians Jean Daigre and his second wife Anne-Marie Breau and widow of Amand Giroir, at Pleudihen, near St.-Malo.  They remained in the St.-Malo area. 

Joseph Clossinet and his family also lived in the St.-Malo suburbs, at St.-Énogat from 1759-65, at St.-Servan in 1765-66, at St.-Mélior in 1767, and back in St.-Servan from 1767-72.  Daughter Jeanne-Marguerite was born at St.-Énogat in April 1760, and Marie-Marguerite in July 1762 but died at age 18 months in February 1764.  Joseph died at St.-Énogat in 1764 or 1765, and wife Françoise remarried to Marin, son of fellow Acadians Jean-Baptiste Dugas and Marie Benoit, at St.-Servan in November 1766.  She gave him four sons, born at St.-Servan between 1767 and 1773.  In the early 1770s, Marin, Françoise, and their children, including Grégoire and Jeanne-Marguerite Clossinet, became part of the attempt to settle Acadians on a French nobleman's land in the Poitou region.  When the venture failed after two years of effort, Marin, Françoise, and their blended family joined dozens of other Poitou Acadians in an exodus to the port city of Nantes, where they subsisted as best they could on government hand outs or on what work they could find there.  Jeanne-Marguerite Clossinet married Frenchman Étienne, son of Jean Peltier and Renée Prime of Baune, Angers, France, at St.-Martin-de-Chantenay, a suburb of Nantes, in August 1784; Étienne was a stonecutter.  Their son Jean was born at L'Hermitage, Chantenay, in May 1785.  

In the early 1780s, the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France a chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana.  Many of the Acadians took up the offer, including Jeanne-Marguerite, Louis, fils, and Marie Clossinet and their spouses.220

Clouâtre

In 1755, Pierre Cloistre dit Clouâtre, the gunsmith, wife Marguerite LeBlanc, and their family could still be found at Minas.  Le Grand Dérangement of 1755 scattered the family to the winds. 

When the British rounded up the Acadians at Minas in the fall of 1755, they deported Dominique Clouâtre and his wife Françoise Boudrot, as well as Dominique's sister Marie-Josèphe and her husband Pierre Hébert, to Massachusetts.  Colonial officials counted Marie-Josèphe and her family at Newton in 1761.  After the war with Britain finally ended, Dominique and Françoise left Massachusetts and went to Canada.  Though now also a British possession, the province was populated largely by fellow French Catholics, many of them Acadian exiles.  So, in a colony nearly as old as Acadia, the siblings and their families began the slow, inexorable process of becoming Canadiennes.  They settled at Trois-Rivières before moving downriver to St.-Philippe-de-Laprairie, across from Montréal.  Typical of most, if not all, Acadian families, these Acadiennes of Canada lost touch with their Cadien cousins hundreds of miles away, and, until the Acadian reunions of the twentieth century, may even have forgotten the others existed. 

The British deported the old gunsmith, his wife Marguerite LeBlanc, and the rest of his family to Maryland.  For over a dozen years, they endured life among British colonists who, despite their colony's Catholic roots, did not care much for the French "papists" who had been thrust upon them.  In July 1763, colonial authorities counted Marguerite LeBlanc, now a widow, at Port Tobacco, Maryland.  With her were sons Louis, Pierre-Sylvain, and Joseph, and daughters Anne and Marthe-Marie.  Son Georges, who had married fellow Acadian Cécile Breau in Maryland, their children Joseph le jeune and Madeleine, and orphan Joseph Breau, also were counted at Port Tobacco that month.  Georges died probably at Port Tobacco sometime between July 1763 and December 1767.  Older brother Louis married fellow Acadian Marguerite Landry in Maryland after July 1763. 

When word reached the Acadians in Maryland that they would be welcome in Louisiana, where many of their relatives had gone, they pooled their meager resources to charter ships that would take them to New Orleans.  The Clouâtres had no close kin in Louisiana, but that was of little consequence.  Certainly life had to be better there than in a British colony where they were treated like pariahs.  The first contingent of Acadians left Maryland in late June 1766, the second in April 1767, but the Clouâtres were not on either of them.  They departed with their widowed mother in the third contingent of exiles from Maryland, which left Port Tobacco for New Orleans in December 1767.221

Comeau

In 1755, descendants of Pierre Comeau the cooper and Rose Bayon could be found in the Minas Basin at Grand-Pré, Rivière-aux-Canards, and Pigiguit; at Chepoudy and Petitcoudiac in the trois-rivières area west of Chignecto; at Malpéque on northwestern coast of Île St.-Jean; and on Île Madame off the southern coast of Île Royale.  But most of them were still living at Annapolis Royal.  Le Grand Dérangement of the 1750s scattered this large family even farther. 

The Acadians in the Chignecto area, including Chepoudy and Petitcoudiac in the trois-rivières, were the first victims of the British roundup of the so-called French Neutrals in the fall of 1755.  Joseph Comeau, his wife Marie-Josèphe Cormier, and their daughter Anne were sent to South Carolina, where colonial officials counted them in 1763.  Some of the Comeaus at Chepoudy escaped the British and took refuge at Shediac, Richibouctou, Miramichi, and Restigouche on the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore. 

Later that fall, the British shipped the Acadians in the Minas Basin to Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, Massachusetts, and Connecticut.  Étienne Comeau, age 75, and second wife Élisabeth, or Isabelle, Levron, age 65, of Pigiguit ended up in Massachusetts, where they were mentioned in "an acct of Sundrys provided by the Select men of Medfield for the Support of twelve of the Late Inhabitance of Noveschoca, which were ordered to the Town of Medfield from November 10th (1756) to the first day of June 1757."  The report stated that "Stephen Commour an old Man a Eighty two years old [was] unfit for any Buisness" and that "Elisaby Commour his wife seventy four years old [was] Capeable of but Little Buisness ...."  A similar evaluation was made of "Achan Commo age 83" and "Elisabeth Commo age 72" early the following year.  On 21 June 1758, the frugal Yankees of Medfield noted in "the account of what was Expended towards the maintanence of the French Neutrals formerly Inhabitance of Noveschoscha ordered to Medfield by authority from the Sixth day of January to this Date" that "For 12 weeks Bording an old French man Nursing and other expenses in his Last Sickness & Fenural" the town incurred "Charges L2-14s-2d."  The "old French man" no doubt was Étienne, grandson of the family's progenitor.   

Comeaus shipped to Virginia endured a fate worse than most of the other refugees deported from Minas.  In mid-November 1755, when five transports appeared unexpectedly at Hampton Roads, Virginia governor Robert Dinwiddie protested the deportation of so many "Neutral French" to his colony without his consent.  Many of the exiles died on the filthy, crowded ships anchored in Hampton Roads while the Virginia authorities pondered their fate.  Acadians from one vessel were moved up to Richmond, two of the vessels were unloaded at Hampton, and two more at Norfolk.  A hand full of young Acadians managed to slip away and trek overland through fields and forests and over the mountains, to French territory, but most of the exiles remained in Virginia.  Finally, in the spring of 1756, Virginia's House of Burgesses made its decision ... the Acadians must go!  In May, the first shipment of Acadians in hired vessels left for England, and in two weeks all of them had gone--299 to Bristol, 250 to Falmouth, 340 to Southampton, and 336 to Liverpool--1,225 of the original 1,500.  Their ordeal only worsened in the English ports, where they were grossly neglected and treated like common criminals and where hundreds died of smallpox.  By 1763, more than half of them were dead.  In May of that year, after prolonged negotiations between the French and British governments, the Acadians in England, including Comeaus, were repatriated to France.

In late autumn of 1755, the British shipped the Acadians in the Annapolis Basin to Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, and North Carolina.  Many Comeaus were on these vessels, too.  However, the ship heading to North Carolina, the Pembroke, never got there.  Soon after the Pembroke embarked from Goat Island in the lower basin with 232 exiles aboard, the Acadians seized the vessel, sailed it to Baie Ste.-Marie on the western coast of Nova Scotia and then crossed the Bay of Fundy to the lower Rivière St.-Jean, where they abandoned the ship and escaped into the wilds of present-day New Brunswick.  The rest of their Annapolis valley brethren were not so lucky.  After their ships had reached their destinations, the Acadians who ended up in New England and New York eventually were allowed to come ashore and endure the disdain of the British colonists.  A colonial record dated 6 May 1756 notes that two Comeau families--Francis Commo and his family of eight, and John Commo and his family of seven--were among the "French neutrals sent by Gov. Lawrence from Nova Scotia to New York" and parcelled out to five counties in the Manhattan area.  Colonial authorities sent François and his famiily to Brookhaven, Suffolk County, on Long Island, and Jean's family to nearby Flushing.  Meanwhile, the Comeaus who escaped the British roundup at Annapolis Royal crossed the Bay of Fundy the following winter, found refuge on Rivière St.-Jean and on the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore, or endured the long, dangerous trek to the St. Lawrence valley, where their fellow Frenchmen also treated them poorly.  Church records show that Comeaus from Annapolis Royal and Chepoudy were buried at Québec in 1757 and 1758, some of them victims of a smallpox epidemic that struck Acadian exiles in the Québec area that summer, fall, and winter. 

Living in territory controlled by France, the Comeaus in the French Maritimes escaped the British roundup in Nova Scotia in the fall of 1755.  Their respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  After the fall of the French fortress at Louisbourg in July 1758, the victorious British swooped down on the rest of Île Royale and on nearby Île St.-Jean and deported most of the Acadians there to France.  Marguerite Comeau, age unrecorded, made the crossing aboard the British transport Duke William with husband Jean Dupont of Louisbourg, and her brothers Charles and David.  They survived a mid-ocean mishap that killed many aboard the vessel, but Marguerite died in a hospital at St.-Malo soon after the ship limped into port.  Her brother Charles lived at St.-Malo from 1758 to 1761, and then at nearby Plouër from 1761 to 1764.  In April 1764, he left France aboard the ship Le Fort for the new colony at Cayenne, French Guyanne, in South America.  He does not appear in the census of inhabitants at Sinnamary, Cayenne, in March 1765, so he may have returned to France by then.  David lived at St.-Malo probably with his brother from 1758 to 1760.  In March 1760, he was at Lorient in Brittany, where he embarked on the corsair Le Travignon, which the Royal Navy soon captured.  David languished in an English prison to the end of the war.  He returned to St.-Malo in 1763 and was still living there when his brother Charles shipped out to Cayenne.  

In May 1763, Comeaus who had endured the seven years of exile in England were repatriated to France.  Most landed at St.-Malo aboard La Dorothée.  Alexis Comeau, wife Dorothée Richard, whom he had married in England in c1757, and their 5-year-old son Jean-Baptiste resided at St.-Servan near St.-Malo, where Alexis died in April 1767.  Dorothée remarried to fellow Acadian Claude LeBlanc at St.-Servan in June 1768.  Alexis's son Jean-Baptiste married Marie-Madeleine, daughter of fellow Acadians Jean Landry and Blanche LeBlanc, at St.-Jacques, Nantes, in January 1783.  Claire Landry, widow of Claude Comeau and Alexis's mother, came from England with two unmarried children, Marguerite and Jean; they also resided at St.-Servan.  Simon Comeau, his wife Marguerite-Geneviève Aucoin, whom he had just married in England, and two of his younger unmarried brothers, Joseph and Charles, lived at Plouër near St.-Malo.  Joseph married Marie, daughter of fellow Acadians Charles Thériot and Françoise Landry, at Plouër in October 1764.  Brother Charles remained single and probably became a sailor.  In 1770, he embarked on the ship L'Americain but deserted his vessel at a port in French St.-Domingue, where he remained.  Meanwhile, his older brothers Simon and Joseph moved to St.-Servan and created large families.  Marie-Madeleine Térriot, widow of another Simon Comeau, came from Bristol, England, aboard La Dorothée with 3-year-old son Mathurin and lived at Plouër before moving to nearby St.-Servan, where she remarried to cousin Olivier (not the shoemaker), son of Jacques Térriot and Marie Robichaud of Grand-Pré and widower of Marguerite LeBlanc, in July 1765.  Marie-Madeleine died at St.-Servan in May 1766, age 28, and young Mathurin likely was raised by relatives.  He became a sailor in France and was still a bachelor in 1785.  Unmarried sisters Madeleine, Marguerite, and Marie-Josèphe, daughters of Étienne Comeau, came from England with different families and resided at St.-Servan, where Marguerite died in March 1764, age 24, and Marie-Josèphe in April 1769, age 19.  Anne-Marie, daughter of Joseph Comeau and Marguerite Hébert, who may have come to France from England, married Alain, son of fellow Acadians François Bourg and Marie-Madeleine Hébert, at St.-Suliac in January 1764.  She gave him six children there, most of whom did not survive childhood; accompanied him to Poitou in 1774, where she gave him another son; and to Nantes in 1776, where she gave him five more children.

Comeaus who were deported or repatriated to France ended up in ports other than St.-Malo.  Simon Comeau died at Cherbourg in April 1760, age 30.  One wonders if he was one of the Acadians the British had deported from the Cap-Sable area in November 1759 and landed at Cherbourg in mid-January.  At least one Comeau family lived at Bordeaux.  Élisabeth Lord, widow of Pierre Comeau, remarried there to a Derayer from Chignecto.  Daughter Anne married fellow Acadian Joseph Haché dit Gallant, a carpenter; and son Pierre married a Mouton.  Comeaus repatriated from England also went to Rochefort.  Élisabeth, daughter of deceased ship's carpenter Jean Comeau, married Frenchman Jacques Le Roy of Poitiers in St.-Louis Parish, Rochefort, in May 1765.  

Comeau cousins from Pigiguit and Chepoudy ended up in France by another route.  Honoré Comeau of Ste.-Famille, Pigiguit, and Malpéque escaped the British round up on Île St.-Jean in late 1758.  He, his wife Marguerite Poirier, and their children may have waited out the war somewhere in the Maritimes, perhaps on the French-controlled island of Miquelon off the southern coast of Newfoundland, where they were counted in 1767.  Or, more likely, they escaped from Île St.-Jean to the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore, fell into British hands, became prisoners of war in Nova Scotia, and followed other Acadians from Halifax to Île Miquelon in 1763.  Soon Miquelon and nearby Île St.-Pierre became overcrowded, and French officials insisted the Acadians there be resettled in France.  By 1772, Honoré, now a widower, was living at Cherbourg.  A year later, he and his son Joseph went to the Poitou region as part of a settlement scheme that lured hundreds of other Acadians to marginal land owned by an influential French nobleman near the city of Châtellerault.  After two years of effort, they retreated with dozens of other digruntled Poitou Acadians to the port city of Nantes, where they survived on government handouts and what work they could find there.  Meanwhile, Honoré's daughter Marguerite married Jean, son of fellow Acadians Joseph Broussard and Ursule LeBlanc, at Très-Ste.-Trinité, Cherbourg, in July 1773.  Honoré's daughter Anne, widow of Grégoire Morin, remarried to Pierre, son of Jean Le Clerc and Claudine Rouy of St.-Malo, on Île Miquelon in October 1774, so some of his family must have returned there after the French "deportation" of the late 1760s, further dividing the family.  Honoré's son Joseph died at La Rochelle in September 1782, age 33.  Honoré, at age 70, remarried to 45-year-old Anastasie, daughter of fellow Acadians Célestin dit Bellemère and Marie Landry and widow of Jean-Baptiste Boudrot, at St.-Martin-de-Chantenay, near Nantes, in August 1784.  Cousin Benoît Comeau, his wife Anne Blanchard, and their family had a similar experience during Le Grand Dérangement.  They escaped the roundup at Chepoudy in 1755, sought refuge on the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore, ended up as prisoners at Halifax, and followed other Halifax Acadians to Île Miquelon in 1763.  They, too, were counted on the island in 1767 and then resettled in France, crossing to Cherbourg by February 1771, when their daughter Anne-Eléonore was baptized at Très-Ste.-Trinité.  Daughter Marguerite-Anastasie was baptized at the grand old church in May 1773, but the family did not remain at Cherbourg.  They were counted at Nantes in September 1784, so they may have gone to Poitou soon after Marguerite-Anastasie's birth and retreated with other Acadians to the Breton port.  Honoré's younger brother Jean-Baptiste, now a widower, who had remained on Île Miquelon, ended up at La Rochelle in 1778 after the British captured the island during the American Revolution.  But Jean-Baptiste did not remain in France.  After the war ended badly for Britain in 1783, he returned to Île Miquelon, remarried to a much younger woman, and started another family.  Honoré and Jean-Baptiste's youngest brother Joseph, widower of Anne Doucet, remarried to Marie, daughter of fellow Acadians Joseph Lejeune and Marie-Marthe Roy of Île Miquelon, at St.-Nicolas, La Rochelle, in February 1781.  Joseph did not remain in France.  He died on Île Miquelon in April 1785, age 55.  Other Comeaus who were deported to France from Île Miquelon in 1778 remained in the mother country.  Anne Comeau of Miquelon, widow of Pierre Sellers, died in St. Nicolas Parish, La Rochelle, in July 1779, age 36. 

In the early 1780s, when the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France the chance for a better life in faraway Louisiana, many of the Comeaus, including Honoré, Benoît, Simon, and their families, agreed to take it.  Simon's younger brother Joseph was unable to make the voyage, however; he died at St.-Servan in June 1784, age 40, leaving his wife Marie Thériot a widow with five children (four of their nine children having died before Joseph's passing).  Marie agreed to take her children to Louisiana with brother-in-law Simon's family.  Other Comeaus chose to remain in France.  Louise, daughter of Joseph Comeau and his first wife Anne Doucet, died at Bordeaux in March 1808, age 42. 

In North America, Comeaus who had endured exile in New England and New York made their way up to Canada to join their kinsmen already there.  Though now also a British possession, the northern province was populated largely by fellow French Catholics, many of them Acadian exiles.  So, in a colony nearly as old as Acadia, descendants of Pierre Comeau the cooper began the slow, inexorable process of becoming Canadiennes.  Especially after 1766, Comeaus settled on the upper St. Lawrence at Bécancour, Nicolet, St.-Grégoire, L'Acadie, Trois-Rivières, Gentilly, La Prairie, St.-Jacques de l'Achigan, St.-Pierre-de-la-Becquets, Pointe-du-Lac, and Yamachiche; at St.-Denis, St.-Ours, and Chambly on the Richelieu; and on the lower St. Lawrence at Berthier, St.-Charles-de-Bellechasse, St.-Roch-des-Aulnaies, and Montmagny.  Many Comeaus were determined to live as closely as they could to their old homes in greater Acadia.  They settled on the southern Gaspé Peninsula at Carleton, and at Pointe-de-l'Est on the remote Îles-de-la-Madeleine in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, both part of present-day Québec Province; at Caraquet in present-day northeastern New Brunswick; on the St. John River; at Nipisiguit, now Bathurst, and at nearby Petit-Rocher on the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore; and at Memramcook in the trois-rivières area west of Chignecto.  Comeaus also returned to Île Miquelon and even to Nova Scotia, where they settled at Yarmouth and Chédabouctou, now Guysborough, on the Atlantic shore; and at Windsor, formerly Pigiguit, on the Fundy side, before moving on to Baie Ste.-Marie on the west coast of the peninsula, a few dozen miles southwest of their old homes in the Annapolis Basin.  One of the towns on the mainland shore of St. Mary Bay was founded by Jean-Baptiste Comeau of Chepoudy and is still called Comeauville.  Typical of most, if not all, Acadian families, these Acadiennes of Canada lost touch with their Cadien cousins hundreds of miles away, and, until the Acadian reunions of the twentieth century, may even have forgotten the others existed. 

After the war with Britain ended and the sea lanes were clear again, some of the Comeaus who had been exiled in the seaboard colonies chose to go to the French Antilles.  In 1763, French officials lured Acadian exiles in the British colonies to go to French St.-Dominique, today's Haiti, to work on a huge naval base at Môle St.-Nicolas.  Although driven from North America by the Seven Years' War, the French were determined to hang on to what was left of their shrinking empire.  The new naval base on the north shore of the big sugar island would protect the approaches to their remaining possessions in the Caribbean Basin.  The Acadians provided a ready source of cheap labor.  The French promised them land of their own if they came to St.-Domingue.  Charles Comeau and his wife Marguerite Babineau dit Deslauriers were among the refugees from Connecticut who went to St.-Domingue in 1763.  Their marriage was blessed at Le Mirebalais on the island in September 1764.  Their children Joseph, age 5, and Anne, age 2, were baptized at Le Mirebalais that same month.  Joseph died on the day of his baptism.  Their son Pierre, perhaps Joseph's twin, died at age 5 in October.  A year later, Charles and Marguerite had a second son named Joseph, born at Le Mirebalais in November 1766.  Later in the decade, or perhaps in the early 1770s, Charles, Marguerite, and their daughter Anne moved on to Spanish Louisiana.  Jean-Baptiste Comeau of Annapolis Royal died at Môle St.-Nicolas, the big French naval base on the north shore of St.-Domingue, in June 1788; he was 94!  Comeaus also ended up on other islands in the French Antilles.  Joseph-Anne, son of Joseph Comeau, was born on the island of Martinique in December 1764.  Félicité, 21-year-old daughter of another Joseph Comeau, married Marc, 30-year-old son of Frenchman André Marchant of Chandenier, Poitou, at St.-Pierre, Martinique, in January 1765.  François Comeau of Annapolis Royal, married to Françoise Lapierre, died at Champflore, Martinique, in June 1766, six months after his family was counted there with dozens of other Acadians.  Daughters Anne and Ludivise died on the island in June and July of that year.  Also counted at Champflore in January 1766 were François's daughters Marie and Françoise and son Jean.  Joseph Comeau and his children--Rosalie, Marie-Josephine, and Charles--also appear on the Champflore census, with the notation that their rations were "suppressed" in February, and another Joseph Comeau is listed, with the notation that he died the following June.  Anne Comeau of Annapolis Royal was counted in January with her second husband Charles Mouton, son Joseph and daughter Anne-Esther from her first marriage to Sylvain Bourgeois, and two of her Mouton children, Georges and Abraham.  A year or so after they census was taken, Charles, Anne, son Georges, and perhaps daughter Anne-Esther, emigrated to Spanish Louisiana, where two of Charles's brothers had gone from Halifax via St.-Domingue in 1765.  Marie Comeau, her husband Anselme Hébert, their son Joseph and Marie's sister Marguerite reached the island in August 1766.  Another Félicité Comeau got there the following November.  A daughter of Joseph Comeau of Annapolis, widow of Antoine Hébert, died at Au Carbet, Martinique, in February 1774; she was only 30 years old.  Marie, daughter of François Comeau of Île St.-Jean, married Frenchman Joseph, son of Jean Cotillon and Pierrette Caille of St.-Symphorien, Trevilly, Bourgogne, France, at Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe, in June 1783.  Marie was a merchant at St.-François on the island, and Joseph was a fourrier d'Artillerie stationed there.  

The Comeaus held in Nova Scotia faced a hard dilemma.  The Treaty of Paris of February 1763 stipulated in its Article 14 that persons dispersed by the war had 18 months to return to their respective territories.  However, British authorities refused to allow any of the Acadian prisoners in the region to return to their former lands as proprietors.  If Acadians chose to remain in, or return to, Nova Scotia, they could live only in small family groups in previous unsettled areas or work for low wages on former Acadian lands now owned by New England "planters."  If they stayed, they must also take the hated oath of allegiance to the new British king, George III, without reservation.  They would also have to take the oath if they joined their cousins in Canada.  After all they had suffered on the question of the oath, few self-respecting Acadians would consent to take it if it could be avoided.  Some Halifax exiles, including Comeaus, chose to relocate to Miquelon, a French-controlled island off the southern coast of Newfoundland.  Others considered going to French St.-Domingue, where Acadian exiles in the British colonies already had gone, or to the Illinois country, the west bank of which still belonged to France, or to French Louisiana, which, thanks to British control of Canada, was the only route possible to the Illinois country for Acadian exiles.  Whatever their choice, they refused to remain in L'Acadie.  So they gathered up their money and their few possessions and prepared to leave their homeland.  Of the 600 Acadians who left Halifax in late 1764 bound for Cap-Français, St.-Domingue, nine were Comeaus.

Meanwhile, the Comeaus in Maryland endured life among English colonists who, despite their colony's Catholic roots, did not care much for the French "papists" who had been thrust upon them.  In the late 1760s, word reached the Acadians in Maryland that they would be welcome in Louisiana, where many of their relatives had just settled, including Comeaus.  So they pooled their meager resources to charter ships that would take them to New Orleans.  No Comeaus were part of the first contingent of exiles that left Maryland in late June 1766, but they were part of the second and third contingents that departed Baltimore and Port Tobacco in April and December 1767.222

Cormier

The fate of an Acadian family during Le Grand Dérangement was determined largely by how long its members had lived in the colony and where they settled in greater Acadia.  Generally, the older the family, the more scattered it became by 1755; and the more dispersed it was then, the more scattered it would become in the decades that followed.  The Cormiers at first seem an exception to the rule.  Unlike other families who came early to Acadia, once Thomas Cormier and Marie-Madeleine Girouard moved from Port-Royal to Chignecto, their descendants did not fan out to other communities in greater Acadia.  Instead, they remained in the Chignecto area, settling at Menoudy and along Rivière-des-Hébert, east of the Baie de Beaubassin.  One family may have moved from Chignecto to Île St.-Jean on the eve of the great upheaval, but most, if not all, of the other Cormiers remained in the Chignecto area.  Nevertheless, Le Grand Dérangement of the 1750s scattered this family to the winds.  Cormiers ended up in the British Atlantic colonies of South Carolina, Georgia, Virginia, New York, and Massachusetts; in England; in southeastern, northeastern, and northwestern New Brunswick; at Halifax; on the southern Gaspé Peninsula; up and down the St. Lawrence valley; at St.-Malo, France; in the Caribbean basin, especially in St.-Domingue; on Cape Breton Island; in Newfoundland; on Île Miquelon; on Îles-de-la-Madeleine in the Gulf of St. Lawrence; and in Louisiana.  

The Acadians at Chignecto were the first to endure a disruption of their lives.  In the spring and summer of 1750, Canadian soldiers, assisted by Abbé Le Loutre and his Mi'kmaq warriors, burned Acadian homesteads east of Rivière Missaguash, forcing the habitants to move to the French-controlled area west of the river.  Many Cormiers were among the refugees affected by this petit dérangement.  After yet another war erupted between Britain and France in 1754, the Chignecto Acadians were caught in the middle of it.  When British and New England forces attacked Fort Beauséjour in June 1755, Cormiers were among the Chignecto Acadians who were serving in the fort as militia.  They, too, along with the French troupes de la marine, became prisoners of war when the fort surrendered on June 16.  

Lieutenant-Governor Lawrence was so incensed to find so-called French Neutrals fighting with French regulars at Beauséjour that he ordered his officers to deport the Chignecto Acadians to the southernmost British colonies on the Atlantic seaboard.  One of the Acadian fighters captured at Beauséjour, Pierre dit Pierrot, son of Pierre dit Palette and Cécile Thibodeau and grandson of Thomas's son Pierre, escaped from a British transport headed for South Carolina and rejoined his family, who had retreated into the wilds around Petitcoudiac, present-day southeastern New Brunswick.  Pierrot led them to Ste.-Anne-du-Pays-Bas on upper Rivière St.-Jean, present-day Fredericton, New Brunswick.  British raiding parties drove them to Kamouraska, Québec, in 1758.  Pierrot and his wife were at L'Islet, Québec, on the lower St. Lawrence, in the early 1760s, but he and some of his brothers returned to Ste.-Anne-du-Pays-Bas after the war finally ended in 1763.  They likely would have stayed there if British authorities had granted them title to their land.  After the British lost the American Revolution in the early 1780s, American Loyalists came to the Ste.-Anne area in the mid-1780s and demanded title to the land on which the Acadians lived.  Exiled again, Pierrot and his family, with dozens of other Acadians, moved to the Memramcook valley in present-day southeastern New Brunswick, not far from where they had started 30 years before.

While Pierrot and his family dodged British forces in the St.-Jean valley, two of his younger brothers, Joseph, born in c1740, and Michel, born in January 1741, and a younger first cousin, Jean-Baptiste, fils, born in c1742, became separated from the rest of the family.  They either fell into British hands during the family's wanderings from Chignecto to Québec and back, or they became separated early and joined the Acadian resistance in the Petitcoudiac area led by Joseph Broussard dit Beausoleil.  Joseph and Michel's mother was a Thibodeau, the family into which the Broussard dit Beausoleil brothers had married.  Jean-Baptiste Cormier, fils's mother was a Richard, another family close to the Broussard clan.  So the Cormier boys may have been part of the Broussards' large, extended family.  Joseph, Michel, and Jean-Baptiste, fils surrendered to the British probably in the early 1760s when the Broussards surrendered.  And, like hundreds of other captured Acadians, they spent the next few years in a Halifax prison waiting for the war to end.  

Many of their Cormier cousins, meanwhile, managed to escape the British and fled northward towards Québec.  Some lingered at Caraquet on the southern side of the Baie des Chaleurs in present-day northeastern New Brunswick. Others moved on to Cascapédia, now New Richmond, and to Bonaventure on the Gaspé Peninsula north of the Baie des Chaleurs in present-day Québec Province.  

Not all of the Cormiers escaped the British roundup at Chignecto or slipped quietly off of a British transport.  In the fall of 1755, following Governor Lawrence's orders, British commanders deported several Cormier families to South Carolina.  At least one family, that of Jean-Baptiste Cormier, père, brother of Pierre dit Palette and father of the Jean-Baptiste, fils who would be held at Halifax, ended up in Georgia in late 1755 with his wife and daughters and his wife's Richard kin.  François Cormier, son of Germain, with wife Madeleine Doucet, was transported to New York in the spring of 1756, or they may have landed there that summer with other Acadian refugees who had left Georgia and South Carolina in open boats that spring.  François died in New York January 1760.  After the war, his widow and their children journeyed north to Québec and settled at L'Assomption near Montréal.  

According to genealogist Bona Arsenault, Anne Cyr, widow of François Cormier, fils, now remarried, and some of her younger Cormier children, were deported to England in 1755.  (Most of the Acadian exiles who ended up in England were deported from Minas to Virginia in the autumn of 1755 and sent on to England the following spring.  Arsenault's narrative is especially suspect when one considers that Anne Cyr's second husband, François Arseneau dit Brélé, died at Restigouche in November 1759, when she was supposed to have been in England.)  In May of 1763, after prolonged negotiations between the French and British government, the Acadians in England, including Anne Cyr and her Cormier children, if we follow Arsenault's narrative, were repatriated to France, but Anne and her children refused to remain there.  In 1764, they settled on the French-controlled island of Miquelon, off the southern coast of Newfoundland.  

Although Le Grand Dérangement ended for most Acadians in North America by the late 1760s, this was not the case for those who lived on îles St.-Pierre and Miquelon.  In 1778, France joined the Anglo-American struggle against their old red-coated enemy, who controlled every part of the Maritimes region except the two French islands.  The British wasted no time seizing the islands.  They rounded up the Acadian habitants and fishermen there and deported them to France.  Cormiers were among the unfortunates who endured the crossing on hired British transports.  Ironically, the Cormiers who crossed from Miquelon in 1778 landed at La Rochelle, the port from which their ancestor Robert had sailed to Acadia 134 years before.  The crossing must have been a terrible one:  Pierre Cormier of Miquelon died at La Rochelle in April 1779; he was only 36 years old.  Simon, fils, son of Simon Cormier and Modeste Cyr, died at La Rochelle, age 14 months, in April 1779.  François Cormier's sons Alexandre, age 4, and Thomas, age 1, died at La Rochelle in May 1779.  François died at La Rochelle that same month; he was 53 years old.  But life went on for these wayward Cormiers.  Jean Cormier and his wife Rosalie or Modeste Vigneau had more children at La Rochelle:  Madeleine, born probably on Miquelon in c1778, died at La Rochelle at age 1 in May 1779; Pierre, born in c1778 probably at La Rochelle, died at age 3 in January 1782; Rose was born in July 1780; Germain in May 1781; Jean-Baptiste in August 1782 but died 2 days after his birth; and Joseph was born in January 1783.  Jean remarried to fellow Acadian Anne Poirier, widow of Pierre Aunels, at La Rochelle in September 1783.  Madeleine Cormier married Pierre Vigneau of Miquelon at La Rochelle in June 1779; she was 30 years old at the time of her marriage.  Joseph Cormier and his wife Marie or Anne Vigneau also had more children in the family's ancestral city:  Marie, born probably on Miquelon in c1776, died at La Rochelle at age 3 in May 1779; Gratien was born in December 1780 but died at age 10 months in October 1781; and Élisabeth was born in November 1782.  

Two, maybe three, Cormiers had gone to France exactly 20 years before the Miquelon exiles arrived there.  After the fall of the French fortress at Louisbourg in July 1758, British forces rounded up most of the Acadians on the Maritime islands transported them to France.  Two Cormiers made the crossing aboard the British transport Duke William, which left Île Royale in late summer and reached St.-Malo on the first of November.  Jacques Cormier, age 17, and his sister Marie, age 21, survived the crossing despite the high death toll aboard the vessel, but Marie died in a hospital at St.-Malo a week after the ship reached port.  At the end of February 1760, Jacques embarked on the ship La Prince Edouard, perhaps in privateer service.  He was back in France in June 1762, when he stood as godfather to Renée-Catherine, daughter of fellow Acadians Augustin Doucet dit Justice and Marie-Anne Précieux, at St.-Énogat, near St.-Malo.  Another Marie, this one daughter of chirurgien major Jacques Cormier, died at La Rochelle in September 1777, age 49.  One wonders when, and from where, she had come to France, or if she had been born there.  When, in the early 1780s, the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France the chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana, none of the Cormiers still living in the mother country were among the hundreds of Acadians who agreed to take it.  Jean Cormier, native of Île Miquelon and husband of Anne Briand, died at La Rochelle on 23 Messidor, year 10 of the Revolution (12 July 1802); he was 42 years old.  His daughter Marie was born posthumously at North Bordeaux on 14 Fructidor year 10 (1 September 1802) and was baptized the same day; her uncle François Cormier, perhaps François, fils, stood as her godfather.  Marie died at Bordeaux 5 1/2 years later in May 1808.  

In North America, after the war with Britain finally ended, Acadians still languishing in the seaboard colonies were encouraged by French officials to go to St.-Dominique to work on a new naval base at Môle St.-Nicolas.  There, like their cousins on Île Miquelon, they could live not only among fellow Roman Catholics, but also in territory controlled by France.  Although driven from North America, the French were determined to hang on to what was left of their shrinking empire.  The new naval base on the north shore of the big island would protect the approaches to what was left of their possessions in the Caribbean Basin.  French officials saw the Acadian exiles as a ready source of cheap labor.  To entice them to the sugar colony, they promised them land of their own there.  And so Acadians, including Cormiers, came to the island and labored in the jungles around Môle.  A number of Cormiers survived the ordeal and remained at Môle, but judging by the number of children they lost, the price of remaining was a high one.  Amand, also called Laurent and Lemand, Cormier, a ship's carpenter like his ancestor Robert, married Anastasie LeBlanc.  Their children born at Môle St.-Nicolas were Marie in c1773, who died at age 12 in September 1785; Barthélemy in July 1776; Nicolas in September 1779; Charles in December 1782; and Daniel in November 1783.  Charles, also called Claude, Cormier, a carpentier de marine as well, married Angélique or Augustine Carret.  Their children born at Môle were Jean-Charles, called Charles, in May 1778 but died at age 1 1/2 in February 1780; Marie-Angélique was born in June 1780 but died at age 2 in September 1782; Marie-Madeleine was born in May 1782 but died at age 18 months in November 1783; Félicité was born in c1784 but died at age 10 months in July 1785; and François-Alexis was born in June 1786.  Rosalie, daughter of Jean Cormier and widow of cousin Joseph Cormier of Pointe Beauséjour, remarried to Barthélemy Acinolo of St.-Lazare, France, at Môle St.-Nicolas in May 1777.  Joseph, son of Charles Cormier, died at Môle in October 1778, age 25.  Beginning in the summer of 1765, after several years of what they saw as fruitless effort, Acadians sought permission to leave Môle, but French officials refused to let them go.  Some Acadians, including Cormiers, left the project anyway and settled at nearby Jean-Rabel.  Jean, son of Alexis Cormier of Chignecto, married Élisabeth, daughter of Louis Morel and Agnès Danigrand of Pointe-de-Paix at Jean-Rabel in February 1783.  Their son Jean-Baptiste was born at Jean-Rabel in March 1784.  They also had daughters named Marie-Victoire, born at Jean-Rabel, and Marie-Renée at Môle St.-Nicolas.  Jean, called by the priest a native of Acadia and "widower of an Acadienne," died at his father's home at Caracol in April 1785, age 30.  Jean and Élisabeth's daughter Rose-Marguerite, perhaps Élisabeth, was born posthumously at Jean-Rabel in September 1785.  Jean-Baptiste and three of his sisters, as well as cousin Nicolas, were among the Acadians of Haiti who emigrated to Louisiana via Cuba during the early 1800s. 

Cormiers who had escaped the British roundups on the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore or who were still languishing in the seaboard colonies after 1763 eventually moved on to Canada.  Though now also a British possession, the northern province was populated largely by fellow French Catholics, many of them Acadian exiles.  So, in a colony nearly as old as Acadia, the majority of the family's survivors began the slow, inexorable process of becoming Canadiennes.  Especially after 1766, Cormiers settled in present-day Québec Province at St.-Ours and St.-Antoine-de-Chambly on the lower Richelieu; at St.-Grégoire-de-Nicolet and Bécancour on the St. Lawrence across from Trois-Rivières; and on Îles-de-la-Madeleine in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.  In Nova Scotia, Cormiers could be found at Chédabouctou, now Guysborough; and at Chéticamp, Grand-Étang, and Margaree on the northwest coast of Cape Breton Island, formerly Île Royale.  Some of the Cape Breton Cormiers moved north to Newfoundland, where they settled on Baie St.-George.  In present-day New Brunswick they settled at St.-Basile and Madawaska, far up the St. John River at what is now the boundary between New Brunswick and Maine; at Barachois, Bouctouche, and St.-Antoine on the eastern New Brunswick shore; at the nearby village of Cormierville overlooking the Mer Rouge, now Northumberland Strait; and at Memramcook, not far from Chignecto, where members of the family had begun their odyssey in the fall of 1755.  Typical of most, if not all, Acadian families, these Acadiennes of Canada lost touch with their Cadien cousins hundreds of miles away, and until the Acadian reunions of the twentieth century, may even have forgotten the others existed. 

At Halifax, Jean-Baptiste, fils and his cousins Joseph and Michel Cormier lingered in the prison pens on Georges Island, no doubt wondering what had happened to the rest of their family.  Joseph, the oldest of the cousins, had married Marguerite, daughter of Jacques Sonnier and Anne Hébert of Petitcoudiac, in c1759 probably on the Gulf of St. Lawrence.  Jean-Baptiste, fils and Michel were still bachelors when the war with Britain finally ended in February 1763.  With the war over, the young Cormiers in Nova Scotia, along with hundreds of fellow refugees, faced a hard dilemma.  The Treaty of Paris of February 1763 stipulated in its Article 14 that persons dispersed by the war had 18 months to return to their respective territories.  However, British authorities refused to allow any of the Acadian prisoners in the region to return to their former lands as proprietors.  If Acadians chose to remain in, or return to, Nova Scotia, they could live only in small family groups in previous unsettled areas or work for low wages on former Acadian lands now owned by New England "planters."  If they stayed, they must also take the hated oath of allegiance to the new British king, George III, without reservation.  They would also have to take the oath if they joined their cousins in Canada.  After all they had suffered on the question of the oath, few self-respecting Acadians would consent to take it if it could be avoided.  Some Halifax exiles, including Cormiers, chose to relocate to Miquelon, a French-controlled island off the southern coast of Newfoundland.  Others considered going to French St.-Domingue, where Acadian exiles in the British colonies, including Cormiers already had gone, or to the Illinois country, the west bank of which still belonged to France, or to French Louisiana, which, thanks to British control of Canada, was the only route possible to the Illinois country for Acadian exiles.  One suspects that Jean-Baptiste, fils, through the Acadian grapevine, managed to communicate with his father, down in Georgia or South Carolina.  Towards the end of their stay at Halifax, Jean-Baptiste, fils may have learned that, in late December 1763, his father, mother, and five sisters, along with 14 other relations--Landrys, Poiriers, and Richards--had left Savannah for Mobile, which was thought to be still a part of French Louiisiana.  Jean-Baptiste, fils may even have learned that they had moved on to New Orleans, which they reached in February 1764.  His father may have told him that the caretaker government in Louisiana had treated them well and would welcome other Acadians to settle in the colony.  This may have motivated the Broussards and the Cormiers' closer kin, the Thibodeaus and Richards, to head south to the French West Indies, the gateway to Louisiana.  Of the 600 who left Halifax in late 1764 bound for Cap-Français, St.-Domingue, six were Cormiers. 

Cousins of Jean-Baptiste, fils, Joseph, and Michel were among the last Acadians to emigrate to Louisiana.  Jean Baptiste, called Eugène Baptiste, Cormier also had roots at Chignecto, but his family's experience during exile was different from his cousins'.  Alexis Cormier of Pointe-Beauséjour, his wife Madeleine de Liglen, and their infant son Jean had been deported to South Carolina in the autumn of 1755 with hundreds of other Chignecto Acadians.  In 1763, the war with Britain finally over, French authorities encouraged the Acadians still languishing in the seaboard colonies to emigrate to St.-Domingue, where French officials put them to work as cheap labor on the new French naval base at Môle St.-Nicolas on the north shore of the island.  Alexis and Jean Cormier were among the South Carolina Acadians who went to the sugar island and remained there.  Jean married Élisabeth Morel of Pointe-de-Paix at Jean-Rabel, northeast of Môle St.-Nicolas, in February 1783.  Their son Jean-Baptiste was born at Jean-Rabel in March 1784.  Jean died at his father's home at Caracol, east of Cap-Français, in April 1785, age 30.  Alexis probably died at Caracol not long afterwards.  Jean Baptiste evidently was among the St.-Domingue French who fled to Cuba during the Haitian rebellion in late 1803; he would have been age 19 that year.  As a bachelor or a newly-wed, he most likely came to New Orleans with the flood of refugees from Cuba a few years later.  Three of his sisters--Rose-Élisasbeth and Marie-Victoire, called Éloise, also born at Jean-Rabel; and Marie-Renée, born at Môle St.-Nicolas, all of whom married at New Orleans--probably came with him.  Nicolas, son of Amand Cormier and Anastasie LeBlanc of Môle St.-Nicolas, also joined his cousins at New Orleans in the early 1800s.  He married Marie Soltero perhaps in Cuba in the early 1800s after escaping the Haitian rebellion in the late 1790s or early 1800s, or he may have married her at New Orleans soon after his arrival there.  Nicolas's older brother Barthélemy, born at Môle, may have accompanied him to Louisiana.187  

Corporon

In 1755, descendants of Jean Corporon and Françoise Savoie could be found at Mirliguèche on the Atlantic coast southwest of Halifax, perhaps in the Minas Basin, and especially on French-controlled Île Royale and Île St.-Jean.  Le Grand Dérangement of the 1750s scattered this family even farther. 

Two of Martin Corporon's daughters by his second wife were deported from Minas to two of the British Atlantic colonies during the fall of 1755.  Françoise, wife of Jean Roy, was deported with her family to Massachusetts.  Youngest sister Marie-Osite-Anne was shipped off to Maryland, where she married François Simoneau, a native of Lorraine, in c1759.  They were counted at Oxford, on Maryland's Eastern Shore, in July 1763.  Their oldest sister Marie and husband Honoré Trahan outdid her Corporon kin in bouncing from one place to another, although they, too, ended up in Maryland.  In 1749, on the eve of Le Grand Dérangement, Marie and Honoré moved from Pigiguit to Baie-des-Espagnols on Île Royale, where son Pierre was born the following year.  Dissatisfied with conditions in the isolated fishing village, they returned to peninsula Acadia, settling for a time on the French side of Rivière Missaguash, but they did not care for Abbé Le Loutre's Nouvelle-Acadie.  They returned to Nova Scotia and, with British permission, settled at Mirliguèche, on the Atlantic shore, in late August 1754.  When the British rounded up the Acadians in Nova Scotia during the summer of 1755, Honoré, Marie, and Pierre, despite having taken an unconditional oath of allegiance to the British King, were among the first Acadians held at Georges Island in Halifax harbor.  In December 1755, the British loaded them, along with other Acadians from Mirliguèche, most of them kin, aboard the sloop Providence and deported them to North Carolina, where they landed probably at Edenton on Albemarle Sound in January.  They remained in the Chowan County area of North Carolina until c1760, when colonial officials allowed them to leave.  Most of their relatives found their way to Philadelphia, but Honoré, Marie, and Pierre moved to Maryland instead, where colonial officials counted them at Port Tobacco in July 1763.  Soon afterwards, relatives who had gone to Pennsylvania joined them at Port Tobacco. 

Living in territory controlled by France, the Corporons on Île Royale and Île St.-Jean escaped the British roundup of Acadians in Nova Scotia in the fall of 1755.  Their respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  After the fall of the French stronghold at Louisbourg in July 1758, the British rounded up most of the Acadians on the Maritimes islands and deported them to France.  The result was a disaster for the Corporon family.  Martin's widow Marie-Josèphe Viger, age 55, with her second husband Paul Benoit and her 25-year-old son Jean-Charles Corporon, were deported to St.-Malo aboard the British tranport Duke William, which sank in December in a North Atlantic storm, taking most of its passengers with it.  Meanwhile, Martin and Marie-Josèphe's daughter Marie-Josèphe-Marguerite, called Marguerite, age 24, wife of Joseph Lejeune, perished along with her husband and two young children in a cross-ocean voyage aboard one of the five British transports that left the Gut of Canso in late November and reached St.-Malo in late January 1759.  

Some Corporons did survive the crossing to France.  At Rochefort, in July 1760, Madeleine Corporon, widow of Jean Pitard, both from Louisbourg, remarried to tinsmith Jean, son of Antoine Borde and Marguerite Faur of Louisbourg; the Notre-Dame parish priest who recorded the marriage did not give the bride's parents' names.  Martin Corporon's son Pierre, by Martin's first wife, Cécile Joseph, ended up at Cherbourg, where he remarried to Marie Simon, perhaps a fellow Acadian, in November 1761.  Sadly, a year earlier, in February and April 1760, Pierre's daughters Marie-Blanche, age 11, and Anne, age 18, had died at Cherbourg.  In April 1762, Anne Corporon married day laborer Jean Thubert, a widower, at Notre-Dame in Rochefort; the priest who recorded the marriage did not give the couple's parents' names, but it did note that the bride and groom were "anciens habitants de l'Île Royale."  In June 1784, Anne-Madeleine, daughter of Jean Corporon, whom the recording priest described as an "officier sur les navires," and Jeanne Pichot of Louisbourg, married carpenter Jacques Dixmier, a widower, at St.-Nicolas, La Rochelle.  When, in the early 1780s, the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France a chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana, none of the Corporons in the mother country agreed to take it.

At least one Corporon ended up in the French West Indies by the early 1760s.  Madeleine, daughter of Baptiste Corporon and Charlotte Roy of Louisbourg, died at Fort Royal, Martinique, in November 1764.  

When the war with Britain ended in February 1763, most of the Acadians being held in the New English colonies chose to go to Canada.  Though now also a British possession, the northern province was populated largely by fellow French Catholics, many of them Acadian exiles.  So, in a colony nearly as old as Acadia, descendants of Jean Corporon began the slow, inexorable process of becoming Canadiennes.  Françoise Corporon and her family settled at Repentigny, on the St. Lawrence above Québec, where she remarried to Canadian Antoine Dupuis dit Raymond in February 1785.  She died at Repentigny in February 1799, age 79.  Her cousin, Eustache, son of Jean-Baptiste Corporon l'aîné, took his family to another part of Canada.  By 1770, Eustache was living at Pointe-de-l'Est, near Halifax, Nova Scotia.  At least one of his sons, Abraham-Gilbert, moved on to Bas-de-Tousquet, today's Tusket, at northwestern end of Nova Scotia, in the early 1800s. 

Meanwhile, Françoise's sisters and their families still languishing in Maryland also spurned life in a British colony when the war finally ended, but they did not go to Canada.  When word reached the Acadians in Maryland that they would be welcome in Spanish Louisiana, they pooled their meager resources to charter ships that would take them south to New Orleans.223

Cousin

Living in territory controlled by France, Jean Cousin of Dol, Brittany, his wife Judith Guédry, and their family escaped the British roundup in Nova Scotia during the fall of 1755.  Their respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  After the fall of the French stronghold at Louisbourg in July 1758, the British rounded up most of the Acadians on Île Royale and deported them to France.  In c1768, Jean's daughter Marie-Blanche married Michel, fils, son of fellow Acadians Michel Doucet and Angélique Pitre, probably at Le Havre in Normandy.  In the early 1770s, the couple and three of their children were part of an attempt by French officials to settle Acadians from the coastal cities on a French nobleman's land near Châtellerault in the Poitou region.  After two years of effort, the Doucets retreated to the port city of Nantes with dozens of other Poitou Acadians.  Meanwhile, Jean Cousin may have remarried to fellow island Acadian Thérèse Savary at St.-Malo in c1775.  If so, he would have been in his late 50s at the time of the wedding.  Two sons--Louis-Mathurin-Jean and Jean-François--were born to the couple at Pleudihen, near St.-Malo in June 1776 and June 1780. 

In the early 1780s, the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France the chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana.  If he was still alive, Jean Cousin did not take up the offer.  Daughter Marie-Blanche and her husband Michel, however, jumped at the chance, but they almost did not make it to the Mississippi colony.  They booked passage aboard the fifth of the Seven Ships that left France in 1785, but for some reason they did not cross on that vessel; they took, instead, the seventh and final ship, which left Nantes on 19 October 1785.224

Crochet

Yves Crochet of Megrit, Brittany, married Pélagie Benoit, probably an Acadian, at Louisbourg, Île Royale, in February 1758.  Later that year, after the fall of Louisbourg in July, the victorious British rounded up most of the Acadians on Île Royale and deported them to France.  Yves Crochet and his new wife survived the crossing.  They landed at Rochefort in early 1759 then sailed around to St.-Malo, which they reached at the beginning of October.  From St.-Malo, they made the short trip to Yves's hometown area in northern Brittany, where eight children were born to them:  Jean-Guillaume at Quesny in September 1760, François-Louis in December 1761, Jean-Joseph or Yves-Joseph at St.-Servan in March 1763 but died at age 11 days, Françoise-Pélagie was born at St.-Servan in May 1764, Marguerite-Perrine at Quesny in May 1766, Yves-Jean in December 1767, Julien in March 1770, and Pélagie in February 1772.  Yves died at Quesny in November 1773 and was buried at nearby Megrit, his birthplace; he was only 41 years old. 

Soon after Yves died, Pélagie Benoit and her children joined the hundreds of Acadians from the port cities who had settled on a nobleman's land in the Poitou region near the city of Châtellerault.  Pélagie was pregnant when she left Quesny for Poitou.  Her ninth and final child, son Jean-Marin Crochet, was born posthumously in early May 1774, six months after her husband died, and was baptized at Châtellerault.  Youngest daughter Pélagie, only two years old, died a few weeks after her brother was born.  In November 1775, Pélagie and most of her children, along with her recently married sister, Marguerite Benoit, retreated with dozens of other Acadians to the port city of Nantes, where they subsisted on government hand outs and what work they could find there.  Pélagie's oldest son, Jean-Guillaume Crochet, who would have been 15 in November 1775, was not on the convoy from Châtellerault to Nantes with the rest of the family.  He had become a sailor and probably went to sea.  Daughter Marguerite, who would have been only 9 in 1775, also was not on the convoy list; for what reason is anyone's guess.  

In the early 1780s, the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France the chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana.  Pélagie Benoit and her Crochet children agreed to take it.  Youngest son Jean-Marin, born in Poitou in May 1774, evidently died at Nantes at age 10 or 11 sometime between September 1784, when he was counted with his family there, and August 1785, when they left for Louisiana.  He did not accompany his widowed mother and six siblings to Louisiana.225  

Daigre/Daigle

In 1755, descendants of Olivier Daigre, père and Marie Gaudet could be found at Annapolis Royal, Grand-Pré, Piguiguit, Chignecto, the trois-rivières area, and on Île St.-Jean and Île Royale in the French Maritimes.  By then, the family's name had evolved from Daigre to Daigle, though some members of the family retained the original spelling.  Le Grand Dérangement of the 1750s scattered this large family even farther. 

The Acadians at Chignecto were the first to endure a disruption of their lives.  In the early 1750s, Canadian soldiers, assisted by Mi'kmaq warriors led by Abbé Le Loutre, burned Acadian homesteads in the British-controlled area east of Rivière Missaguash, forcing the habitants to move to the French-controlled area west of the river.  Daigres may have been among the refugees.  After yet another war erupted between Britain and France in 1754, the Chignecto Acadians were caught in the middle of it.  When British and New England forces attacked Fort Beauséjour in June 1755, Daigres may have been among the 300 Chignecto Acadians serving in the fort as militia.  They, too, along with the French troupes de la marine, became prisoners of war when the fort surrendered on June 16.  Governor Lawrence was so incensed to find so-called French Neutrals fighting with French regulars at Beauséjour he ordered his officers to deport the Chignecto Acadians to the southernmost British colonies on the Atlantic seaboard.  Jean Daigre, his wife Rosalie Richard, and four children were transported to South Carolina aboard the transport Edward Cornwallis, which reached Charles Town on November 19.  Also aboard one of the south-bound transports was Marguerite Daigre, widow of Pierre Forest, and three of her sons.  The following August, Jean, Rosalie, and their remaining son, Jean-Baptiste, as well as Marguerite and her three sons, were sent with two dozen other Acadians from Charles Town to Prince Frederick Winyaw, a rural Anglican parish farther up the coast at present-day Plantersville. 

Daigres from Minas were deported to Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Massachusetts in the fall of 1755.  The many Daigres sent to Virginia suffered the indignity of being turned away by the colony's authorities.  They languished in the lower James River aboard disease-infested ships until Governor Dinwiddie ordered them dispersed to Hampton, Norfolk, and Richmond, while he and the colony's political leaders pondered their fate.  The following spring, the Virginians sent them on to England, where they were packed into warehouses in several English ports and treated like common criminals.  Charles Daigre, son of Joseph, died during the crossing to England, age 35.  Most of the many Daigres in England were held at Falmouth in Cornwall, but others were held at Southampton and up in Liverpool.  Marie, daughter of Olivier, fils and wife of Jean Thériot, died in early December 1756; her death was recorded at St.-Gluvius Parish church, Penryn, northwest of Falmouth.  Marie's younger brother Olivier III of Rivière-aux-Canards, age 53, died at Penryn a few days later, as did their youngest brother Jean-Baptiste, age 47--victims, perhaps, of smallpox.  Their sister Jeanne, wife of Pierre Trahan, died at Liverpool in June 1757.  Meanwhile, brothers Pierre and Joseph, sons of Bernard, fils, died at Southampton in 1756.  But life went on, even amidst the squalor of the prison compounds.  Pierre Daigre's widow Marie-Madeleine Gautrot remarried to fellow Acadian Charles Landry of Grand-Pré, widower of Anne Boudrot, at Southampton in c1758.  Charles helped Madeleine raise three of her children, two sons and a daughter, by Pierre Daigre.  Olivier III's son Honoré, widower of Françoise-Osite Dupuis, at age 31, remarried to Marguerite, daughter of fellow Acadians Antoine Landry and Marie Melanson and widow of Cyprien Thériot, at Falmouth in September 1757, and remarried again--his third marriage--to Élisabeth, daughter of fellow Acadians Jean Trahan and Marie Hébert and widow of Charles Thériot, at Falmouth in September 1762.  Honoré's younger brother Olivier IV, widower of Marie Landry, at age 26, remarried to Marie-Blanche, daughter of fellow Acadians Charles LeBlanc and Élisabeth Thibodeau, at Falmouth in November 1758.   Honoré and Olivier IV's younger brother Simon-Pierre, at age 23, married Marie-Madeleine, daughter of fellow Acadians Jean Thériot and Marie Landry, at Falmouth in 1758.  Younger brother Jean-Charles, at age 20, married Marie-Josèphe, another daughter of Jean Thériot and Marie Landry, at Falmouth in February 1760.  Meanwhile, the dead Pierre and Joseph's younger brother Jean-Baptiste, at age 25, married Marie-Flavie, daughter of fellow Acadians Jean dit Lami Boudrot and Agathe Thibodeau, at Southampton in 1758.  The following year, brother Eustache, at age 31, married Madeleine, daughter of fellow Acadians Charles Dupuis and Marie-Madeleine Trahan, at Southampton, where they had at least two children, in c1760 and c1761.  In November 1761, at Southampton, the brothers' youngest sister Angélique, at age 24, married Joseph, fils, 39-year-old son of fellow Acadians Joseph LeBlanc and Anne Bourg and widow of Marie Landry and Marguerite Babin.  Charles, age 24, son of Jean-Baptiste, married Marguerite, daughter of fellow Acadians Charles Granger and Françoise LeBlanc, at Falmouth in February 1761.  Younger brother Olivier, at age 20, married Blanche, daughter of fellow Acadians Joseph Robichaud and Claire LeBlanc of Cobeguit, in England in c1758.  Charles and Olivier's older sister Madeleine, meanwhile, at age 22, married Charles, fils, son of Charles Granger and Françoise LeBlanc, at Falmouth in December 1757.  Newlyweds Charles Daigre, son of Bernard, fils, Charles's wife Marie-Josèphe Babin, and their infant son Jacques ended up in Maryland.  Charles and Marie-Josèphe had at least four more children in Maryland--Charles, fils in c1755, Simon in c1757, Marie in c1759, and François in c1761.  Unlike in Virginia, colonial authorities in Maryland held the Acadians until the end of the war with France.  At least one Daigre family, that of Alain of Minas, was sent to Pennsylvania.  Charles Daigre of L'Assomption, Pigiguit, son of Bernard, père, Charles's wife Françoise Doucet, and their family, including married son Jean-Baptiste and his wife Marie-Josèphe Vincent, were deported to Massachusetts in 1755.  In August 1760, Charles's widow Françoise, daughter Françoise, youngest son Odon, and oldest son Jean-Baptiste, his wife, and their children, were among the Acadians at Milton, Massachusetts, being transferred to Boston; Charles evidently had died in the Yankee colony during the late 1750s.  His daughter Françoise married François, son of fellow Acadians Claude Benoit and Jeanne Hébert, at Boston in February 1761.  Michel Daigre with a family of two; widow Françoise Daigre with a family of two; and Jean-Charles Daigre with a family of five, appeared on an undated list of Acadians probably being held in New England. 

Daigres who escaped the British roundups in 1755 took refuge on the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore or moved on to Canada.  Louis-René, son of Bernard, died at St.-Michel de Bellechasse below Québec, in November 1757, age 48.  His older brother Joseph died at nearby St.-Charles de Bellechasse in December 1757, age 61.  They likely were victims of a smallpox epidemic that struck Acadian refugees in and around Québec that fall and winter.  Joseph's son Jean-Baptiste, widow of Blanche Trahan, remarried, at age 26, to Marie-Thérèse, daughter of fellow Acadians Paul Trahan and Marie Boudrot, at St.-Charles de Bellechasse in February 1759.  Meanwhile, Charles, son of René of Petitcoudiac, widower of Marguerite Comeau, remarried, at age 23, to Madeleine, daughter of fellow Acadians Jean Bastarache dit Basque and Angélique Richard of Annapolis Royal, at Québec in November 1758 (he went on to marry two more times, at Charlebourg, below the city). 

Living in territory controlled by France, none of the Daigres in the Maritimes were touched by the British roundup in Nova Scotia in 1755.  Their respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  After the British captured the French fortress at Louisbourg in July 1758, they gathered up most of the Acadians on the islands, Daigres among them, and deported them to St.-Malo and other French ports.  One Daigre family may have eluded the British.  Paul Daigre of Chignecto, wife Marie Hébert, and their three young children, living at Malpèque on the northwest coast of Île St.-Jean, likely escaped with the majority of their neighbors to the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore.  One family ended up at Restigouche at the head of the Baie des Chaleurs.  In October 1760, after the British had attacked the French stronghold in July and rounded up 300 Acadian refugees, Paul Daigre of Chignecto and Malpèque and his family of 10 were counted at Restigouche with 1,003 Acadians who had escaped the British again.  A few years later, however, members of Paul's family were being held in British prisoner-of-war compounds in Nova Scotia. 

Paul's many cousins on the islands, however, were not so lucky.  The 1758 crossing to France devastated entire families:  Anne, 79-year-old daughter of family progenitor Olivier Daigre, and her family, as well as niece Marie-Claire, age 58, daughter of Anne's brother Bernard, Marie-Claire's husband Charles Hébert dit Manuel, and their children, perished aboard the British transport Violet, which sank in a mid-Atlantic storm on November 25.  Grégoire Daigre, wife Élisabeth Vincent, and nine of their children--Amand, Simon, Marguerite, Madeleine, Osite, Pierre, and three unnamed--crossed on a British transport named Duke William, which limped into St.-Malo the first of November.  Only Grégoire survived the crossing.  His sister Marie crossed on the same vessel with husband Casimir LeBlanc, and four of their children, and four LeBlanc relatives.  Only Casimir and a male relative survived the crossing.  Marie died in a St.-Malo hospital the day after Christmas, probably from the rigors of the crossing.  Two of her children died at sea, and two died at St.-Servan, near St.-Malo, soon after they reached the port.  Grégoire and Marie's cousin Félicie Daigre crossed on the Duke William with husband Jean-Baptiste Pitre, age 25, and a son.  Félicie and Jean-Baptiste survived the crossing, but their son died at sea.  She and Jean-Baptiste moved on to Rochefort soon after they reached St.-Malo.  Grégoire Daigre, age 15, son of Charles, crossed on the Duke William and lived to tell it.  Most of the island Daigres crossed on one of the five British transports that left the Gut of Canso in late November and reached St.-Malo in late January 1759.  The death toll among the 1,033 passengers aboard those vessels reached nearly 50 percent; many were Daigres.  Marguerite Daigre, age 30, crossed with husband Zacharie Boudrot, age 37, five children, ages 9 to 1, and two Boudrot relatives, including Zacharie's sister Marie, age 22.  All of the children died at sea.  Jean Daigre, fils, age 26, crossed with wife Marie-Josèphe Thériot, age 24, and two of their children--Marie, age 4; and Madeleine, age 2.  The children were buried at sea.  Charles Daigre, age 25, crossed with wife Marie-Blanche Barrieau, age 23, two children--Jean-Baptiste, age 3; and Gertrude, age 1 1/2--and Marie-Blanche's sister Pélagie, age 13.  Charles's two children died at sea, and he died in a St.-Malo hospital in late March, likely from the rigors of the crossing.  Jean Daigre of Grand-Pré, age 60, crossed with second wife Anne-Marie Breau, age 51, and six of their unmarried children--Marie, age 20; Paul, age 17; Ursule, age 15; Marie-Marguerite, called Marguerite, age 14; Anne- or Jeanne-Josèphe, age 12; and Élisabeth, or Isabelle, age 9.  Anne-Marie and daughter Isabelle died at sea.  Jean died in a St.-Malo hospital in February, soon after reaching the port.  Jean and Anne-Marie's older daughter Catherine, age 30, crossed with husband Blaise Thibodeau, age 30, four children, ages 5 to 1, and Mathurin Hébert, age 16, a relative.  The four children died at sea, and Mathurin died a month after reaching the port.  Marguerite Daigre, age 35, crossed with husband Pierre Dugas, age 31, three children, ages 6, 4, and 2, and Pierre's brother Amand, age 12.  The youngest child died at sea.  Olivier Daigre of Cobeguit, age 41, crossed with wife Angélique Doiron, age 39, and 11 children--Maguerite, age 18; Miniac, age 15; Marie-Osite, called Osite, age 13; Rose, age 11; Charles, age 10; Joseph, age 8; Jean-Pierre, age 6; Paul, age 2; and Jean-Baptiste, Firmin, and Geneviève, ages unrecorded.  Olivier, Angélique, Marguerite, Miniac, Osite, and Rose survived the crossing, but the other seven children died at sea.  Angélique died in a St.-Malo hospital a month after reaching the port, and Olivier died a few days later.  Pierre Daigre, age 66, crossed with second wife Marie-Louise Testard dit Paris, age 53, widow of Charles Pinet, fils.  They survived the crossing but died soon after reaching the port.  François Daigre, age 50, crossed with wife Marie Boudrot, age 48, and three unmarried children--Olivier, age 18; Hélène-Catherine, age 17; and Françoise, age 15.  They all survived the crossing, but François and Marie died soon after reaching the port.  François and Marie's son Marin, age 23, crossed with wife Françoise Hébert, age 22.  They survived the crossing, but Françoise died in a local hospital soon after reaching the port.  François and Marie's daughter Marie-Rose crossed with husband René Guillot, age 32, and two sons, ages 3 and infant.  The boys died at sea, and Marie-Rose died in a St.-Malo hospital in early March, probably from the rigors of the crossing.  Marie-Rose's sister Théotiste, age 33, crossed with husband Ambroise Guillot, age 30 (he was Marie-Rose's husband's brother), and five children, ages 7, 5, 4, 2, and unrecorded.  The four youngest children died at sea.  Olivier Daigre, age 24, crossed with wife Marie-Blanche Robichaud, age 28, whom he had married earlier in the year.  Both survived the crossing.  Charles Daigre, age 28, and wife Anne-Marie Vincent, age 29, also survived the crossing.  Françoise Daigre, age 32, widow of François Gautrot, crossed with two children, ages 3 and 2.  The children died at sea, and Françoise died in a St.-Malo hospital soon after reaching the port.  Anne Daigre, age 20, crossed with husband Pierre Robichaud, age 24. Anne was pregnant on the voyage and gave birth to twin daughters Anne-Marie and Marguerite on May 10.  She died from the rigors of childbirth, and the twins died three days after their birth, leaving Pierre without a family.  Marguerite Daigre, age 30, crossed with husband Eustache Bourg, age 36, and three children, ages 6, 2, and 1. Eustache and the three children died at sea, leaving Marguerite without a family.  Amand Daigre, age 46, son of Bernard, died in the crossing to St.-Malo aboard an unnamed vessel.  

Island Daigres who survived the crossing did their best to make a life for themselves in the teeming suburbs of St.-Malo.  Grégoire Daigre settled at St.-Servan, just outside of St.-Malo, and married, at age 19, Marguerite-Josèphe, 19-year-old daughter of fellow Acadians Jean Henry and Marie Carret, at St.-Servan in September 1762.  Marguerite-Josèphe gave Grégoire at least seven children there:  Marie was born in November 1763, Marguerite-Anastasie in January 1765, Olive-Victoire in June 1766, Geneviève-Simone in October 1767 but died at age 3 in August 1770, Françoise-Jeanne was born in May 1769, Jean-Joseph in December 1770, and Geneviève-Sophie in December 1772.  Charles Daigre and his wife Anne-Marie Vincent settled at Trigavou, south of St.-Malo, where he worked as a pulley maker.  He and his wife were that rare Acadian couple who had no children.  Marie-Blanche Barrieau, widow of another Charles Daigre, still in her early 20s, resided at Pleuidhen, also south of St.-Malo.  One wonders if she remarried.  Théotiste, daughter of François Daigre, with husband Ambroise Guillot, settled at Trigavou and gave him at least six more children there between 1760 to 1770.  Théotiste's youngest sister Françoise, age 20, married Pierre, fils, son of fellow Acadians Pierre Boudrot and Anne Hébert, at Trigavou in November 1763.  Between 1764 and 1771, she gave him at least four children there.  Théotiste and Françoise's brother Marin remarried to Tecle, daughter of fellow Acadians Claude Thériot and Marie Guérin, at Pleslin, southwest of St.-Malo, in June 1764.  Tecle gave Marin at least four children at nearby Trigavou, half of whom died in childhood:  Romain was born in August 1765, Brigide in May 1767, and twins Marin, fils and Marie-Anne in March 1769 but died Marie-Anne died at age 2 in April 1771, and Marin, fils died in June 1771.  Théotiste, Françoise, and Marin's sister Hélène-Catherine, age 22, married François-Hilaire, 19-year-old son of fellow Acadians Alexandre Gautrot and Marguerite Hébert, at Trigavou in November 1764.  She gave him at least four children there between 1766 to 1773.  Catherine, daughter of Jean Daigre, settled with husband Blaise Thibobeau at Pleudihen-sur-Rance, south of St.-Malo, where she gave him at least eight more children at nearby Mordreuc between 1760 and 1770, half of whom died in childhood.  Catherine's younger brother Paul, at age 19, married Geneviève, 20-year-old daughter of fellow Acadians Michel Aucoin and Marie-Josèphe Henry, at Pleudihen in April 1761.  She gave him at least nine children there, most of whom did not survive childhood:  Jean was born in July 1762, René-Jean at nearby Les Villes Morvues in February 1764, twins Joseph-Charles and Marie-Anne at nearby La Gravelle in March 1766 but Marie-Anne died at age 9 in August 1775, Marguerite-Jeanne was born at nearby Ville de la Chapelle in May 1768 but died at La Gravelle at age 1 1/2 in September 1779, Anne-Geneviève was born at La Gravelle in April 1770 but died at age 5 in August 1775, twins Geneviève-Jeanne and Marie-Françoise were born in March 1772, and Paul-Olivier in April 1774 but died at age 5 in September 1779.  Paul's oldest son Jean, at age 27, married Hélène, 25-year-old daughter of fellow Acadians François Bourg and Anne Aucoin, at Pleudihen in February 1789, nearly five years after hundreds of fellow Acadians in France moved on to Spanish Louisiana.  Hélène, like Jean, was a native of the Pleudihen area.  Meanwhile, Catherine and Paul's younger sister Marie-Marguerite, called Marguerite, married Amand, son of fellow Acadians Jacques Giroir and Marie Boisseau, at Pleudihen in May 1764.  She gave him at least seven children at Mordreuc between 1765 and 1773, most of whom died in childhood.  Marguerite remarried to Louis, fils, son of fellow Acadians Louis Clossinet dit Dumoulin and Marguerite Longuépée and widower of Anne Jacquemin, at Pleudihen in November 1774.  She gave him no children, at least none who appear in French church records.  Catherine, Paul, and Marguerite's sister Marie married Jean-Baptiste, son of fellow Acadians Pierre Barrieu and Véronique Giroir, at Pleudihen in June 1764.  She gave him at least four children at Mordreuc and at nearby La Gravelle between 1765 and 1769.  Amand "drowned on a ship off the coast of Guernsey in January 1769."  Catherine et al.'s youngest sister Anne-Josèphe married Jean, fils, son of fellow Acadians Jean Bourg and Marie Pitre and widower of Marie Aucoin, at Pleudihen in May 1767.  She gave him 13 more children at nearby La Coquenais and La Gravelle between 1768 and 1785.  Jean Daigre, fils and wife Marie-Josèphe Thériot settled at Pleudihen, where, at nearby Les Villes Morvues, La Coquenais, and La Gravelle, she gave him at least six more children, most of whom survived childhood:  Jean-Pierre was born at Les Villes Morvues in September 1760, Anne-Marie in January 1762, Marie-Jeanne at La Coquenais in October 1763 but died at age 10 at La Gravelle in August 1773, Jeanne-Madeleine was born at La Gravelle in May 1766 but died there at age 7 in July 1773, Madeleine-Françoise was born in March 1768, and Françoise-Modeste in November 1771.  Olivier Daigre of Cobeguit's four surviving children--Marguerite, Miniac, Marie-Osite, and Marie-Rose--settled at Plouër.  Marguerite, age 20, married Jean-Baptiste, 33-year-old son of fellow Acadians Jean Landry and Madeleine Melanson and widower of Rosalie Boudrot, at Plouër in November 1760.  Before Marguerite could give him anymore children, Jean-Baptiste died at Hotel-Dieu, St.-Malo, in February 1763, age 36.  Marguerite, at age 27, remarried to Honoré, 22-year-old son of fellow Acadians Pierre Richard and Marie-Josèphe Boudrot, at Plouër in January 1767.  Between 1767 and 1773, she gave him at least four children, only one of whom survived childhood.  Marguerite's sister Marie-Osite, at age 18, married Marin, 22-year-old son of fellow Acadians Jean Bourg and Françoise Benoit of Cobeguit, at Plouër in January 1763.  She gave him at least six children, all of whom survived childhood, between 1764 and 1773.  Marguerite and Marie-Osite's brother Miniac, still unmarried, became one of the few island Acadians who chose to go to Belle-Île-en-Mer in 1765.  Marguerite, Marie-Osite, and Miniac's younger sister Marie-Rose, at age 21, married Joseph, 22-year-old son of Charles Dupuis and Marie-Madeleine Trahan, at Plouër in February 1768.  Joseph also had crossed from England aboard L'Ambition, with the family of Marie-Rose's cousin Eustache Daigre.  Sadly, Marie-Rose died at nearby Lysnais the December after her wedding.  Olivier Daigre and wife Marie-Blanche Robichaud settled at Trigavou and St.-Servan, where she gave him at least 10 children, most of whom survived childhood:  twins Olivier-Raphael and Marie-Louise were born in August 1759 but Marie-Louise died the following November, Michel-Grégoire was born in October 1760 but died at age 11 months in September 1761, Jean-Charles was born in December 1761, Françoise-Appoline in August 1763, Casimir-Théodore in July 1765, François-Joseph in July 1767, Marie-Blanche in June 1771 but died at age 8 in August 1779, and Geneviève-Marie was born in July 1773.  Olivier's oldest son Olivier-Raphael, at age 27, married Marie-Jacquemine, 24-year-old daughter of fellow Acadians François Bourg and Anne Aucoin, at Pleudihen in January 1786, less than a year after hundreds of fellow Acadians in France moved on to Spanish Louisiana.  In September 1759, Charles Daigre, now a widower, probably with his two daughters, reached St.-Malo from Rochefort.  They settled at Plouër.  Charles remarried to Marie-Blanche, daughter of fellow Acadians Pierre Aucoin and Catherine Comeau, at Plouër in October 1763.  Marie-Blanche gave Charles another daughter there:  Marie-Madeleine was born in October 1766.  Marie-Blanche died at Gallienne near Plouër in April 1772, age 36.  In May 1766, Alexandre Daigre, wife Élisabeth Granger, and three of their children, with permission from French authorities, left Boulogne-sur-Mer for St.-Malo aboard the brigantine Le Hazard.  They settled at St.-Servan, where Élisabeth gave Alexandre at least four more children:  Marguerite-Félicité was born in September 1767; twins Joseph and Marie in March 1770; and Charles-Marie, also called Charles-Daniel, in October 1773. 

Island Daigres ended up in other French ports, including Rochefort, Boulogne-sur-Mer, Cherbourg, and Le Havre.  Charles Daigre, age 34, wife Cécile Landry, age 32, and two daughters--Marguerite-Cécile, age 8; and Marie, age 7--ended up at Rochefort.  Cécile either died during the crossing or soon after they reached the naval port.  Charles and his daughters promptly moved on to St.-Malo, which they reached the first of September 1759.  Alexandre Daigre, age 29, wife Élisabeth, or Isabelle, Granger, age 26, and son Charles, age 6, ended up at Boulogne-sur-Mer, where they had four more children in St.-Nicolas Parish:  Jean-Charles-Alexandre was born in July 1759 but died the following December, Isabelle-Luce was born January 1761, Alexis-Mathurin in January 1763, and Jean-Baptiste-Alexandre in May 1765.  In May 1766, the family left Boulogne-sur-Mer for St.-Malo.  Son Charles, who would have been age 14, was not with them.  Olivier Daigre, age 26, landed first at Cherbourg, moved on to St.-Malo, which he reached in late February 1759, and returned to Cherbourg a week or so later, where he died the following November.  Joseph Daigre died at Cherbourg in April 1760, age 12; the priest who recorded the boy's burial did not give his parents' names.  Jean Daigre, a fisherman, and his wife Marie-Judique Durel also ended up at Cherbourg, where they had at least three children:  Jean-Baptiste was born in December 1759, Charles-Lazare was baptized by a priest named Raimond LeBlanc at Très-Ste.-Trinité in August 1761, and Firmin was born in April 1763.  Still in his late teens, François Daigre, son of Abraham of Minas and Île St.-Jean, married Jeanne, 23-year-old daughter of Thomas Holley and Scholastique Le Gentilhomme, "bourgeois de Cherbourg," at Très-Ste.-Trinité in January 1761.  Jeanne gave her young Acadian husband many children there:  Marie-Thérèse was born in December 1761, François-Alexandre in February 1763, Louis-François in August 1766, and Marie-Jeanne-Jacqueline in September 1769.  They moved on to Le Havre, where daughter Flore-Adélaïde was born in c1770.  François's sister Marie-Rose married Guillaume, 20-year-old son of fellow Acadians Jean-Baptiste dit Jeannit LaBorde and Marie Prieur of Île St.-Jean, at Très-Ste.-Trinité in July 1761.  Guillaume was a sailor.  Sadly, before she could give him any children, Marie-Rose died at Cherbourg in December 1763, age 25.  François and Marie-Rose's sister Marguerite, widow of Eustache Bourg, who had died at Plymouth, England, during Le Grand Dérangement, also ended up at Cherbourg, but she did not remain there.  She remarried to Pierre, 34-year-old son of fellow Acadians Jacques Lavergne and Françoise Pitre of Chignecto and widow of Anne Lord, at Notre-Dame church, Le Havre, in November 1763.  Pierre had resided in that port since late 1758, having been deported there from Île St.-Jean. 

In the spring of 1763, after prolonged negotiations between the French and British governments, the Acadians in England who had gone there from Virginia were repatriated to France, many Daigres among them.  They landed at St.-Malo, Morlaix, and other ports.  Marie-Madeleine, called Madeleine, Gautrot, age 44, widow of Pierre Daigre of Grand-Pré and wife of Charles LeBlanc of Grand-Pré, crossed the Channel with her husband, three LeBlanc children, ages 4, 3, and 2, and four Daigre children--Jean-Baptiste-Amand, age 19; Marie-Rose, called Rose, age 12; and Paul, age 11.  They sailed aboard the ship L'Ambition, which reached St.-Malo on May 22, and settled at nearby St.-Servan.  Jean-Baptiste-Amand, at age 18, married Marguerite-Ange, 16-year-old daughter of fellow Acadians Joseph-Ange Dubois and Anne Michel of Cap-Sable, at St.-Servan in January 1770.  Their son Jean-Joseph was born at Crehen near Pleurtuit south of St.-Malo in April 1771 but died at St.-Servan at age 1 in July 1772.  Eustache Daigre, age 35, crossed on L'Ambition with wife Madeleine Dupuis, age 21, and two children--Pierre, age 3; and Marie-Marguerite, age 1 1/2.  With them was Madeleine's 17-year-old brother Joseph.  They settled at Plouër, where Madeleine gave Eustache at least four more children:  Madeleine-Marguerite was born at Lysnais, near Plouër, in February 1765 but died there at age 6 in June 1771; Victoire-Marie was born in January 1767 but died at age 6 in August 1773; Jean-Joseph was born in January 1770; and Charles-Marc in February 1772.  Eustache's brother Jean-Baptiste, age 20, wife Marie-Flavie Boudrot, and infant daughter Madeleine, also crossed on L'Ambition and settled at Plouër.  Marie-Flavie gave Jean-Baptiste at least five more children there, most of whom died in childhood:  Jean-Baptiste was born at nearby Village de Lysnais in October 1765 but died there at age 1 1/2 in March 1767, Joseph-Marie was born in July 1767 but died at Lysnais at age 4 1/2 in December 1771, Anne-Marie was born in September 1769, and an unnamed child died the day of his/her birth at Lysnais in December 1771.  Meanwhile, daughter Madeleine died at Village de Lysnais, age 4, in February 1767.  Joseph Daigre, fils of Grand-Pré crossed on L'Ambition, settled at Plouër, and married Élisabeth, daughter of fellow Acadians Pierre Comeau and Marguerite Aucoin, at St.-Servan in January 1766.  She gave him at least one son there:  Joseph-Silvain was born in February 1767 but died at age 1 in March 1768.  Joseph, fils's younger sister Marguerite also crossed on L'Ambition and settled at Plouër before moving to St.-Servan in 1766.  Simon Daigre, age 13, crossed on L'Ambition and settled at Plouër before moving to St.-Servan.  Joseph Daigre, fils, age 11, crossed the Channel aboard La Dorothée with the family of Alain LeBlanc and settled at St.-Servan, but he did not remain there.  In 1765, in his early teens, he moved on to Belle-Île-en-Mer, likely with the LeBlancs, and then disappears from the historical record. 

In late autumn 1765, Daigres repatriated from England to Morlaix, along with a Daigre deported to St.-Malo from the French Maritimes, agreed to become part of a new agricultural settlement on Belle-Île-en-Mer off the southern coast of Brittany.  Five of the Daigres who went to Belle-Île-en-Mer were sons of Olivier III and Françoise Granger of Rivière-aux-Canards.  The brothers had been held at Falmouth for seven long years and crossed to Morlaix in northwestern Brittany in the spring of 1763.  Honoré, age 40 in 1765, came to the island from Tréguier northwest of Morlaix with third wife Élisabeth Trahan, age 40, four sons--Pierre, age 16; Jean-Pierre, age 11; Joseph, age 9; and Jean-François, age 2--and Élisabeth's daughter by an earlier marriage, Marie Thériot, age 16.  They settled at Chubiguer in the district of Le Palais.  Two more children were born to them there, including a second son Joseph in October 1766, and Marie-Catherine in February 1769.  Honoré's older son named Joseph died at Le Palais in June 1779, age 22.  Meanwhile, Honoré's oldest son Pierre from his first wife, Françoise Dupuis, married Marie, daughter of fellow Acadians Charles Thériot and Isabelle Trahan of Rivière-aux-Canards, at Le Palais in September 1773.  Honoré's brother Olivier IV, age 34 in 1765, came to Belle-Île-en-Mer with second wife Marie-Blanche LeBlanc, age 24, and son Victor, age 4.  They also settled at Chubiguer.  At least 11 more children were born to them there:  Michel in October 1763 but died at age 2 1/2 in May 1766; François was born in December 1765; Simon-François in December 1767; Jean-Baptiste in February 1770; Olivier V in February 1772 but died 15 days after his birth; Marie-Geneviève was born in July 1773; Pélagie in June 1775; Marie-Madeleine in May 1777 but died at age 1 in June 1778; Eulalie was born in March 1779; and twins Honoré le jeune and Marguerite in August 1781, but Marguerite also died young.  By September 1784, Olivier IV and younger brother Simon-Pierre had left the island and moved their families east to Paimboeuf, the port of Nantes.  Simon-Pierre, age 30 in 1765, came to the island with wife Marie-Madeleine Thériot, age 27, and three children--Marie-Marguerite, age 6; Anne-Geneviève, age 4; and Édouard, age 2.  They settled at Kervellant, in the district of Sauzon.  More children were born to them there, including Simon-Pierre, fils, in June 1766; Jean-Pierre in August 1768; Marie-Madeleine in July 1774; and Joseph-Michel in April 1776.  By September 1784, Simon-Pierre and his family had followed older brother Olivier IV to Paimboeuf.  Brother Jean-Charles, age 25 in 1765, came to the island with wife Marie-Josèphe Thériot, ag 23, and two sons--Charles-Augustin, age 5; and Mathurin, age 3.  They settled at Kerzo, Sauzon.  More children were born to them there:  Constance in August 1766, and Marie-Jeanne in April 1768.  They, too, left the island, but not for Paimboeuf.  They moved, instead, to the southern coast of Brittany, where Jean-Charles worked as a laborer on one of the King's farm.  Daughter Marie-Françoise was born in St.-Coustan Parish, Auray, east of Lorient, in June 1772; the priest who recorded her baptism noted Marie-Françoise's father was working on the King's farm and that the family was "demeurant sur le quai"--living on the wharf.  They did not remain at Auray but returned to Le Palais on Belle-Île-en-Mer, where son Pierre-Joseph was born in March 1775.  Honoré, Olivier IV, Simon-Pierre, and Jean-Charles's youngest brother Paul, age 23 in 1765, was the only brother still unmarried when the family reached Morlaix.  But, typically, he did not remain a bachelor.  He married Agathe, daughter of fellow Acadians Honoré LeBlanc and Marie-Josèphe Trahan of Rivière-aux-Canards, at St.-Mathieu church, Morlaix, in October 1764.  Paul and Agathe may have known one another in Acadia.  She, with her family, also had been deported to Virginia, sent on to England, held at Liverpool, and crossed from there to Morlaix in the spring of 1763.  Paul and Agathe joined two of his older brothers at Chubiguer.  The couple had at least two daughters there:  Anne-Marie was born in December 1765, and Anne-Appoline in March 1768.  Like older brother Jean-Charles, Paul took his family to the southern coast of Brittany, perhaps also to work as a laborer on one of the King's farms.  Son Vincent-Auguste was born at Erdeven, southeast of Lorient, in November 1770.  They were living near Lorient in 1772.  Returning to Belle-Île-en-Mer soon afterwards, daughter Marie-Louise was born at Le Palais in May 1773.  The family then returned to southern Brittany.  Son Louis-Joseph was born at Port-Louis, at the entrance to Lorient harbor, in February 1776.  The five brothers' sister Françoise, age 36 in 1765, came to the island with second husband Pierre Richard, age 54, two daughters from her first marriage, a son from her current marriage, and two stepchildren.  The settled at Kerbellec in the district of Le Palais.  Two other Daigre wives settled on the island.  Marie-Madeleine Daigre of Rivière-aux-Canards, age 31 in 1765, came to the island from Morlaix with husband Charles Granger of Rivière-aux-Canards, age 28, and three sons, ages 6, 4, and 2.  They settled at Tyneve in the district of Bangor, where five more children were born to them.  Angélique Daigre of Grand-Pré, age 30 in 1765, came to the island from St.-Servan with husband Joseph LeBlanc of Grand-Pré, age 44, two of her sons, ages 3 and 2, and a 18-year-old stepson.  Angélique was Joseph's third wife.  Four more children were born to them on the island before they returned to St.-Malo in 1772.  The lone Daigre from the Maritimes who went to Belle-Île-en-Mer was Miniac, son of Olivier of Cobeguit.  Miniac had crossed from Île St.-Jean to St.-Malo in late 1758, settled at Plouër with his sisters, and then followed Marie, eldest daughter of fellow Acadians Pierre Melanson and Marie-Madeleine LeBlanc of Minas, to Le Palais, where, at age 23, he married her in November 1765, soon after they reached the island.  She was a native of Rivière-aux-Canards, had followed her family to Virginia, Southampton, and St.-Malo, and was age 20 at the time of their marriage.  She and Miniac settled at Le Cosquet, in the district of Locmaria, where she died in May 1771, age 25.  Before her passing, she gave Miniac at least three children:  Paul-Olivier was born at Locmaria in May 1767, Marie-Josèphe-Marguerite in December 1768, and Luc-Julien-Pascal in October 1770 but died at age 3 in Locmaria in May 1774.  Miniac, at age 32, remarried to Marie, daughter of Nicolas Couriacault and Jeanne Henry, at Locmaria in October 1774.  They soon left the island for the southern coast of Britanny, where Miniac worked on the King's farm at Kerouriec, southeast of Lorient.  Marie gave Miniac more children in Brittany:  Anne-Françoise was born at Erdeven, near Kerouriec, in January 1775.  They also had children at nearby Île-aux-Moines and Vannes. 

In the early 1770s, Daigres in several port cities chose to take part in another settlement venture, this one in Poitou.  French authorities were tired of providing for the Acadians languishing in the port cities.  A French nobleman offered to settle them on land he owned near the city of Châtellerault.  Hundreds of Acadians, including Daigres, went there in 1773.  Like their cousins on Belle-Île-en-Mer, they would do their best to become productive farmers again.  They included Alexandre Daigre, wife Élisabeth Granger, and four children from St.-Servan; Eustache, wife Madeleine Dupuis, and four children from Plouër; Jean Daigre, a fisherman, wife Marie-Judith Durel, and three sons from Cherbourg; Jean-Baptiste Daigre, wife Marie-Flavie Boudrot, and two daughters from Plouër; Marguerite-Ange Dubois from St.-Servan, the pregnant wife of Jean-Baptiste-Amand Daigre, who likely was at sea; and Jean-Baptiste-Amand's mother Madeleine Gautrot, widow of Pierre Daigre and wife of Charles LeBlanc, with two younger Daigre children from St.-Servan.  Marguerite-Ange Dubois gave birth to a son in Poitou:  Jean-Louis Daigre was baptized at Pouthume, Châtellerault, in October 1774; his father may have still been at sea.  Marie-Flavie gave Jean-Baptiste a son as well:  Jean-Pierre was baptized in St.-Jean-Baptiste Parish, Châtellerault, in July 1775. 

According to Acadian genealogist Bona Arsenault, Olivier, son of Jean-Baptiste Daigre of Rivière-aux-Canards, Olivier's wife Marie-Blanche Robichaud, and their children, did not go to Poitou from St.-Servan in 1773 but joined, instead, an expedition of other exiles led by ship captain Charles Robin to the British-controlled Channel island of Jersey in 1774.  From Jersey, they recrossed the North Atlantic and settled at the fishery on the Baie des Chaleurs, where, Arsenault insists, members of the family were counted in 1791 and 1792.  They also settled at St.-Basile-de-Madawaska on upper Rivière St.-Jean, and at Richibouctou on the eastern shore of New Brunswick.  Albert J. Robichaux, Jr.'s study of the Acadians in France, however, shows that Olivier Daigre, husband of Marie-Blanche Robichaud, died at St.-Servan in July 1774, and that at least his oldest son Olivier-Raphaël remained in France.  The death of Marie-Blanche Robichaud's 8 1/2-year-old daughter Marie-Blanche Daigre at St.-Servan in August 1779, hints that Olivier's widow also remained in France with her younger children.  If any of her Daigre children "returned" to North America, they likely did not do it in the 1770s. 

Meanwhile, the settlement venture in Poitou was largely abandoned after only two years of effort.  From late October 1775 through mid-March 1776, hundreds of disgruntled Poitou Acadians, including Daigres, retreated in four convoys from Châtellerault to the port city of Nantes, where they lived as best they could on government handouts and what work they could find.  Some families grew larger, some became smaller, while others were created in the Breton port.  Eustache Daigre, who worked as a day laborer and carpenter, and wife Madeleine Dupuis had at least four more children in Nantes:  Fabien was baptized in St.-Nicolas Parish in August 1776 but died at age 1 in November 1777, Joseph-Grégoire was baptized in February 1779, Isaac-Joseph in September 1780 but died at age 1 in November 1781, and Étienne was baptized in December 1784.  Meanwhile, daughter Marie-Marguerite, age 19, married Isaac, son of fellow Acadians Ambroise Hébert and Marie-Madeleine Bourg of Cobeguit, at St.-Nicolas church in July 1780.  Jean-Baptiste-Amand Daigre worked as a sailor at Nantes.  Wife Marguerite-Ange Dubois gave him another son there:  Paul-Marie was baptized at St.-Martin de Chantenay near Nantes in August 1778 but died there at age 2 in July 1780.  Charles-Daniel, son of Alexandre Daigre and Élisabeth Granger, died in St.-Similien Parish in September 1779, age 6.  Jean-Baptiste Daigre worked as a laborer and wood-polisher at Nantes.  Wife Marie-Flavie Boudrot gave him another son at Nantes:  Jean-Augustin was baptized in St.-Similien Parish, Nantes, in July 1781 but died at age 2 1/2 in April 1784.  Marie-Rose, called Rose, daughter of Pierre Daigre and Marie-Madeleine Gautrot of Grand-Pré and Southampton, England, came to Nantes with her mother and stepfather, Charles LeBlanc.  Rose, at age 32, married Jean, a mason, son of André Fougeraud and Gabrielle Suehard of St.-Vaury, Diocese of Limoges, at St.-Martin de Chantenay in June 1782.  Before she could give Jean any children, however, Rose died at Chantenay in June 1784, age 34.  

Some of the Daigres who settled at Nantes did not come there from Poitou.  Olivier Daigre IV, second wife Marie-Blanche LeBlanc, and their many children moved from Belle-Île-en-Mer to Paimboeuf, the port of Nantes, by November 1783, when son Jean-Pierre-Toussaint was baptized there.  Sadly, daughter Marguerite, a twin born at Le Palais on Belle-Île, died at Paimboeuf in November 1784, age 3.  Olivier IV's younger brother Simon-Pierre also came to Paimboeuf from Belle-Île-on-Mer, with wife Marie-Madeleine Thériot and their children.  She gave him another son at the port:  François was baptized in May 1779 but died the following November.  Sadly, son Jean-Pierre, born at Sauzon on the island, died at Paimboeuf in February 1783, age 13 1/2.  Marie-Madeleine died at Paimboeuf in January 1784, age 45.  Simon-Pierre remarried to Anne, daughter of fellow Acadians Louis Michel and Marguerite Forest, at St.-Martin de Chantenay, near Nantes, in February 1785.  François-Alexandre, son of François Daigre and Frenchwoman Jeanne Holley of Cherbourg, a native of that city, at age 20, married Rose-Adélaïde, 16-year-old daughter of fellow Acadians Joseph Bourg and Rose Doiron, probably at Nantes in c1782.  Daughter Émilie-Adélaïde was baptized at St.-Martin de Chantenay in November 1783, and son François-Joseph in April 1785.  Jean-Baptiste, son of Jean Daigre and Marie-Judith Durel of Cherbourg, also a native of the city, at age 23, married Marie, 25-year-old daughter of fellow Acadians Pierre LeBlanc and Marie Landry, at St.-Martin de Chantenay in March 1783.  Marie was a native of Bristol, England.  She gave Jean-Baptiste two daughters at Chantenay:  Marie-Judith was baptized at St.-Martin Parish in April 1784, and Marguerite-Louise in April 1785.  Another Jean-Baptiste Daigre, parentage unrecorded, born in Acadia in c1740, appeared at Nantes in the early 1780s and married, or perhaps remarried to, Marie-Claudine, daughter of Guillaume Valet and Ursule-Perrine Catot of Kemperlain, Val, France, probably at Nantes in c1783.  Their son Jean-René was baptized in St.-Jacques Parish, Nantes, April 1784.

During their two and a half decades in the mother country, Acadian Daigres proliferated, even prospered, despite the frustrations of living there.  Yet, in the early 1780s, when the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France the chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana, at least 58 Daigres agreed to take it.  They included Charles, Eustache, François, François-Alexandre, three Jean-Baptistes, brothers Olivier IV and Simon-Pierre, and their families, plus five children of Alexandre.  But many other Daigres chose to remain in the mother country.  Brothers Honoré, Jean-Charles, and Paul, along with cousin Miniac Daigre, remained on Belle-Île-en-Mer or in southern Brittany.  Cousins Olivier-Raphaël and Jean Daigre also remained in the mother country with their Bourg wives, as did some of their siblings.  Grégoire Daigre and his large family at St.-Servan also eschewed the Spanish colony.  During the French Revolution, in 1791 and 1792, officials counted Charles Daigre, age 56, with wife Marie-Marguerite Granger, and Marie-Josèphe Daigre, age 42, at Morlaix.  In 1792, French officials found Honoré Daigre, age 66, and his third wife Élilsabeth Trahan, also age 66, still on Belle-Île-en-Mer.  In that same year, French authorities counted Honoré's younger brother Paul and his family at Île St.-Michel near Lorient, where they have moved in the 1770s.  In 1797, Geneviève Daigue, likely Daigre, widow Daroguy, age 75, an Acadian exile from îles St.-Pierre and Miquelon, was counted at Le Havre.  In December of that same year, French officials counted Françoise Daigle, widow of Pierre Boudrot, age 50, "residing at Aux Huit maisons"; Marin Daigle, age 64; Marie Daigle, age 35; and Romain Daigle, Marin's son, age 32, "residing at La Grand Ligne" in Poitou, where they likely had remained in 1776 after other Poitou Acadians had retreated to Nantes. 

In North America, following the war with Britain, Acadians being held in the seaboard colonies were allowed to leave, but not until British officials counted them and discerned their intentions.  In June 1763, Pennsylvania authorities counted Alain Daigre, wife Euphrosine Deschamps, and three children in that colony.  In July, colonial officials in Maryland counted Charles Daigre, wife Marie-Josèphe Babin, son Charles, fils, and daughter Marie, along with orphan Marie Granger, at Newtown on the colony's Eastern Shore.  In August, colonial officials in Massachusetts noted that Jean, probably Jean-Baptiste, Daigre, wife Marguerite ____, two sons, and a daughter; and François Daigre, evidently still a widower, along with a son, were still in the colony. 

Most of the Acadians in the northern seaboard colonies chose to go to Canada, Daigres among them.  Though now also a British possession, the northern province was populated largely by fellow French Catholics, many of them Acadian exiles.  So, in a colony nearly as old as Acadia, descendants of Olivier Daigre began the slow, inexorable process of becoming Canadiennes.  Especially after 1766, Daigres could be found in present-day Québec Province at Québec City, especially at St.-Ambroise, today's Loretteville; St.-Jacques-l'Achigan north of Montréal; St.-Ours on the lower Richelieu, where they were especially plentiful; Charlesbourg and Montmagny on the St.-Lawrence below Québec City; and Bonaventure and Carleton in Gaspésie on the north shore of the Baie des Chaleurs.  They also settled at Richibouctou and Nipisiguit, today's Bathhurst, in present-day northeastern New Brunswick; and at St.-Basile-de-Madawaska on upper Rivière St.-Jean in northwestern New Brunswick.  Typical of most, if not all, Acadian families, the Acadiennes of Canada lost touch with their Cadien cousins hundreds of miles away, and, until the Acadian reunions of the twentieth century, may even have forgotten the others existed. 

The few Daigres remaining in South Carolina and a Daigre family from Pennsylvania chose to emigrate to French St.-Domingue, where they could live not only among fellow Roman Catholics, but also in territory controlled by France.  French officials encouraged Acadians to go to the sugar island to work a huge naval base at Môle St.-Nicolas.  Although driven from North America by the Seven Years' War, the French were determined to hang on to what was left of their western empire.  The new naval base on the north shore of St.-Domingue would protect the approaches to their remaining possessions in the Caribbean Basin.  The Acadians could provide a source of cheap labor.  To entice them to the tropical island, the French promised the Acadians land of their own.  It must have worked out for members of this family.  When fellow Acadians released from Nova Scotia and Maryland came through Cap-Français in the 1760s on their way to Louisiana, none of the Daigres in St.-Domingue chose to join them.  Cécile, daughter of Alain Daigre and Euphrosine Deschamps and widow of Jean-Marie-François Tafaud, died at Môle St.-Nicolas in April 1776, age 22; the priest who recorded Cécile's burial noted that her father was deceased at the time of her death.  One wonders if he died in Pennsylvania or in St.-Domingue.  Marguerite Daigre, widow of Pierre Forest, formerly of South Carolina, died at Côtes-de-Fer, on St.-Domingue's south coast, in October 1778, age 50.  Jean-Baptiste Daigre, a mason, probably the son of Jean of Chignecto who had been deported to South Carolina, died at Môle St.-Nicolas in December 1780, age 26.  A Daigre also ended up on one of the island in the French Antilles.  Marguerite Daigle, widow Legueule, and seven children, appear on a list of Acadians at Champflore, Martinique, in January 1766. 

Evidently one young Daigre emigrated to Louisiana from Halifax.  Agnès, daughter of Paul Daigre of Chignecto, was living with her family at Malpèque, Île St.-Jean, in August 1752.  Six years later, in 1758, they likely escaped the island with many of their neighbors and found refuge on the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore, where they escaped the British again at Restigouche in the summer of 1760.  A few years later, members of the family ended up as prisoners of war in a Nova Scotia compound.  In early 1765, at age 14, Agnès joined hundreds of other Acadians from those prison compounds in their search for a new home in the Mississippi valley.  She was, in fact, the first Acadian Daigre to emigrate to Louisiana. 

The refugees in Maryland endured life among English colonists who did not care much for the French "papists" who had been thrust upon them.  When word reached the Acadians there that they would be welcome in Spanish Louisiana, they pooled their meager resources to charter ships that would take them to New Orleans.  Charles Daigre and his family, however, were among the minority of Acadians in the Cheaspeake colony who chose to remain.  According to Acadian genealogist Bona Arsenault, Charles settled at St.-Ours in the lower Richelieu valley, between Trois-Rivières and Montréal, so one wonders when the family headed up to Canada.  One of their sons evidently did not join them.  An historian of the Acadians in Maryland notes that Simon Daigle, son of Charles, was "the captain of the Baltimore-Norfolk packet line who figures so prominently in city records."298

D'Amours/de Louvière

When British forces deported the Acadians of Nova Scotia in the fall of 1755, Jean-Baptiste d'Amours dit de Louvière, scion of one of Acadia's noble families, his wife Geneviève Bergeron, and their children remained unmolested.  Their home near Ste.-Anne-du-Pay-Bas on Rivière St.-Jean lay in French territory, so they escaped the fate of their cousins across the Bay of Fundy.  Their respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  In late 1758 and early 1759, after the fall of the French stronghold at Louisbourg the previous July, British forces raided the Acadian settlements on Rivière St.-Jean, burned the villages along a 35-mile stretch of the river, and deported the Acadians they managed to capture.  Michel Bergeron dit Nantes, Jean-Baptiste's father-in-law, had escaped from Port-Royal three years earlier with some of his family and had taken refuge with his daughter and son-in-law on Rivière St.-Jean.  Michel dit Nantes eluded the British again and led a group of Acadians all the way up to Canada, where they settled at St.-Grégoire and Bécancour on the St. Lawrence River across from Trois-Rivières.  Jean-Baptiste dit de Louviere, wife Geneviève, and their children were not so lucky; they evidently were among the Acadians on Rivière St.-Jean whom the British captured and transported to Boston, Massachusetts.  

Life in Massachusetts for the exiled Acadians was not a happy one.  The Puritans treated the Catholic francophones with unalloyed contempt.  But life was not all bad for this family of Acadian exiles.  At least two of their sons, François and Isidore, were born to them at Boston.  After the war with Britain ended in 1763, Jean-Baptiste and Geneviève chose not to remain in an English colony where they had been treated like pariahs.  They returned to greater Acadia, where their family had lived as colonial nobility.  British authorities, intolerant of Acadians remaining in or returning to their former homeland, rounded up the Louvières and other exiles returning from New England and sent them to the prison compound at Halifax. 

The postwar situation in Nova Scotia presented these wayward Acadians with a hard dilemma.  The Treaty of Paris of February 1763 stipulated in its Article 14 that persons dispersed by the war had 18 months to return to their respective territories.  However, British authorities refused to allow any of the Acadian prisoners in the region to return to their former lands as proprietors.  If Acadians chose to remain in, or return to, Nova Scotia, they could live only in small family groups in previous unsettled areas or work for low wages on former Acadian lands now owned by New England "planters."  If they stayed, they must also take the hated oath of allegiance to the new British king, George III, without reservation.  They would also have to take the oath if they joined their cousins in Canada.  After all they had suffered on the question of the oath, few self-respecting Acadians would consent to take it if it could be avoided.  Some Halifax exiles chose to relocate to Miquelon, a French-controlled island off the southern coast of Newfoundland.  Others considered going to French St.-Domingue, where Acadian exiles in the British colonies already had gone, or to the Illinois country, the west bank of which still belonged to France, or to French Louisiana, which, thanks to British control of Canada, was the only route possible to the Illinois country for Acadian exiles.  Whatever their choice, they refused to remain in L'Acadie.  So they gathered up their money and their few possessions and prepared to leave their homeland.  Of the 600 who left Halifax in late 1764 bound for Cap-Français, St.-Domingue, six were D'Amours dit de Louvières.226

Dantin

Living in territory controlled by France, Marguerite Marres dit La Sonde, widow of Louis dit LaJoye Dantin of Port-Toulouse, and her many children escaped the roundup of Acadians in Nova Scotia in the fall of 1755.  Their respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  After the fall of the French fortress at nearby Louisbourg in July 1758, the victorious British rounded up most of the Acadians on Île Royale and deported them to France.  

The crossing was a disaster for the Dantin family.  Marguerite La Sonde, now a widow, and nine of her children crossed on the British transport Queen of Spain, which left the Maritimes probably in August.  When the ship reached St.-Malo in late November, only sons Louis, fils, age 13, and Barthélemy, age 10, were still alive.  Marguerite and her seven other children had died at sea!  Louis, fils and Barthélemy settled first at St.-Tual near St.-Malo then in St.-Malo itself.  In early 1766, Barthélemy, now age 18 and still unmarried, agreed to go to Guinea in west Africa, perhaps as a sailor.  Older brother Louis, fils, who was age 21 and also unmarried, did not go with him.  Barthélemy traveled from St.-Malo to Le Havre, from which he departed in May 1766 aboard the ship La Tamire.   Remaining in France proved to be a wise choice for Louis, fils, and going to Guinea a fatal one for his younger brother.  According to Captain Thomas Domet of La Tamire, Barthélemy died in Guinea.  

Louis, fils became a house carpenter in France and moved to Bécherel, near St.-Malo, where he lived in 1766-67.  He married a Frenchwoman, Jeanne, daughter of Gilles Gesmier and Maurille Beaupied, at St.-André-des-Eaux, south of St.-Malo, in January 1767.  They had four children at St.-André-des-Eaux:  twins Louis III and Jeanne, born in August 1768, but Louis III died 12 days after his birth; another Louis III was born in December 1770 but died at age 3 months the following March; and Florian-Gilles was born in May 1772.  In the early 1770s, Louis and Jeanne were among the hundreds of Acadians from the crowded port cities who ventured to the Poitou region to settle on land belonging to an influential nobleman near the city of Châtellerault.  Daughter Marie-Anne was born in Poitou in March 1774, and son Florian-Gilles died there.  After two years of effort, Louis, fils, Jeanne, and their three remaining children retreated with other disgruntled Poitou Acadians to the port city of Nantes, where three more children were born to them:  daughters Anne in c1776, Judith- or Julie-Geneviève in June 1778, and Perrine in August 1781.  Louis, fils's wife Jeanne died at Nantes in the early 1780s, not quite age 40.  Daughter Perrine also died at Nantes.  In November 1784, Louis, fils remarried to Hélène, daughter of fellow Acadians Antoine Aucoin, and Élisabeth Amireau and widow of Alexis-Gégoire Doiron, at Nantes.  The marriage brought two more children into the family; stepdaughters Françoise-Josèphe Doiron, born at St.-Énogat near St.-Malo in April 1768; and Marie-Victoire Doiron, born at St.-Énogat in October 1772.  

When, in the early 1780s, the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France the chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana, Louis, fils and his new wife agreed to take it.227

Darembourg

Living on an island controlled by France, descendants of Pierre Darembourg and Marie Mazerolle, as well as Jean Rambourg and Marie-Anne Pichot, escaped the British roundup in Nova Scotia during the autumn of 1755.  Their respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  After the fall of the French fortress at Louisbourg in July 1758, the victorious British rounded up the majority of the Acadians on the Maritime islands and deported them to France.  The British deported brothers Jean-Noël and François Rambourg aboard the transport Queen of Spain, which reached St.-Malo in November 1758.  Jean-Noël married Marie, daughter of French locals François Mazurier and Claudine Augustin, at St.-Servan near St.-Malo, in October 1761.  Jean-Noël and Marie had at least three children at St.-Servan:  Marie-Jeanne, born in September 1762, Jean-François-Étienne in February 1764, and Jeanne-Françoise in April 1765.  Jean-Noël died at St.-Servan in May 1768, age 33.  Meanwhile, in October 1760, younger François joined the crew of the French corsair Le Favory and was captured by the British.  He was not released until the war ended in 1763, after which he returned to St.-Malo and married Jeanne, daughter of French locals Claude Laisne and Jeanne Le Gentilhomme, at St.-Servan in October 1765.  They had at least three children there:  François-Noël-Guillaume, born in December 1766, Françoise-Renée, born in November 1767, and Guillaume-Michel, born in July 1772.

Jean-Noël and François's younger brothers Jean-Pierre and Jérôme Rambourg also ended up in France.  Jean-Pierre died in the hospital at St.-Malo in November 1758, age 24, soon after he reached the mother country.  Jérôme, along with his mother, a widow again, and half-sister Élisabeth Hecquart, survived the rigors of the crossing from Île Royale, but, like them, Jérôme did not remain in France.  In April 1764, he, his mother, and sister sailed aboard the ship Le Fort for Cayenne in French Guyanne, South America, with other Acadian exiles in France.  In March 1765, in a count of the Acadians at Sinnamary, Cayenne, the census taker noted that Marianne Pichot de Plaisance was age 65 and suffered from the fievre.  She did not live much longer; she died the following September.  Jérôme married Madeleine, daughter of fellow Acadians Pierre Grossin and Cécile Caissie dit Roger of Île St.-Jean, at St.-Sauveur de Cayenne in August 1765.  Their fate, and that of half-sister Élisabeth, is anyone's guess.  One wonders what happened to Jérôme's older brothers Félix and Martin.   No member of Jean Rambourg's family emigrated to Louisiana. 

Pierre Darembourg's family on Île St.-Jean also were rounded up by the British and deported to Cherbourg in Normandy, where son Jean-Baptiste married Madeleine, daughter of fellow Acadians Antoine Henry and Claire Hébert of Grand-Pré, in May 1759.  Jean-Baptiste worked as a navigator, sailor, and day laborer.  He and Madeleine had at least four children in France:  Jean-Baptiste, fils born in c1761, Marie-Madeleine in c1762, Jean-Pierre in c1765, and Marie-Jeanne in c1768.  Jean-Pierre died at Cherbourg in August 1771, age 6.  Soon after his death, Jean-Baptiste and Madeleine joined the hundreds of Acadians who ventured to the Poitou region to settle on an influential nobleman's land.  After two years of effort, Jean-Baptiste and his family, with hundreds of other Poitou Acadians, abandoned the settlement and retreated to the port city of Nantes, where they subsisted as best they could on government handouts and what work they could find.  In February 1781, son Jean-Baptiste, fils died at age 20 in Chantenay near Nantes.  At about that time, older daughter Marie-Madeleine married Frenchman Jean-Pierre, son of François Lirette and Michaela Chaillou of Nantes, probably at Nantes.  

Jean-Baptiste's older sister Marie-Josèphe died by c1772, when her husband, Jacques dit Jacqui Langlois of Annapolis Royal and Port-Toulouse, remarried.  One wonders what was the fate of Jean-Baptiste's other siblings during Le Grand Dérangement.  Was the Jacques Duborg of Île St.-Jean, age 21, counted at Sinnamary, Cayenne, in March 1765 the brother of Jean-Baptiste et al.?

In the early 1780s, the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France the chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana.  Jean-Baptiste Darembourg, his wife, and daughters Marie-Madeleine and Marie-Jeanne, took up the offer.228

Darois

In 1755, descendants of Jérôme Darois and Marie Gareau could be found at Minas, Petitcoudiac, and on Île St.-Jean, today's Prince Edward Island.  Le Grand Dérangement of the 1750s scattered this family even farther. 

Marie Gareau was a widow in her late 70s when the British deported her to Virginia in the autumn of 1755.  Virginia governor Robert Dinwiddie protested the deportation of so many "Neutral French" to his colony without his consent.  The following spring, the Virginia Assembly shipped the Acadians to England, where they were treated like common criminals and where hundreds of them died of smallpox.  Marie Gareau died either in Virginia, on the voyage to England, or in one of the English seaports soon after their arrival.  At least two of her married daughters--Ursule Darois, wife of Sylvestre Trahan; and Madeleine Darois, wife of Alexis Trahan--ended up at Liverpool, so they must have endured with their mother the terrible ordeal in Virginia.  Madeleine's husband died in exile, and she remarried to Claude, son of fellow Acadians Marc Pitre and Jeanne Brun and widower of Élisabeth Guérin, at Liverpool in May 1760. 

Marie Gareau's son Étienne Darois and his wife Anne Breau also were exiled to Virginia.  With them were son Étienne, fils, born in c1738, and daughter Élisabeth.  They, too, were deported to Liverpool.  Élisabeth married fellow Acadian Pierre Trahan, fils at Liverpool in February 1758 but died, probably from the rigors of childbirth, by May 1760, when her husband remarried.  Étienne, fils married Madeleine Trahan probably at Liverpool in c1759.  Their daughter Élisabeth, or Isabelle, was born probably at Liverpool in c1761. 

Étienne Darois, fils, his wife, his daughter, and his paternal aunts, along with hundreds of other Acadians in England, were repatriated to France in the spring of 1763 after the war with Britain finally ended.  Étienne, fils's parents probably had died in England.  In France, Étienne, fils became a tanner.  He and wife Madeleine lived in St.-Martin Parish, Morlaix, in Brittany.  At least five children were born to them there:  Simon-François in November 1766, Marie-Madeleine in June 1767, Susanne in October 1778, Anne-Françoise in July 1771, and Marie-Anne-Louise in August 1773.  In 1773, Étienne took his family to the Poitou region as part of a settlement scheme in which he and hundreds of other Acadians worked on land owned by an infuential French nobleman.  In Poitou, Étienne, fils and Madeleine had another daughter, Rose, born at Pouthumé, near Châtellerault, in August 1775, but she died only five weeks after her birth.  When the Poitou venture collapsed that year, Étienne, fils, his wife, and two remaining daughters retreated with the majority of the Poitou Acadians to the port city of Nantes, where they survived as best they could.  They settled at Chantenay, near Nantes, where at least three other children were born to them:  Marie-Élisabeth was baptized at St.-Martin-de-Chantenay in September 1776, Joseph-Étienne was born in September 1780 but died at age 1 in September 1781, and Jacques-Étienne was baptized at St.-Martin-de-Chantenay in March 1783 but died at age 11 months in February 1784.  In the early 1780s, the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France the chance for a better life in faraway Louisiana.  By then, Étienne, fils's son Simon-François and daughter Marie-Anne-Louise also had died.  Étienne, fils and wife Madeleine, fed up with life in the mother country, prepared to join their cousins on the lower Mississippi.  

After repatriation to Morlaix, France, in 1763, Étienne, fils's aunts, Ursule and Madeleine Darois, followed their husbands and other Acadians from England to Belle-Île-en-Mer, off the southern coast of Brittany.  Madeleine's second husband, Claude Pitre, died at Sauzon on the island in March 1775.  When the Spanish government made its offer in the early 1780s, Ursule Darois did not have the opportunity to go to Louisiana.  She had died at Sauzon in December 1776, in her early 50s.  Husband Sylvestre Trahan refused to go to the Spanish colony and died at Belle-Île-en-Mer in 1786, the year after 1,600 of his fellow Acadians sailed to New Orleans.  His children remained on Belle-Île-en-Mer, where French officials counted some of them in 1792.  Members of Madeleine Darois's family--perhaps Madeleine herself--were counted by French officials at Sauzon in 1792, so they, too, remained in the mother country.  Her son Paul Trahan from her first marriage died on the island in 1826, in his mid-70s.

In North America, some of Jérôme Darois and Marie Gareau's children escaped the British in 1755 and made their way to Canada.  Son Pierre-Jérôme died there in September 1757, age 56.  Jérôme's oldest son Jean died there also, in December of the same year; he was 57 years old.  Jean's descendants, some of them spelling their surname Deroy, settled at L'Islet, on the St. Lawrence below Québec City.  Descendants of Simon Darois settled at Bécancour and Trois-Rivières, on the river above Québec. 

At least two Daroiss--Jérôme and Marie's oldest daughter, Isabelle, wife of Sylvain Breau; and Pierre, son of Jean Darois and Marguerite Breau of Petitcoudiac and Isabelle's nephew--also escaped the British roundup of 1755, but they did not go to Canada.  In the late 1750s or early 1760s, perhaps as part of the Acadian resistance in present-day southeastern New Brunswick under the Beausoleil Broussards, they surrendered to British forces and were imprisoned at Halifax with hundreds of other Acadians.  Pierre "married" Marie, daughter of Paul Bourgeois, probably in the prison compound at Halifax in the early 1760s. 

After the war with Britain ended, Acadians being held in Nova Scotia faced a hard dilemma.  The Treaty of Paris of February 1763 stipulated in its Article 14 that persons dispersed by the war had 18 months to return to their respective territories.  However, British authorities refused to allow any of the Acadian prisoners in the region to return to their former lands as proprietors.  If Acadians chose to remain in, or return to, Nova Scotia, they could live only in small family groups in previous unsettled areas or work for low wages on former Acadian lands now owned by New England "planters."  If they stayed, they must also take the hated oath of allegiance to the new British king, George III, without reservation.  They would also have to take the oath if they joined their cousins in Canada.  After all they had suffered on the question of the oath, few self-respecting Acadians would consent to take it if it could be avoided.  Some Halifax exiles chose to relocate to Miquelon, a French-controlled island off the southern coast of Newfoundland.  Others considered going to French St.-Domingue, where Acadian exiles in the British colonies already had gone, or to the Illinois country, the west bank of which still belonged to France, or to French Louisiana, which, thanks to British control of Canada, was the only route possible to the Illinois country for Acadian exiles.  Whatever their choice, they refused to remain in L'Acadie.  So they gathered up their money and their few possessions and prepared to leave their homeland.  Of the 600 who left Halifax in late 1764 bound for Cap-Français, St.-Domingue, three were Daroiss.229

David

Étienne-Michel David, a native of Louisbourg, Île Royale, who, like his father, was a blacksmith, was living with his wife Geneviève Hébert and three of their children at Grand-Pré when the British deported them to Maryland in the fall of 1755.  Colonial officials counted them with other Acadians at Snow Hill, on Maryland's Eastern Shore, in July 1763.  By then, four more children had been born to them:  Marie in c1756, Marie-Madeleine in c1757, Jean-Baptiste in c1759, and Claude in c1761.  

Living in a territory controlled by France, the rest of Étienne-Michel's family on Île Royale escaped the fate of their fellow Acadians on peninsula Nova Scotia.  Their respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  In late 1758, after the fortress of Louisbourg fell again to British forces, Étienne-Michel's father, Jean-Pierre David dit Saint-Michel, now a widower, two of his daughters, and their families were deported to La Rochelle, France.  Jean-Pierre, in his late 50s, died at the local hospital soon after they reached the port and was buried in the hospital cemetery.  Daughter Jeanne did not remain in France.  In December 1764, at St.-Sauveur Parish, Cayenne, in French Guyane, she married Sr. Pierre Le Clerc, "major, master wheelwright, living in this city for several years...," son of Sr. Théodore Le Clerc and Marguerite Duquesnois of Armoy, Diocese of Senlis, France.  Three and a half years later, in May 1768, Jeanne remarried to M. Guillaume Paquenault, "habitant of the coastal district, parish of Remiré, native of Virelade, diocese of Bordeau," son of M. Arnauld Paquenault and Pétronille Blaugan.  The marriage record did not reveal Guillaume's profession.  Jeanne's younger brother Louis, born at Louisbourg in c1732, married fellow Acadian Anna, also called Jeanne, Trahan in c1762 probably at La Rochelle.  Louis also left France, but he did not follow his sister to South America.  In 1765, he and his family returned to North America and settled on Île Miquelon, a French-controlled island off the southern coast of Newfoundland.  During the American Revolution, after France became an ally of the United States in 1778, the British captured Miquelon and nearby Île St.-Pierre and rounded up this family along with the other French habitants and deported them to La Rochelle, where Louis's father lay buried for 20 years.  One wonders if Louis and his family remained in France.  They did not go to Louisiana in 1785. 

Meanwhile, in British America, Étienne-Michel and his family endured life among Englishmen who, despite their colony's Catholic roots, did not care much for the French "papists" who had been thrust upon them.  When word reached the Acadians in Maryland that they would be welcome in Louisiana, they pooled their resources to charter ships that would take them to New Orleans via Cap-Français, French St.-Domingue.  Étienne-Michel had no David relatives in the colony, but his wife Geneviève Hébert, a member of one of the largest Acadian families, probably had many kinsmen there.  In the early summer of 1766, the first contingent of Acadians from Maryland left for Louisiana, where many of their relatives from the prisons at Halifax had settled the year before.  Étienne-Michel, a master blacksmith like his father, in spite of being an Acadian exile, must have been a man of means even during the Great Upheaval.  He booked passage for New Orleans on his own sometime that summer, and he and his family got there by early October, a week behind the others.

Another David family in greater Acadia had their own tale to tell.  Jean-Baptiste David, fils of Grand-Pré, his wife Marguerite Landry, and their children, including son Jean-Baptiste III, called Baptiste, born at Grand-Pré in May 1748, were exiled to Pennsylvania in the autumn of 1755.  Jean-Baptiste, fils died in that colony before June 1763, when colonial authorities counted his widow and four children there.  Marguerite Landry did not remain in Pennsylvania.  In August 1763, she was counted in Massachusetts, probably at Boston, with the family of cousin Paul Landry with only two persons in her household.  Son Jean-Baptiste III evidently was among the Acadians in Pennsylvania who moved south to Maryland, where he married Marie Ritter or Kidder of Germany, in c1770.  (One wonders who was the Jean David, with wife Marie-Josette ____, son Joseph-Marie, and orphan Marie-Rose ____, counted at Lower Marlborough, Maryland, in July 1763; Jean-Baptiste III would have been only 15 years old at the time, too young to have a wife and child; perhaps Jean was a kinsman of Étienne-Michel or from an entirely different branch of Davids.)  Jean-Baptiste III's son Jean-Baptiste IV, also called Baptiste, fils, was born in c1774.  Bona Arsenault does not say if the boy was born in Maryland or Louisiana, but the baptismal record of one of Jean-Baptiste IV's daughters calls him "native of Maryland."  The last contingent of Maryland Acadians departed for Louisiana from Port Tobacco in January 1769.  Evidently Jean-Baptiste David III, like his namesake Étienne-Michel, went to Louisiana on his own, taking his family there sometime after 1774.230

De La Forestrie

When Le Grand Dérangement erupted in the fall of 1755, the Acadians on Île St.-Jean, living in French territory, escaped the British roundup in Nova Scotia.  Their respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  After the fall of the French stronghold at Louisbourg in July 1758, the victorious British rounded up most of the Acadians on Île St.-Jean and deported them to France. 

Joseph LaForest, fils, his second wife Marie-Anne Duvivier, and his two daughters, Anne and Marie-Madeleine, reached St.-Malo, France, from "other ports" in 1760.  They settled at Plouër, near St.-Malo, where Marie-Anne died by 1761, when Joseph remarried again at nearby LaGouesnière in August 1761.  His third wife was Marie-Madeleine, called Madeleine, daughter of Pierre Duboscq and Suzanne Lemercière of Rouen.  The Duboscqs also had lived on Île St.-Jean and endured the deportation to France.  Madeleine gave Joseph at least four more children, most of them born at Plouër:  Jean-Charles-Joseph was born in January 1763, twins Jean-Joseph and Jeanne-Charlotte April 1766, and Joseph in June 1777 at Rochefort.  Jean-Joseph died in August 1766, only three months old.  

Meanwhile, Joseph's younger brother Jean, age 28, whose surname was spelled LaForesterie on the passenger list, his wife Marie-Madeleine Bonnière, age 25, and their daughters Jeanne, age 5, Marie-Rosalie, age 4, and Marguerite, age 6 months, also endured the crossing to France, aboard one of the five British transports that left the Gut of Canso in late November and reached St.-Malo in late January 1759.  Jean, Marie-Madeleine, and two of their three daughters survived the crossing, but infant daughter Marguerite died at sea.  In France, two more daughters, twins Angélique-Madeleine-Marie and Renée-Laurence, were born to them in January 1760 at Plouër, where they settled near Jean's older brother Joseph and his family.  Angélique survived childhood, but her twin, Renée-Laurence, died 10 days after her birth.  Jean's oldest daughter Jeanne married Joseph, son of fellow Acadians Charles Hébert and Marguerite LeBlanc, at Plouër in July 1772.  Jean's wife Marie-Madeleine died by 1773, when he remarried to Michelle, daughter of Frenchman Julien Herve, at Plouër in February of that year.  Michelle gave him two more daughters and three sons, most of whom died young:  Paul-Michel, baptized at St.-Similien, Nantes, in January 1776, died at age 4 1/2 and was buried at St.-Martin-de-Chantenay, near Nantes, in June 1780; Marie-Madeleine, baptized at St.-Martin-de-Chantenay in May 1778, died at age 14 months and was buried at Chantenay in July 1779; Jean-Michel was baptized at St.-Martin-de-Chantenay in June 1780; Jean-Marie-Michel, born in c1783 probably in Chantenay, died at age 6 1/2 and was buried at Chantenay in June 1780; and Marie-Adélaïde was baptized at St.-Martin-de-Chantenay in September 1785.  

In 1773, soon after his second marriage, Jean, his new wife, his two unmarried daughters by his first wife, Marie-Rosalie and Angélique, and daughter Jeanne and her family, with hundreds of other Acadians from the coastal cities, ventured to Poitou to settle on marginal land owned by an influential nobleman.  (Jean's brother Joseph and his family remained at St.-Malo.)  After two years of effort, most of the Poitou Acadians, including Jean and his family, retreated to the port city of Nantes, where they survived as best they could on government handouts and what work they could find.  Marie-Rosalie married Michel, son of fellow Acadians Pierre Aucoin and Marguerite Dupuis of Rivière-aux-Canards, at Nantes in July 1779.  Angélique married Moïse, son of fellow Acadians Jean-Baptiste LeBlanc and Marguerite Bellemère, at St.-Martin-de-Chantenay in November 1780.  By then the family name had evolved from LaForest and LaForestrie to De La Forestrie

In the early 1780s, the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France the chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana.  Joseph De La Forestrie and his third wife Madeleine Duboscq, as well as brother Jean and his second wife Michelle Herve, chose to remain in France.  Not so Jean's married daughters, Jeanne, Marie-Rosalie, and Angélique, and their Acadian husbands.  They booked passage two of the Seven Ships from France that reached New Orleans in the summer of 1785.231

De La Mazière

Living in territory controlled by France, Jean-Baptiste dit Ladouceur Mazière and Marie Poirier of Île St.-Jean, if they were still living, escaped the British roundup in Nova Scotia in the fall of 1755.  The family's respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  After the fall of the French fortress at Louisbourg in July 1758, the victorious British rounded up the Acadians on the island and deported them to France.  The fate of Jean-Baptiste, his wife, and most of his children has been lost to history.  Two of the children are happy exceptions.  Son Jean-François--called François Maricre on the passenger roll, no age given, but he would have been only 11--made the crossing to St.-Malo with some of his maternal kin aboard the British transport Duke William.  The vessel left the Maritimes in late summer and, after a mishap at sea, limped into St.-Malo the first of November.  The family with whom François had been living at Rivière-du-Nord-Est on Île St.-Jean in August 1752--his maternal great aunt Marie-Madeleine Haché, her husband Pierre Duval, and five cousins--all died aboard the transport.  François and cousin Jacques Haché survived the crossing.  Jean-François's older sister Marguerite, who would have been age 17 in 1758, also crossed to France. 

Jean-François De La Mazière, as he was called in France, settled at St.-Malo until July 1760, when French authorities granted him permission to move to Cherbourg, where he worked as a navigator, blacksmith, and carpenter to support himself.  Probably at Cherbourg in c1768, he married Véronique, daughter of fellow Acadians Jean Renaud dit Arnaud and Marie-Madeleine Pothier of Île St.-Jean.  Véronique likely had come to France also in 1758 but had gone directly to Cherbourg.  In 1773 Jean-François and Véronique, with hundreds of other Acadians languishing in the port cities, ventured to Poitou to settle on an influential nobleman's land near the city of Châtellerault.  Their daughter Marguerite was baptized at La Chapelle-Roux near Châtellerault in July 1775.  They also had a son named Jean-François, fils, who may have been born in Cherbourg.  After two years of effort, the most of the Poitou Acadians abandoned the venture.  In October 1775, Jean-François and his family retreated from Châtellerault to the port city of Nantes with other Poitou Acadians.  Jean-François and Véronique settled at nearby Chantenay, where at least four more children were born to them:  Jean-Baptiste le jeune was baptized at St.-Martin-de-Chantenay in April 1777, Louise-Cécile in November 1778, Rose-Jeanne in November 1781, and Marie in January 1783 but died the following June.  Two more of their children died at Chantenay:  Marguerite was 5 years old when she was buried there in October 1780.  Older son Jean-François, fils seems also to have died there, though the date of his passing is unrecorded.  

Jean-François's sister Marguerite also may have crossed to St.-Malo, but she was ended up Rochefort by 1761.  She married Jean-Baptiste, called Jean, son of fellow Acadians Joseph Granger and Marguerite Thériot of Minas, in St.-Louis Parish in February 1764. 

When in the early 1780s the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France the chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana, Jean-François De La Mazière, his wife Véronique Renaud, and their children agreed to take it.  Sister Marguerite, if she was still living, evidently chose to remain in France.232

Delaunay/Delaune

Marie-Madeleine Arseneau, widow of Jean Delaunay of La Casse, Brittany, and her children, and Marguerite Caissie, widow of Christophe Delaune of Avranches, Normandy, and her children, all living on an island controlled by France, escaped the British roundup in Nova Scotia during the autumn of 1755.  Their respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  After the fall of the French fortress at Louisbourg in July 1758, the victorious British rounded up most of the Acadians on Île St.-Jean and deported them to France. 

Marie-Madeleine Arseneau and her Delaunay children ended up at Cherbourg in Normandy.  In August 1759, she took a ship from Cherbourg to St.-Malo and lived in that city's suburbs of St.-Cast and Corseul from 1759 to 1763.  She died at St.-Cast in October 1763, age 43. 

Marguerite Caissie and her Delaune children also ended up at Cherbourg, where she remarried to fellow Acadian Joseph Le Prieur dit Dubois of Annapolis Royal in c1759.  Marguerite's son Jean Delaune married Marie-Anne, daughter of fellow Acadians Eustache Part and Anastasie Godin dit Bellefontaine, at Cherbourg in February 1773 and became a sailor and a carpenter.  Jean's brother Christophe, fils became a navigator and a ship's carpenter.  

In 1773, the year of his marriage, Jean Delaune and younger brother Christophe, fils, along with hundreds of other Acadians languishing in the port cities, ventured to Poitou to settle on marginal land owned by an influential French nobleman near the city of Châtellerault.  Christophe, fils, married Marie, daughter of fellow Acadians Pierre Boudrot and Cécile Vécot, at Archigny, near Châtellerault, in June 1774.  Jean's son Jean-Baptiste was baptized at nearby La Chapelle-Roux that same month.  Christophe's son Jean-Baptiste was baptized at the same place the following month.  In October 1775, after two years of effort, Jean, Christophe, fils, and their families, along with dozens of other disgruntled Poitou Acadians, retreated to the port city of Nantes, where they lived as best they could on government hand outs and what work they could find.  Both families expanded dramatically in the suburb of Chantenay.  Four more children were born to Jean and Marie-Anne there, and four more to Christophe, fils and Marie, all baptized at St.-Martin-de-Chantenay, but most of the Delaune children died young.  Jean's children were:  Christophe le jeune, baptized in September 1776; Pierre-Basile in December 1779 but died at age 2 in February 1782; Louis-Auguste, baptized in October 1782 but died in August 1783; and Marie-Céleste, baptized in February 1785.  Christophe, fils's children were:  Michel, baptized in January 1777 but died the following December; Marie-Céleste, baptized in September 1779 but died at age 2 in February 1782; Christophe III, baptized in October 1782; and Louis-Augustin, baptized in June 1784.  Jean's sons Jean-Baptiste and Christophe le jeune died at Chantenay.  Christophe, fils's son Christophe III also died there.  

In the early 1780s, the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France the chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana.  The Delaune brothers, Jean and Christophe, fils, and their families were among the hundreds of Acadians who agreed to take up the Spanish offer.  Namesake Jean Delaunay's descendants, if they were still in the mother country, chose to remain.

Meanwhile, in French America, Nicolas-Pierre, a tailleur d'habits, son of merchant Nicolas Delaunay of Cholet, Vendée, France, married Marguerite, daughter of Acadians Pierre Granger and Madeleine Belliveau, at Le Mirebalias, St.-Domingue, today's Haiti, in June 1765.  Nicolas-Pierre must have died soon after the marriage.  Marguerite, whom the recording priest called his widow, died at Le Mirebalais the following December, age 35.233

DesRoches

In the fall of 1755, two brothers--Louis DesRoches and his wife Marguerite Arseneau, and Julien DesRoches and his wife Marie Arseneau--were living at Malpèque, on the northwest shore of Île St.-Jean.   A third brother, or perhaps a couisn, Herbe Desroches, a fisherman, was living with his wife Marie Berbudeau at St.-Esprit, on the Atlantic coast of Île Royale, at the time.  Living on an island controlled by France, the DesRoches escaped the British roundup in Nova Scotia, but their respite from British oppression was short-lived.  After the fall of the French fortress at Louisbourg in July 1758, the victorious British swooped down on Île St.-Jean and deported most of the Acadians there to France.  However, the DesRochess--Louis and Julie at least--were among the relative handful of island Acadians who slipped through the British dragnet.  Louis, Marguerite, and their children, as well as Julien and Marie's orphaned children, escaped from the island's north shore to Restigouche, at the head of the Baie des Chaleurs.  In the summer of 1760, the British captured Restigouche but, again, the DesRochess, at least most of them, eluded capture.  After the war with Britain finally ended in 1763, members of the family returned to Île St.-Jean, where they became one of the largest families on Prince Edward Island, especially at Miscouche on the western side of the province, not far from the family's original settlement at Malpèque.  Typical of most, if not all, Acadian families, these Acadiennes of Canada lost touch with their Cadien cousins hundreds of miles away, and until the Acadian reunions of the twentieth century, may even have forgotten the others existed. 

Julien DesRoches and his wife Marie Arseneau died on the eve of Île St.-Jean's fall, so their children were raised by relatives.  One of the younger ones, Basile, was only three years old when the British came in 1758.  He was raised by his maternal aunt Judith Arseneau, only 19 years older than Basile and still unmarried when she took him into her care.  She married Charles dit Jean-Charles, son of fellow Acadians François Savoie and Marie-Josèphe Richard of Annapolis Royal and widower of _____ and Marie-Madeleine Richard, at Restigouche in January 1761, after the British attacked the French stronghold the previous summer.  They evidently were not among the 300 Acadians the British had packed off to prisoner-of-war compounds in Nova Scotia after the attack, but sometime in the early 1760s they either surrendered to, or were captured, by British forces and joined their fellow Acadians in Nova Scotia.  In August 1763, British officials counted Basile, along with the Savoies, at Halifax, probably in the prison compound on Georges Island.  

The war with Britain now over, the Acadians being held in Nova Scotia faced a hard dilemma.  The Treaty of Paris of February 1763 stipulated in its Article 14 that persons dispersed by the war had 18 months to return to their respective territories.  However, British authorities refused to allow any of the Acadian prisoners in the region to return to their former lands as proprietors.  If Acadians chose to remain in, or return to, Nova Scotia, they could live only in small family groups in previous unsettled areas or work for low wages on former Acadian lands now owned by New England "planters."  If they stayed, they must also take the hated oath of allegiance to the new British king, George III, without reservation.  They would also have to take the oath if they joined their cousins in Canada.  After all they had suffered on the question of the oath, few self-respecting Acadians would consent to take it if it could be avoided.  Some Halifax exiles chose to relocate to Miquelon, a French-controlled island off the southern coast of Newfoundland.  Others considered going to French St.-Domingue, where Acadian exiles in the British colonies already had gone, or to the Illinois country, the west bank of which still belonged to France, or to French Louisiana, which, thanks to British control of Canada, was the only route possible to the Illinois country for Acadian exiles.  Whatever their choice, they refused to remain in L'Acadie.  So they gathered up their money and their few possessions and prepared to leave their homeland.  Of the 600 who left Halifax in late 1764 bound for Cap-Français, St.-Domingue, one was a DesRoches.234

Doiron

In 1755, descendants of Jean Doiron and his wives Marie-Anne Canol and Marie Trahan could be found at Pigiguit and Cobeguit in the Minas Basin, at Chignecto; and in the French Maritime on Île Royale and especially Île St.-Jean.  Le Grand Dérangement of the 1750s scattered this large family even farther.

The Acadians at Chignecto were the first to endure a disruption of their lives.  In the early 1750s, Canadian soldiers, assisted by Mi'kmaq warriors led by Abbé Le Loutre, burned Acadian homesteads in the British-controlled area east of Rivière Missaguash, forcing the habitants to move to the French-controlled area west of the river.  Doirons may have been among the refugees.  After yet another war erupted between Britain and France in 1754, the Chignecto Acadians were caught in the middle of it.  When British and New England forces attacked Fort Beauséjour in June 1755, Doirons may have been among the 300 Chignecto Acadians serving in the fort as militia.  They, too, along with the French troupes de la marine, became prisoners of war when the fort surrendered on June 16.  Lieutenant-Governor Lawrence was so incensed to find so-called French Neutrals fighting with French regulars at Beauséjour he ordered his officers to deport the Chignecto Acadians to the southernmost British colonies on the Atlantic seaboard.  Doirons were among the locals the British deported to South Carolina aboard the sloop Dolphin, which left Chignecto on October 13 and reached Charles Town on November 19.  They included Joseph Doiron, wife Anne Lambert, and one of their daughters; Joseph's brother Jean III, wife Madeleine Poirier, and six of their children; their brother Pierre, wife Marguerite Girouard, and their three children; their brother Paul, wife Marie, and three children; cousin Paul, wife Rose Bourgeois, and three children; and Marie Doiron, husband Pierre Boucher, and their infant daughter.  Jean Doiron III died at St. Helen Parish, South Carolina, in 1756, not long after he reached the colony.  That spring, the governors of Georgia and South Carolina allowed the Acadians in their colonies who were not under arrest to return to their homeland as best they could.  After purchasing or building small vessels, hundreds of them headed up the coast.  Some made it all the way back to the Bay of Fundy and found refuge on lower Rivière St.-Jean.  Most did not.  In late August, after weeks of effort, 78 exiles came ashore on Long Island, New York, and were detained by colonial officials.  On a list of "names of the heads of the French Neutral families, number of their Children returned from Georgia and distributed through the counties of Westchester and Orange," dated 26 August 1756, were Paul Divon, likely Doiron, his wife, and two children, and John Divon, his wife, and one child, detained at Westchester Town, Westchester County.  A John Divan, his wife and one child, were being held at North Castle, Westchester County.  Paul secured permission to move on to Pennsylvania, perhaps after his wife Marie died, and he remarried twice at Philadelphia in 1761 and 1764.  Back in South Carolina, Marie Doiron's husband died, and she remarried to fellow Acadian Pierre Lambert, a widower, in c1761.  Joseph Doiron's wife Anne Lambert also died in the colony, and he remarried to Marie-Josèphe Lord, widow of Claude Bourg

Living in territory controlled by France, the Doirons on Île St.-Jean and Île Royale escaped the British roundup in Nova Scotia in 1755.  Their respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  After the fall of the French fortress at Louisbourg in July 1758, the victorious British swooped down upon the Maritime islands, rounded up most of the Acadian habitants there, and deported them to France.  The crossing devastated the Doiron family, ending a number of lines.  Charles Doiron, his wife Françoise Gaudet, and members of their family, including married daughter Marie-Josèphe, died aboard the British transport Duke William, which left the Maritime islands in September and reached St.-Malo, France, the first of November.  Charles's younger brother Thomas, five of his 10 children, and a Bourg niece also died aboard the vessel.  Wife Anne Girouard and five of her children survived.  Thomas's oldest son Bénoni lost his two daughters aboard the same vessel, and Bénoni died at St.-Servan near St.-Malo later in November from the rigors of the crossing.  But their loss was small compared to that of their brother Noël.  Now in his 70s, Noël, his wife Marie Henry, five of their children, over 30 of their grandchildren, and "many of their great-grandchildren"--oldest son Louis-Mathieu, his wife Madeleine Pitre, their oldest son Charles, his wife Anne-Gertrude Benoit, and their children; Noël's second son Paul, his wife Marguerite Benoit, and their children; Noël's fourth son François, his wife Madeleine Tillard and their children; Noël's youngest son Joseph, his wife Marguerite Tillard and their children; and Noël's oldest daughter Marie-Madeleine, her husband Michel Pitre, and their children--all died in a North Atlantic storm aboard a second British transport named Duke William, which left Pointe-Prime in late November for St.-Malo.  The ship's captain averred that an Acadian patriarch aboard the vessel was "a hundred and ten years old" at the time of the mishap, but Noël, who was that patriarch, was 74.  After all efforts had failed to save the vessel, and no other ship had come to its rescue, Noël embraced the captain and insisted that he and his crew take to the boats and save themselves, knowing full well that the ship, with all its passengers, soon would plummet to the bottom of the sea.  Noël's grandson Jean-Baptiste by oldest son Louis-Mathieu, Jean-Baptiste's wife Théodose Boudrot, and their infant daughter crossed on the British transport Supply, which left the Maritimes on the same day in late November his parents and grandparents departed Pointe-Prime aboard the Duke William.  The Supply survived the North Atlantic storm that sunk the Duke William and the Violet and put in at Bideford, England, on December 20.  Some Acadians disembarked and went on to Bristol, but Jean-Baptiste and Théodose, with the majority of their fellow passengers, continued on to St.-Malo, which they finally reached in early March 1759.  Their daughter died at sea.  Alexis Doiron, third wife Madeleine-Josèphe Bourg, who was pregnant on the voyage, and two of his older sons by his first wife survived the crossing aboard one of the Five Ships that left the Maritimes in late November, but their four youngest children, including a newborn, died at sea or in a St.-Malo hospital from the rigors of the crossing.  Alexis's younger brother Jean, wife Anne Thibodeau, and their four children also crossed on one of the Five Ships.  All of the children died at sea or from the rigors of the crossing.  Alexis and Jean's older sister Angélique crossed with husband Olivier Daigre and their 11 children on one of the Five Ships; her seven youngest children died at sea.  Alexis et al.'s cousin Marie crossed on one of the Five Ships with her husband Pierre Haché dit Gallant and their four children; all of her children died at sea.

Island Doirons who survived the crossing did their best to make a life for themselves in the teeming suburbs of St.-Malo.  Jean-Baptiste, grandson of Noël Doiron by his first son Louis-Mathieu, and his wife Théodose Boudrot, settled at St.-Servan.  Théodose gave Jean-Baptiste a son there within a year of their arrival:  Guillaume-René was born in May 1760.  Thomas Doiron's widow Anne Girouard and her five remaining children, who had crossed on the earlier Duke William, went to St.-Suliac.  Anne, who did not remarry, died at St.-Suliac in December 1761, in her early 50s.  Pierre, her surviving grandchild by oldest son Bénoni, age 18 and still unmarried at the time of the crossing, evidently followed relatives to St.-Servan   He then disappears from the historical record.  Anne's oldest surviving son Charles, age 20 when he crossed, chose to settle at St.-Servan with his nephew Pierre and brother Jacques before rejoining his mother and other siblings at St.-Suliac.  Charles died there in June 1764, age 26, still a bachelor.  Anne's son Alexandre followed her to St.-Suliac and married Ursule, daughter of fellow Acadians François Hébert and Isabelle Bourg of Cobeguit, at nearby Pleslin in January 1763.  Over the next nine years, Ursule gave Alexandre five children, two daughters and three sons, at Pleslin:  Marie-Rose was born in November 1763; Madeleine-Ursule in August 1765; Isaac-Alexandre in October 1767; Charles-Adrien in April 1770 but died at La Ville au Conte, age 4, in October 1773; and Maturin-Luc was born October 1772.  Anne Girouard's youngest surviving son Jacques dit Jacob lived with his older brother Charles at St.-Servan before rejoining his mother at St.-Suliac.  Jacques married Anne-Josèphe, daughter of fellow Acadians Joseph Breau and Ursule Bourg, at St.-Suliac in July 1765.  Between 1768 and 1774, Anne-Josèphe gave Jacques four children, three sons and a daughter, at St.-Servan and St.-Suliac:  Jean-Jacques, called Jacques, was born at St.-Servan in August 1768; Simon-Joseph in April 1770; Ursule-Olive in December 1771, and Jacques-François at St.-Suliac in April 1774.  Only one of Thomas Doiron's daughters married.  Anne, her mother's namesake, married Charles, son of fellow Acadians François Naquin and Angélique Blanchard of Cobeguit, at St.-Suliac in November 1765.  Between 1766 and 1773 at St.-Suliac, Anne gave Charles five children, two daughters and three sons, two of whom died as infants.  Alexis Doiron, son of Thomas's older brother Louis, his third wife Madeleine-Josèphe Bourg, and their surviving sons Alexis-Grégoire, called Grégoire, age 14 at the time of the crossing, and Joseph dit Josaphat, age 12, settled at St.-Énogat.  Between 1760 and 1764, Madeleine-Josèphe gave Alexis three more children, a son and two daughters, at St.-Énogat:  Jean-Charles was born in August 1760, Marie-Madeleine in 1762, and Marie-Rose in September 1764.  In November 1765, they joined other Acadian exiles in a settlement venture on Belle-Île-en-Mer off the southern coast of Brittany.  Oldest son Grégoire by first wife Marguerite Thibodeau remained at St.-Énogat and married Hélène, daughter of fellow Acadians Antoine Aucoin and Élisabeth Amireau, there in May 1767.  Between 1768 and 1772, at St.-Énogat, Hélène gave Grégoire three children, two daughters and a son:  Françoise-Josèphe was born in April 1768; Grégoire-Michel in October 1769; and Marie-Victoire, called Victoire, in October 1772.  Alexis's younger son Josaphat by first wife Marguerite also remained at St.-Énogat when his father and stepmother moved on to Belle-Île-en-Mer.  Josaphat married Marguerite, daughter of fellow Acadians Pierre Duon and Angélique Aucoin, at nearby Plouër in August 1766.  Between 1768 and 1770, Marguerite gave Josaphat three sons:  Pierre-Josaphat was born at St.-Énogat in March 1768, Joseph-Grégoire in July 1769, and Basile-François at nearby Pleurtuit in November 1770.  They returned to Plouër in 1771.  Alexis's younger brother Jean and his wife Anne Thibodeau, now childless, went first to St.-Suliac and then moved near his brother at St.-Énogat.  Between 1760 and 1764, Anne gave Jean four more children, two sons and two daughters, at St.-Énogat:  Jean-Baptiste was born in April 1760, Anne-Dorothée in June 1761, Pierre in August 1762, and Marguerite-Josèphe in February 1764.  They, too, went to Belle-Île-en-Mer in November 1765.  In October 1763, Joseph, son of Pierre dit Pitre Doiron of Chignecto, reached St.-Énogat from England.  Joseph, who was age 9 in 1755, had escaped the British roundup at Chignecto that year and followed his family to Canada.  Still in his teens, he became a seaman, perhaps serving on a privateer, was evidently captured by the Royal Navy, and imprisoned in England.  He married Marguerite, daughter of fellow Acadians Alexandre Bourg and Ursule Hébert, at St.-Énogat in February 1764.  In 1765 and 1766, at St.-Énogat, Ursule gave the sailor a son and a daughter, one of whom died young:  Jean-Charles was born at St.-Énogat in January 1765 but died 11 days after his birth, and Rose-Germaine was born in July 1766.  In 1767, Joseph evidently left his family at St.-Énogat and went to sea.  He died on Île Miquelon off the southern coast of Newfoundland in 1772, age 26.  One wonders what became of his widow Marguerite and her daughter.  Another Doiron settled in the St.-Malo area.  Séverin, with his wife Geneviève LeBlanc, probably a fellow Acadian, and their younger daughter sailed from Boulogne-sur-Mer to St.-Malo aboard the brigantine Hazard in May 1766.  Séverin had come to France probably from the Maritimes in 1758 and married Geneviève at Boulogne-sur-Mer in c1761.  They settled at St.-Servan, where they were still living in 1772.  They then disappear from the historical record. 

In 1758-59, island Doirons ended up in other French ports, including Le Havre, Cherbourg, Boulogne-sur-Mer, La Rochelle, and Rochefort.  Paul dit Grand Paul Doiron of Chignecto and Rivière-du-Nord-Est, wife Marguerite Michel, and members of their family ended up at Le Havre, while others landed at Cherbourg and Boulogne-sur-Mer.  Grand Paul died probably at Le Havre by February 1760, in his 40s.  Daughter Rosalie, age 19, married Joseph, 22-year-old son of fellow Acadians Charles Bourg and Marguerite Landry, at Le Havre in January 1764.  Grand Paul's son Jean-Baptiste, in his early teens in 1758, also ended up at Le Havre, where he worked as a sailor.  He married Marie-Blanche, called Blanche, daughter of fellow Acadians René Bernard and Marguerite Hébert of Chignecto, at Le Havre in January 1766.  Over the next few years, at Le Havre, Blanche gave Jean-Baptiste thee daughters:  Émelie was born in October 1766, Marie-Honorine-Hypolithe in July 1768, and Rose-Lucie in c1772.  Émelie may have died in childhood.  Grand Paul's daughters Anne-Appoline, Marie-Blanche, called Blanche, and Rose ended up at Cherbourg.  Anne-Appoline, age 20 in 1758, married Jean-Baptiste, fils, son of Jean-Baptiste Chesnay dit La Garenne and Anne Potier of Île St.-Jean, either on the island or at Cherbourg soon after her arrival.  Blanche was age 16 in 1758, so she likely married fellow island Acadian Bonaventure Thibodeau soon after she and her sisters reached the Norman port.  Still only age 18, Blanche remarried to Sylvain, fils, son of fellow Acadians Sylvain Aucoin and Catherine Amireau and widower of Rose Henry, at Très-Ste.-Trinité, Cherbourg, in February 1760.  Rose, only age 8 in 1758, joined her parents at Le Havre by January 1764, when, at the tender age of 14, she married Joseph, son of fellow Acadians Charles Bourg and Marguerite Landry, at Notre Dame, Le Havre.  Grand Paul's oldest daughter Marguerite-Josèphe and her husband Jean-Baptiste Dugas landed at Boulogne-sur-Mer.  In 1765, they moved to La Rochelle and were living at nearby Rochefort in 1770.  Séverin Doiron, parents unrecorded, was exiled from the Maritime islands to Boulogne-sur-Mer in 1758.  He married Geneviève LeBlanc, probably at fellow Acadian, there in c1761.  Over the next several years, Geneviève gave Séverin two daughters in the northern French port:  Marie-Jacquelin-Florentin in May 1762 but died at age 3 in August 1765, and Marie-Geneviève was born in July 1764.  In May 1766, they resettled at St.-Servan near St.-Malo.  Suzanne Doiron, parents unrecorded, widow of Pierre Guitard, married Paul Mercier, widower of Madeleine Blanchard, at Notre Dame, Rochefort, in February 1763.

In November 1765, two Doiron brothers at St.-Énogat agreed to become part of a new agricultural settlement on Belle-Île-en-Mer off the southern coast of Brittany--among the few Acadian exiles from Île St.-Jean to go there.  Alexis Doiron, wife Madeleine-Josèphe Bourg, and their three youngest children, left St.-Énogat near St.-Malo and took up residence on a land concession at Bortereau, today's Borduro, near Locmaria on the island's eastern shore.  Alexis's younger brother Jean, his wife Anne Thibodeau, and their four young children also took up a concession at Bortereau.  Between 1776 and 1773, Madeleine-Josèphe gave Alexis seven more children, five sons and two daughters, on the island:  Joseph in April 1766, Sébastienne in February 1768, Henriette-Catherine in July 1769, Pierre in c1770, Marie-Ange in c1771, François-Xavier dit Mico in c1772, and Élie in c1773.  Brother Jean and wife Anne had no more children on the island.  In the early 1770s,  Alexis and Madeleine-Josèphe abandoned their concession at Bortereau and returned to St.-Énogat.  If they did not die there, in 1773, they and their youngest children followed Alexis's second son Josaphat and his family to the Channel Islands and England, from which they returned to greater Acadia.  Alexis and Madeleine-Josèphe--their younger children at least--settled on St. John's Island, formerly Île St.-Jean, from where Alexis and Madeleine-Josèphe had been exiled a decade and a half earlier.  Alexis's younger brother Jean also left Belle-Île-en-Mer.  He sold his concession Bortereau to a local in 1777 and moved to Paimboeuf, the port of Nantes. 

In 1773, Doirons in several port cities chose to take part in another settlement venture, this one in Poitou.  French authorities were tired of providing for the Acadians languishing in the port cities.  A French nobleman offered to settle them on land he owned near the city of Châtellerault.  The Doirons who went to Poitou included Thomas's sons Alexandre and his wife Ursule Hébert from Pleslin and Jacques and his wife Anne-Josèphe Breau from St.-Suliac, Alexis's son Grégoire and his wife Hélène Aucoin from St.-Énogat, Grand Paul's son Jean-Baptiste and wife Marie-Blanche Bernard from Le Havre, and his sisters Marie-Blanche and her second husband Sylvain Aucoin, fils from Cherbourg, Rose and her husband Joseph Bourg from Le Havre, and perhaps Marguerite-Josèphe and her husband Jean-Baptiste Dugas from Rochefort.  Ursule gave Alexandre another son, Marin, in Poitou, baptized at Bonneuil-Matours in February 1779.  Jacques and Anne-Josèphe lost a son there:  third and youngest son Jacques-François was buried at Archigny, age 11 months, in March 1775.  Hélène gave Grégoire another son in Poitou:  Pierre, baptized at St.-Jacques, Châtellerault, in June 1775.  Marie-Blanche gave Jean-Baptiste a son, Jean-Baptiste-Cesar, baptized at Cenan in May 1775.  Two of Jean-Baptiste's sisters remarried in Poitou:  Marie-Blanche, in a third marriage, to Jacques, fils, son of fellow Acadians Jacques Moulaison and Cécile Melanson of Cap-Sable, at St.-Jean l'Evangeliste, Châtellerault, in May 1774; and Rose to Jean-Baptiste, son of locals Robert Loiseleur and Marguerite Legendre of Châtellerault, at Targe in August 1775. 

From late October 1775 through mid-March 1776, hundreds of disgruntled Poitou Acadians, including the Doirons, took four convoys from Châtellerault to the port city of Nantes.  There, the wayward Acadians lived as best they could on government handouts and what work they could find.  Some families grew larger, some became smaller.  Ursule gave Alexandre another son, Joseph, baptized at St.-Martin-de-Chantenay near Nantes in November 1777.  Son Marin, born in Poitou, died at Chantenay, age 2 1/2, later that month.  Between 1776 and 1783, Anne-Josèphe gave Jacques four more children at Nantes, but they all died young:  Jean-Baptiste was baptized in St.-Nicolas Parish in January 1776 but died there at age 20 months in September 1777, Eulalie-Élisabeth was baptized at St.-Nicolas in February 1778 but died there at age 5 in August 1783; Benjamin was baptized at St.-Nicolas in April 1780 but died there at age 2 1/2 in January 1783, another Jean-Baptiste was baptized at St.-Nicolas in November 1783 but died a month later.  In the late 1770s, Hélène gave Grégoire two more sons at Nantes, but they all died young:  Jean-Pierre was baptized in St.-Similien Parish in November 1777 but died there at age 5 in February 1781, and Jean was baptized at St.-Similien in December 1779 but died there at age 2.  They also lost a son born at St.-Énogat:  Grégoire-Michel died in St.-Similien Parish in November 1778, age 9.  Grégoire, who worked as a sailor at Nantes and may have died there or at sea before November 1784, when Hélène remarried to an Acadian Dantin.  Between 1777 and 1784, Marie-Blanche gave Jean-Baptiste four more children, most of whom survived childhood:  Jean-Louis was baptized in St.-Nicolas Parish in March 1777 but died there the following December; Amable-Ursule, a daughter, was baptized at St.-Martin-de-Chantenay in May 1779; Louis-Toussaint was baptized there in November 1781; and Jean-Charles in July 1784.  Jean-Baptiste's oldest sister Marguerite-Josèphe, her husband Jean-Baptiste Dugas, and their family were counted at Nantes in September 1784.  Grégoire's uncle Jean Doiron, who moved his family from Belle-Île-en-Mer to Paimboeuf, the port of Nantes, in the late 1770s, lost wife Anne Thibodeau there in December 1783; she was age 53.  His daughter Anne-Dorothée, born at St.-Énogat before they moved to Belle-Île-en-Mer, married Jean-Pierre, daughter of fellow Acadians Pierre Hébert and Anne Benoit and widower of Marguerite Moulaison, at Paimboeuf in March 1784. 

In the early 1780s, the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France the chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana, most of the Doirons still in the mother country--30 of them--agreed to take it.  They included Jean, a son, and two of his daughters, one them married; brothers Alexandre and Jacques and their families; Jean-Baptiste and his family; his sisters Marguerite-Josèphe, now a widow, Anne-Appoline and Blanche and their husbands, and Rose, who left her French husband in France; Grégoire's widow, now remarried, and two of her Doiron daughters; and one of Séverin's daughters and her husband.

In North America, following the war with Britain, Acadians held in the seaboard colonies were allowed to leave, but not until British officials counted them and discerned their intentions.  In June 1763, Pennsylvania officials counted Paul Doiron, his second wife Marie Blanchard, and their three children probably at Philadelphia.  After remarrying again in 1764, Paul took his family to Maryland.  In July 1763, Maryland officials counted Alexandre Douairon, wife Anne Vincent, and six of their children--son André daughters Agathe, Élisabeth, Anne, Pélagie, and Véronique, and an unamed child--at Oxford on the colony's Eastern Shore.  Colonial officials also counted Théotiste Doiront at Baltimore.  In August 1763, South Carolina officials counted Paul Duron, actually Doiron, wife Rose Bourgeois, and their three children--15-year-old Pierre, 12-year-old Rose, and 4-month-old Anne-Marie--still in the colony.  Also on the list were Michel Doiron and his wife Marie Dupuy; Joseph Doiron, his second wife Marie-Josèphe Lord, and four of their children, 14-year-old Joseph Bourg and 9-year-old Jean Bourg from Marie-Josèphe's first marriage to Claude Bourg, and Joseph's children, 2-year-old Marie-Josèphe and year-old Pierre; and Marie Doiron, husband Pierre Lembert, actually Lambert, her daughter Marie-Anne Boucher by a previous marriage, Pierre's son Pierre, fils by a previous marriage, Marie and Pierre's infant son Jean, and three orphans.

Some of the Doirons who had escaped the deportations of 1755 and 1758 had moved on to Canada.  Charles Doiron and his large family, counted on Île Madame in February 1752, escaped the roundup on Île Royale six and a half years later by leaving the island before the fall of Louisbourg in July 1758.  But the decision to move to Québec proved to be a fatal one.  Charles died there in early January 1758, age 42, probably in a smallpox epidemic that killed 300 of his fellow refugees.  His wife Marie-Madeleine Thibodeau, age 40, was one of them; she died in late February.  Though the British gained Canada in the Treaty of Paris of February 1763, the northern province was populated largely by French Catholics, many of them Acadian exiles.  So, in a colony nearly as old as Acadia, descendants of Jean Doiron began the slow, inexorable process of becoming Canadiennes.  By the early 1770s, Doirons from greater Acadia and exile in France could be found in present-day Canada on the upper St. Lawrence at Nicolet; at St.-Ours on Rivière Richelieu; at Napanne in present-day Ontario; on the lower St. Lawrence at Beaumont, St.-Charles-de-Bellechasse, and St.-Michel-de-Bellechasse; at Richibouctou in present-day eastern New Brunswick; at Rustico on the north shore of Prince Edward Island; and on Baie Ste.-Marie, today's St. Mary's Bay, on the western coast of Nova Scotia.  Typical of most, if not all, Acadian families, the Acadiennes of Canada lost touch with their Cadien cousins hundreds of miles away, and, until the Acadian reunions of the mid-twentieth century, may even have forgotten the others existed. 

Doirons languishing in South Carolina at the end of the war with Britain chose to emigrate to French St.-Domingue, where they could live not only among fellow Roman Catholics, but also in territory controlled by France.  Although driven from North America by the Seven Years' War, the French were determined to hang on to what was left of their western empire.  Their new naval base at Môle St.-Nicolas on the northwest shore of the island would protect the approaches to their remaining possessions in the Caribbean Basin.  The Acadians could provide a source of cheap labor at Môle St.-Nicolas.  To entice them to the sugar colony, the French promised the Acadians land of their own there.  Joseph Doiron, his second wife Marie-Josèphe Lord, and their children; Michel Doiron and his wife Marie Dupuy; Jean-Baptiste, called Jean, Doiron and his wife Madeleine Forest; and Marie Doiron, her second husband Pierre Lambert, his son Pierre, fils, and Marie's daughter Marie-Anne Boucher, were among the takers.  The promises did not work for at least one member of the family.  When fellow Acadians recently released from Nova Scotia and Maryland came through Cap-Français in the mid- and late 1760s on their way to Louisiana, Marie Doiron and her family followed one of the parties to New Orleans.  The other Doirons were among the majority of Acadians who remained in the sugar colony.  Joseph Doiron died in the colony by c1775, in his late 50s or early 60s, when wife Marie-Josèphe Lord remarried probably at Môle.  Marguerite Doiron married fellow Acadian Pierre Doucet, a carpenter, probably at Môle before February 1777.  Barthélemy Doiron, son of Antoine Vitelly and Marie-Josèphe Doiron, widow of Jean-Baptiste Aucoin and not yet remarried, was born at Môle in c1777 and baptized there in November 1779.  The boy died at Môle in January 1780, age 2.  The couple's daughter Catherine was born at Môle in January 1780 but died only a week and a half after her birth.  Antoine and Marie-Josèphe married at Môle in February 1783.  Meanwhile, Jean Doiron, now carpenter for the king, and his wife Madeleine Forest welcomed daughter Marie-Madeleine at Môle in May 1778.  Their daughter Victoire was born there in December 1780, and Anne in April 1783.  Marie, daughter of Michel Doiron and Marie Dupuy, married Noël, son of André Kuntz, soldier of Cambresis, and Catherine Selvenn Holerin of Langogne, Gévaudan, in the south of France, at Môle St.-Nicolas in May 1785. 

The Doirons being held at forts Edward and Cumberland in Nova Scotia faced a hard dilemma.  The Treaty of Paris of February 1763 stipulated in its Article 14 that persons dispersed by the war had 18 months to return to their respective territories.  In the case of the Acadians, however, this meant that they could return only to French soil.  Where the Doirons had lived in Acadia was no longer French territory.  British authorities refused to allow any of the Acadian prisoners in the region to return to their former lands as proprietors.  If Acadians chose to remain in Nova Scotia, they could live only in the interior of the peninsula in small family groups and work for low wages on former Acadian lands now owned by New Englander "planters."  If they stayed, they must also take the hated oath of allegiance to the new British king, George III, without reservation.  They would also have to take the hated oath if they joined their cousins in the St. Lawrence valley.  After all that they had suffered on the question of the oath, no self-respecting Acadian would consent to take it if it could be avoided.   Some Halifax exiles chose to relocate to Miquelon, a French island off the southern coast of Newfoundland.  Others considered going to French St.-Domingue, today's Haiti, where Acadian exiles in the British colonies already had gone, or to the Illinois country, the west bank of which still belonged to France, or to French Louisiana, which was the only route possible to the Illinois country for Acadian exiles.  Whatever their choice, they would not remain in old Acadia.  So a small family of Doirons languishing at Fort Edward, Pigiguit--Pierre, wife Marie Bourgeois, daughter Marguerite, and son Olivier--gathered up their belongings and prepared to leave their homeland. 

For a dozen years, the Doirons in Maryland endured life among English colonists who, despite their Catholic roots, did not care much for the French "papists" who had been thrust upon them.  When word reached the Maryland Acadians that they would be welcomed in Louisiana, they pooled their meager resources to charter ships that would take them to New Orleans.  The Doirons had few relatives in the Spanish colony, but that was of little consequence.  Anne Vincent, widow of Alexandre Doiron, and three of her Doiron daughters--Agathe, age 30; Élisabeth, age 20; and Pélagie, age 16--followed a party of 150 exiles who left Port Tobacco in late December 1767 and reached New Orleans via Cap-Français, French St.-Domingue, the following February.  (One wonders what happened to Anne's son and two other daughters counted at Oxford four years earlier, and to Théotiste Doiron who had been counted at Baltimore.)  At least one Doiron family chose to remain in Maryland.  Paul, son of Jean, fils of Chignecto, with a wife and three children, had been deported to South Carolina in 1755 and made his way up the coast to Long Island, New York, the following spring, perhaps after his wife died, he secured permission to move on to Pennsylvania, where he remarried at Philadelphia in 1761.  Colonial officials counted him, his second wife, and three children still in the Quaker colony in June 1763.  Paul dit Gold, as he was called, remarried again--his third marriage--to Marie-Josèphe, daughter of Paul Bourg and Judith Hébert, at Philadelphia in May 1764.  They moved on to Maryland probably soon after their marriage but were among the relatively few Acadians in the Chesapeake colony who refused to emigrate to Spanish Louisiana in the late 1760s.  In 1773, Paul was one of the first Acadians at Baltimore to secure a lot--number 36--on Charles Street in the city's French Town Quarter.  Paul dit Gold's succession record was filed at Baltimore in June 1785, when he would have been in his late 50s or early 60s.  His descendants used the surname Gold, an English iteration of Doiron.299

Doucet

In  1755, descendants of Germain Doucet de La Verdure and his two wives could be found at Annapolis Royal, Minas, Chignecto, Chepoudy in the trois-rivières area west of Chignecto, and at Cap-Sable.  They also could be found in the French Maritimes on Île Royale and Île St.-Jean, and in Canada.  Le Grand Dérangement of the 1750s scattered this large family even farther.

The Acadians at Chignecto were the first to endure the great disruption.  In the early 1750s, the fanatical French priest Abbé Jean-Louis Le Loutre and his Mi'kmaq Indians burned a number of Acadian settlements at Chignecto, forcing the settlers to move from the British-controlled area east of the Missaguash River to the Aulac area west of Fort Beauséjour, still controlled by the French.  Doucets may have been among the refugees.  After yet another war erupted between Britain and France in 1754, the Chignecto Acadians were caught in the middle of it.  When British and New England forces attacked Fort Beauséjour in June 1755, Chignecto Acadians, pressured by the French, served in the fort as militia.  They, too, along with the French troupes de la marine, became prisoners of war when the fort surrendered on June 16.  Lieutenant-Governor Lawrence was so incensed to find so-called French Neutrals fighting with French regulars at Beauséjour that he ordered his officers to deport the Chignecto Acadians to the southernmost British colonies on the Atlantic seaboard.  Doucets were among them.  

At least one Doucet family from Grand-Pré was transported to Maryland in the fall of 1755.  The Doucet family shipped to Virginia--that of Jean dit Jean Prudent of Grand-Pré--endured a fate worse than most of the other refugees deported from the Minas basin.  In mid-November, when five transports appeared unexpectedly at Hampton Roads, the Virginia governor, Robert Dinwiddie, protested their deportation to his colony without his consent.  The following spring, the Virginia Assembly shipped the Acadians to England.  The Doucets who survived the Virginia debacle ended up at Southampton.  Their ordeal only worsened in the English port, where they were grossly neglected and treated like common criminals.  By 1763, more than half of the exiles in England were dead.  One of the lucky survivors, Pierre, son of Jean Prudent Doucet of Grand-Pré, married Marie-Blanche, daughter of fellow Acadian Joseph Richard, also from Minas, at Southampton in April 1763. 

At Annapolis Royal, where most of the Doucets still lived in 1755, several hundred haute-rivière Acadians, including Doucets, escaped deportation by hiding in the hills above the Fundy shore.  Nevertheless, the British were able to send off half a dozen transports filled with Annapolis Acadians to Connecticut, Massachusetts, New York, and North Carolina in mid-October and early December.  The ship bound for North Carolina--the Pembroke--fell into the hands of its Acadian "passengers," who took it to the mouth of Rivière St.-Jean and escaped into the wilds of today's New Brunswick, but the five New England- and New York-bound ships reached their destinations.  Annapolis Doucets were on these ships.  A colonial record dated 6 May 1756 notes that a Doucet family was among the "French neutrals sent by Gov. Lawrence from Nova Scotia to New York" and parcelled out to five counties in the Manhattan area.  Colonial authorities sent Glode Doucet and his family of eight to Jamaica, Queens County, on Long Island.  In July 1760, colonial officials in Massachusetts counted three Doucet families still languishing in the colony.  At Gloucester, they recorded Joseph Doucett and Anne Doucett, ages unrecorded, and 10 of their children, ages 26 to 2.  This was Joseph, son of Claude Doucet and Marie Comeau of Annapolis Royal, wife Anne Surrette, and their children.  Also with them was Widow Eliza. Janvire, age 72 and infirm.  Peter Dossett, age 50, his wife Mary, also age 50, and nine children, six sons and three daughers, ages 27 to 6, one of them sick, were counted at Marblehead.  This was Joseph's younger brother Pierre, wife Marie-Josèphe Robichaud, and their children.  At Duxbury, colonial officials counted Joso. Dosset, age 47, wife Nanny, age 41, and four of their children, three daughters and a son, ages 26 to 6.  This was Joseph, son of Mathieu Doucet and Anne Lord, wife Anne Bourg, and their children. With them was Maria Gould, age 78.  One wonders who she may have been.  Two more Doucet families from Annapolis Royal--that of brothers Pierre and his wife Françoise Dugas, and François and his wife Marguerite Petitot--also had gone to Massachusetts in 1755.  Annapolis Doucets also were deported to Connecticut and New York. 

Doucets who escaped the roundup at Chignecto and Annapolis Royal sought refuge at Shediac, Miramichi, and other points on the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore.  By 1756, as many as 4,000 exiles had made their way to the Miramichi, which had boasted only a hand full of Acadians before Le Grand Dérangement.  Food, clothing, and shelter were in short supply, and hundreds of refugees perished during the first winter of exile.  When spring finally came, some survivors moved on to Restigouche at the head of the Baie des Chaleurs and even to the St. Lawrence valley, where the Canadiennes treated them indifferently.  But the majority, including Doucets, remained at Miramichi and tried desperately to create a permanent settlement despite thin soil and a short growing season.  In 1758, after the fall of the French fortress at Louisbourg in July, the British sent search and destroy missions to the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore to protect their lines of communication in the Gulf.  Unable to tend their fields or maintain their pitiful shelters, the Acadians at Miramichi faced another starving winter.  Doucets were at Restigouche when the British attacked that French stronghold in July 1760.  The British rounded up 300 Acadians, perhaps including Doucets, during their withdrawal and held them in prison compounds in Nova Scotia.  Doucets appear on a list of 1,003 Acadians still at Restigouche in late October 1760.  During the next few years, however, some of them were either captured by, or surrendered to, British forces in the area and joined their cousins in the Nova Scotia prisons. 

Living in territory controlled by France, the Doucets on the French Maritime islands escaped the British roundup of their cousins in Nova Scotia during the fall of 1755.  Their respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  After the British captured the French fortress at Louisbourg in July 1758, they swooped down on the habitants of Île Royale and Île St.-Jean and rounded up most of the Acadians there, Doucets among them.  Later that year, the British packed hundreds of island Acadians into hired merchant vessels and deported them to St.-Malo and other French ports.  Irishman Jean Doucet dit Lirlandois of Louisbourg, no kin to the descendants of Sieur Germain, and his second wife Thérèse Dauphin crossed aboard the transport Duke William, which left the Maritimes in late summer and reached St.-Malo in early November.  The ship nearly foundered in a mid-Atlantic storm and suffered a devastating onboard explosion the following day.  Jean and his wife were among the passengers buried at sea.  Acadian Joseph Doucet, a 15-year-old seaman from Île St.-Jean, reached St.-Malo in 1759 and went to Brest in April, where he served on at least two vessels before returning to St.-Malo in May 1760.  Anne Doucet, her husband François Chiasson, and two of their sons crossed on one of the five British transports that left the Gut of Canso in late November and reached St.-Malo in late January 1759.  Anne was buried at sea.  Marie-Anne Précieux, wife of Augustin Doucet dit Justice, and two of their children--Pierre, age 5, and Marie, age 3--crossed on the transport Tamerlane, which left the Gut of Canso in late November and reached St.-Malo in mid-January 1759.  Augustin dit Justice crossed on another, unidentified vessel.  Augustin dit Justice, his wife, and children, survived the crossing and settled at St.-Énogat and St.-Servan near St.-Malo, where six more children were born to the couple:  Rose, born in April 1760 but died at age 6 in November 1766; Renée-Catherine, born in June 1762 but died at age 5 in October 1767; Augustin-Sylvestre, born in July 1764; Jean-Baptiste in September 1766; François-Adrien in April 1768 but died 11 months later; and François, born in September 1770.  Augustin dit Justice's son Pierre married Frenchwoman Jeanne, daughter of Jean Dautoville and Perrine Bellotte, at St.-Servan in January 1775, where at least two sons were born to them:  Auguste-Pierre in October 1775, and Pierre-Michel in September 1779.  Françoise, daughter of  François Doucet and widow of Alexis Renaud, married Louis, son of fellow Acadians Jean-Baptiste Haché dit Gallant and Marie-Ange Gentil and widower of Anne Benoit, at St.-Servan in February 1770 and gave him more children.  

Island Doucets deported in 1758 landed at other coastal cities.  They were especially numerous at Le Havre in Normandy, but they also could be found at La Rochelle and nearby Rochefort.  Joseph Doucet, son of Charles of Île Royale, came to Le Havre in Normandy with his wife Marie or Marguerite Robichaud and their unmarried daughter Marguerite, age 28.  Joseph died at Le Havre in July 1764, age 66.  At the time the British were deporting the island Acadians to France, Joseph's son Joseph Doucet, fils, his wife Marguerite Moulaison, and their infant daughter Marie were rounded up at Cap-Sable and deported to France via Halifax.  They also landed at Le Havre.  Daughter Marie died in the Norman port in February 1759, age 2 1/2, probably from the rigors of the crossing.  Joseph, fils and Marguerite had at least six more children at Le Havre:  Emmanuelle-Victoire born in May 1759, Joseph-Benjamin in October 1761, Adélaïde-Véronique in December 1763, Marie-Marguerite in January 1766, Madeleine-Geneviève-Émilie in January 1768, and son Ange in c1770.  Joseph, père's daughter Marguerite was 34 years old when she married Jacques Bunel of Lunerey, France, widower of Marie-Josèphe Poirier, at Le Havre in July 1765.  Joseph Doucet, père's younger brother Michel and his wife Angélique Pitre landed at Le Havre with several children--Joseph le jeune, age 16; Michel, fils and Euphrosine, age 15; Catherine, age 14; and Élisabeth, age 6.  The family's suffered terribly in the Norman port:  Michel, père died in February 1760, age 53.  Daughters Élisabeth and Catherine died in February and September of the same year, and Joseph le jeune died in 1764, age 21.  Michel, fils became a carpenter and a sailor and married Marie-Blanche, daughter of fellow Acadians Jean Cousin and Judith Guédry, probably at Le Havre in c1766.  They had at least three children at Le Havre:  Marie-Rose was born in May 1767, Honorine-Eleonore in February 1768, and Jean-Baptiste-Michel in c1773.  Louis Doucet and his wife Jeanne Moulaison also landed at Le Havre.  Their daughter Marie-Madeleine-Susanne was born there in April 1760.  Marie-Josèphe Doucet and her husband Pierre Moulaison landed at Le Havre.  Anne, daughter of Joseph Doucet and Marie Robichaud of Cap-Sable and wife of Philippe-Joseph Demar, perhaps a Demarets of Île Royale, died at Le Havre, age 22, in July 1764.  Jacques Doucet, a cabaretier or inn-keeper, and his wife Marguerite or Marianne Gerard ended up at La Rochelle.  They had at least three children there:  Catherine-Thérèse, born in October 1766; Marie-Anne-Pélagie in January 1768 but died at age 5 months the following May; and Jacques-Charles was born in July 1769.  Élisabeth Doucet married Frenchman Jean Durier, a serrurier or locksmith, at Rochefort near La Rochelle in April 1760.  Pierre Doucet, a day laborer or a tailleur d'habits, and his wife Marie-Madeleine Goineau also landed at Rochefort.  Their son Pierre, fils was born there in November 1760.  Joseph remarried to Marie Naud, probably at Frenchwoman, at Rochefort in June 1762 and died by February 1764, when Marie remarried at Rochefort.  Jean Doucet and his wife Marie-Anne Merenand came to Rochefort with daughter Marie-Anne, age 1.  Marie-Anne died there at age 5 in August 1763.  Pierre Doucet died at Rochefort in May 1764, age 80.  The St.-Louis Parish priest who recorded his burial did not give Pierre's parents' name or mention a wife and children.  Jacques Doucet, a day laborer, and his wife Marie David landed at Rochefort.  Their son Jacques died there at age 5 in July 1765; Marie was born in November 1765 but died at age 1 in October 1766; another daughter, name and age unrecorded, died in October 1767; and Marie-Marguerite was born in July 1777.  Marie, daughter of Jean Doucet and Jeanne Paris, married Frenchman Joseph Cayra or Querat, a day laborer, at Rochefort in May 1767, and remarried to another day laborer, Frenchman Antoine, son of Louis Bourgoin and Léonarde Brosset of Bourdelle, Perigard, at Rochefort in July 1771.  François Doucet ended up at Cherbourg in Normandy.  His daughter Marie-Renée-Adélaïde died there at age 17 months in January 1770.  Charles Doucet was just a teenager when he came to France.  He became a carpenter and remained a bachelor. 

In the spring of 1763, after prolonged negotiations between the French and British governments, the Acadians in England were repatriated to France.  Pierre Doucet and his wife Marie-Blanche Richard, reached St.-Malo aboard the ship L'Ambition that May and settled at St.-Servan near their cousins from Île St.-Jean.  Their son Joseph-Basile was born at St.-Servan in February 1764.  In November 1765, Pierre and Marie-Blanche went to Belle-Île-en-Mer off the southern coast of Brittany with hundreds of other repatriated Acadians from England.  They settled at Anvort near Sauzon.  Pierre and Marie-Blanche had more children there:  Marie-Blanche was born at Le Palais in January 1766, Pierre at Sauzon in August 1768, Jean-Pierre-Marie at Sauzon in October 1772, Jeanne-Gabrielle at Locmaria in March 1775 but died at age 1 in August 1776, and Marie-Perrine was born at Locmaria in September 1777.  

Several Doucet families--those of Augustin dit Justice, Joseph, Michel, fils, and probably Jacques--became part of a settlement venture in the Poitou region in 1773.  Augustin dit Justice, in fact, was one of the Acadian leaders in St.-Malo invited by the Marquis de Pérusse to inspect his lands near Châtellerault and then to coax his fellow Acadians to join the venture.  Augustin reported favorably on what he saw.  Despite his dit, he likely had been paid to exaggerate the quality of the soil on the marquis's estate.  Michel's daughter Marguerite-Bénoni was born at Cenan, Poitou, in March 1775.  After two years of effort, in late 1775 and early 1776 Michel Doucet, fils and his family, and Françoise Doucet and her family, retreated with 900 of the Poitou Acadians to the port city of Nantes, where they subsisted as best they could on government handouts or on what lwork they could find in the area.  Michel's son Jean-Baptiste was born at St.-Martin-de-Chantenay, near Nantes, in February 1777 but died only 2 months later.  Michel, fils's sister Euphrosine, who seems to have remained a spinster, died at St.-Martin-de-Chantenay in June 1784 in her early 40s.  Françoise bore at least four more children for Louis Haché at St.-Martin-de-Chantenay.  The other Doucets who had gone to Poitou, Joseph and Augustin dit Justice, were among the 300 Acadians who remained in the area.  Augustin dit Justice's daughter Marie married Frenchman Anne, son of Pierre Samie and Catherine Jacaud, at Cenan in April 1777.  Joseph's daughter Emmanuelle-Victoire married Frenchman Louis-Joseph, son of Jean Jaunon and Marie-Anne Leroy, at Cenan in September 1778, and his other daughter, Adélaïde, married Jacques, son of Frenchman Pierre Arnaud, at Cenan in January 1781.  Joseph's wife Marguerite Moulaison died at Cenan in April 1784, in her late 50s, leaving Joseph with three teenaged children.  Augustin dit Justice died probably at Cenan in the late 1770s or early 1780s.  By September 1784, Joseph and Justice's widow Marie-Anne Précieux had left Poitou and joined their fellow Acadians at Nantes. 

Although Le Grand Dérangement ended for most Acadians in North America by the late 1760s, this was not the case for those who took refuge on St.-Pierre and Miquelon, French-controlled islands off the southern coast of Newfoundland.  In 1778, during the American Revolution, soon after France joined the American struggle against their old red-coated enemies, the British, who controlled every part of the Maritimes region except the two French islands, rounded up the Acadians there and deported them to France.  Doucets were among the unfortunates who endured the crossing on hired British transports.  Michel Doucet and his wife Louise Belliveau of Île Miquelon landed at La Rochelle.  Their son Jacques-Marc was born there in April 1779 but died the following August.  Michel died at La Rochelle that August, age 42.  Wife Louise died only a few days later.  Their children returned to North America and settled at Rustico on the north shore of St. Johns's Island, formerly Île St.-Jean, near their parents' old home at Malpèque. 

In the early 1780s, the Spanish government offered the 2,300 Acadians in France the chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana.  At least thirteen of the Doucets still in the mother country, including Michel and Joseph and members of their families, and Marie-Anne Précieux and her two Doucet sons, agreed to take it.  Others, perhaps the majority, chose to remain in the mother country.  

In North America, following the war with Britain, Acadians held in the seaboard colonies were allowed to leave, but not until British officials counted them and discerned their intentions.  In August 1763, British officials at Halifax counted Michelle Dousain, his wife, and eight children on Georges Island, Halifax harbor.  That same month, colonial officials in Massachusetts counted Doucets still in the colony:  Benoît and wife Marie; François, wife Marguerite, and nine children, five males and four females; Joseph, wife Anne, and 10 children, seven males and three females; and Dominique, wife Madeleine, and one child, a male.  In 1763, officials in Connecticut counted several Doucet families in that colony:  Pierre Dousset with eight persons; widow Doucet with six persons; Joseph Doucet with four persons; widow Margueritte Doucet with six persons; and another Joseph Doucet, his wife, and nine children.  Also in 1763, officials in New York counted Pierre Dousset, his unnamed wife, and eight children in the colony.  In June 1763, officials in Pennsylvania counted Jean Doucet, a widower, with four children, in that colony.  In August 1763, officials in South Carolina counted a number of Doucet families, wives, and orphans still there:  Paul Doucet, wife Marie Doucet, their 18-year-old daughter Nastazie, and 16-year-old orphan Marine Doucet; Germain Doucet, wife Margte. Coumau, and sons Joseph, age 20, Enselm, age 15, and Simon, age 12; Charles Douset, wife Anne Chiasson, and no children;  Anne Doucet, husband Michel Cormier, and their 2-year-old son; Margte, age 18, and Marie, age 1, children of another Germain Doucet; orphans Anne, Magdelaine, and Froisine Doucet, ages 18, 16, and 14, counted with Joseph Salete and his wife Margte. Coumau; Widow Margte. Poirier and her son François Doucet, age 13; and Margte. Doucet, widow, with Madelaine Doucet, age 15.  In June 1766, officials in Massachuetts counted Doucets still lingering in the colony who wished to repatriate to Canada:  Françoise[sic] Doucet with three or five members of his family; Joseph Doucet with six in his family; another Joseph Doucet with nine in his family; widow of Mathieu Doucet and five members of her family; and Benoni Douces and three members of his family. 

Most of Doucets in the northern seaboard colonies moved on to Canada.  Though now also a British possession, the northern province was populated largely by fellow French Catholics, many of them Acadian exiles.  So, in a colony nearly as old as Acadia, descendants of Sr. Germain Doucet began the slow, inexorable process of becoming Canadiennes.  Especially after 1766, Doucets could be found in present-day Québec Province at Trois-Rivières, Bécancour, Pointe-du-Lac, St.-Ours, La-Prairie-de-la-Magdeleine, St.-Pierre-du-Sorel, Île Dupas, Batiscan, Pointe-aux-Écureuils, St.-Pierre-les-Becquets, St.-Grégoire-de-Nicolet, Nicolet, Maskinongé, Rivière-du-Loup now Louiseville, Deschambault, L'Assomption, Cap-Santé, and Yamachiche on the St. Lawrence above Québec City; at Québec City; at Charlesbourg, Beauport, Rivière Ouelle, Ste.-Anne-de-la-Pocatière, St.-Francois-de-la-Rivière-du-Sud, St.-Pierre-de-la-Rivière-du-Sud, and Kamouraska on the St. Lawrence below the city; at Bonaventure in Gaspésie, and on the îles-de-la-Madeleine in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.  In New Brunswick, they settled at Nipisiguit, now Bathurst; and on Île Miscou on the northeastern shore.  In Nova Scotia, they could be found on Baie Ste.-Marie, not far from their old home at Annapolis Royal; at Yarmouth south of Baie Ste.-Marie; and at Windsor in the Minas Basin, once the Acadian settlement of Pigiguit.  They also settled on Île Miquelon before moving on to Rustico on Prince Edward Island.  Typical of most, if not all, Acadian families, these Acadiennes of Canada lost touch with their Cadien cousins hundreds of miles away, and, until the Acadian reunions of the mid-twentieth century, may even have forgotten that the others existed.  

After the war with Britain ended in 1763, Acadians exiled in the seaboard colonies were encouraged by French officials to go to French St.-Dominique to work on a new naval base at Môle St.-Nicolas.  Although driven from North America, the French were determined to hang on to what was left of their shrinking empire.  The new naval base on the north shore of St.-Domingue would protect the approaches to what was left of their possessions in the Caribbean basin.  French officials saw the Acadian exiles as a ready source of cheap labor.  They promised them land of their own if they came to the sugar island to help build the naval base.  And so Acadians, including Doucets from South Carolina, emigrated to St.-Domingue.  A number of Doucets survived the ordeal and remained at Môle St.-Nicolas.  Anselme, son of Germain Doucet, married fellow Acadian Marie-Josèphe Melanson probably at Môle.  She gave Anselme at least four children there:  Jean was born in July 1777 but died at age 6 in July 1783; Victoire was baptized at the church there, age 12 days, in March 1780; Marie-Félicité was born in April 1782; and Olive-Eugènie in August 1785.  Simon, another son of Germain Doucet, married Madeleine LeBlanc of Grand-Pré at Môle in February 1776.  Their daughter Claire dite Clairette was born there in May 1777 but died at age 25 months in June 1779; Joseph was baptized at the Môle church, age 6 days, in November 1778; and Claire-Élisabeth was born posthumously in August 1780.  Simon died at Môle St.-Nicolas in August 1780, age 30.  Pierre Doucet, a carpenter, married fellow Acadian Marguerite Doiron.  Their daughter Marie-Antoinette was born at Môle St.-Nicolas in February 1777; Marie-Sophie was baptized at the church there, age 3 months, 12 days, in September 1779; and Marguerite-Eleonore was born at the naval base in November 1783.  Madeleine Doucet of Pointe Beauséjour, Chignecto, widow of _____ Demoulin, married Pierre Mauge of Bordeaux, France, at Môle St.-Nicolas in August 1778.  François, a carpenter, son of Bénoni Doucet of Chignecto, married Marie-Anne Paris of Rochefort, France, at Môle St.-Nicoas in May 1779.  Their son Charles died at Môle St.-Nicolas, age 1 1/2, in October 1782; Émilie was born there in May 1783; and Antoine in October 1786.  Jean, son of Pierre Doucet, died at Môle St.-Nicolas in May 1782, age 31.  Beginning in the summer of 1765, after several years of what they saw as fruitless effort, Acadians sought permission to leave the naval base, but French officials refused to let them go.  Some Acadians, including Doucets, left the project anyway and settled at nearby Jean-Rabel.  Marie, daughter of François Doucet, was living at Port-de-Paix down the coast from Môle when she married Pierre Dumas of Morlass, Bearn, France, at Jean-Rabel in August 1786.  Étienne Doucet married François Valois.  Their daughter Françoise-Louise was born at Jean-Rabel in November 1786.  At least two Doucets ended up on the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe.  Cécile, wife of Jacques Bourg, died there in October 1765, age 51.  Pierre, son of Germain Doucet of Annapolis Royal, was a sailor when he died at Basse-Terre on the island in November 1771, age 30.   

Doucets being held in Nova Scotia at war's end faced a hard dilemma.  The Treaty of Paris of February 1763 stipulated in its Article 14 that persons dispersed by the war had 18 months to return to their respective territories.  However, British authorities refused to allow any of the Acadian prisoners in the region to return to their former lands as proprietors.  If Acadians chose to remain in, or return to, Nova Scotia, they could live only in small family groups in previous unsettled areas or work for low wages on former Acadian lands now owned by New England "planters."  If they stayed, they must also take the hated oath of allegiance to the new British king, George III, without reservation.  They would also have to take the oath if they joined their cousins in Canada.  After all they had suffered on the question of the oath, few self-respecting Acadians would consent to take it if it could be avoided.  Some Halifax exiles, including Doucets, chose to relocate to Miquelon, a French-controlled island off the southern coast of Newfoundland.  Others considered going to French St.-Domingue, where Acadian exiles in the British colonies, including Doucets, already had gone, or to the Illinois country, the west bank of which still belonged to France, or to French Louisiana, which, thanks to British control of Canada, was the only route possible to the Illinois country for Acadian exiles.  Whatever their choice, they refused to remain in L'Acadie.  So they gathered up their money and their few possessions and prepared to leave their homeland.  Of the 600 who left Halifax in late 1764 bound for Cap-Français, St.-Domingue, nine were Doucets.235

Dubois

In 1755, Duboiss from two unrelated families could be found at Petitcoudiac in the trois-rivières area west of Chignecto, at Cap-Sable, and on Île St.-Jean.  A member of only one of those families emigrated to Louisiana. 

Marguerite-Ange, daughter of French fisherman Joseph Dubois and his Acadian wife Anne, daughter of Louis Michel and Marguerite Forest of La Famille, Pigiguit, was born in c1757 probably at Cap-Sable a year after her parents' marriage.  Although the British had rounded up Acadians in the Cap-Sable/Pobomcoup area in the spring of 1756, Joseph and Anne evidently eluded them.  A second British force descended on the area in the fall of 1758, and this time they fell into enemy hands.  The British transported them to the prison compound at Halifax, where they were held for a year (unless they were among the Cap-Sable Acadians who escaped the British again but turned themselves in the following year).  In late 1759, the British deported them aboard the transport Mary to France via England.  Anne was pregnant when the family left Halifax, and daughter Louise-Marie was born aboard ship on 16 December 1759.  They reached Cherbourg, France, in the middle of January 1760.  Anne gave Joseph two more daughters in the Norman port:  Marie-Blanche in August 1761 and Madeleine in March 1763.  Madeleine probably died young.  They moved on to Le Havre in the mid-1760s, and in July 1768, Joseph, Anne, and three of their daughters landed at St.-Malo in Brittany.  They settled at nearby St.-Servan and Pleurtuit.  Joseph died by November 1773, when Anne remarried to an Acadian LeBlanc at St.-Servan.  Meanwhile, daughter Marguerite-Anne, still in her teens, married Jean-Baptiste-Amand, son of fellow Acadians Pierre Daigre and Madeleine Gautrot, at St.-Servan in November 1770.  She gave him a son at St.-Servan, but the boy died in infancy.  In 1773, Marguerite-Ange and her husband were part of the settlement scheme in Poitou.  She gave him another son there.  After two years of effort, in December 1775 they followed other disgruntled Poitou Acadians to the port city of Nantes, where Marguerite-Ange gave Jean another son, who also died in infancy.  When, in the early 1780s, the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France the chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana, Jean and Marguerite-Anne agreed to take it.  Jean died at Nantes in late 1784 or early 1785, so when Marguerite-Ange left Paimboeuf, the port of Nantes, for New Orleans in June 1785, she was a widow with a child, son Jean-Louis Daigre, age 10 1/2.  Her mother, meanwhile, remarried twice in France, to a Landry at Nantes in October 1777, and to a Daigre at nearby Chantenay in February 1785--four marriages in all.  Marguerite-Ange sailed to Louisiana on the same vessel as her mother, her new stepfather, and seven Daigre step siblings.  One wonders what happened to Marguerite-Ange's sisters Louise-Marie and Marie-Blanche.  Did they marry Frenchmen and choose to remain in the mother county, or, like sister Madeleine, did they also die young? 

Another Dubois, not kin to Marguerite-Ange, also sailed from France to New Orleans aboard one of the Seven Ships of 1785.  His connection to greater Acadia is difficult to determine.  Jacques-Olivier, called Jaco or Jacos and Olivier, age 19, son of Olivier Dubois and Marguerite Vallois, was an unmarried sailor when he came to Louisiana aboard one of the Seven Ships, which reached New Orleans in November 1785.  With him was his mother, his stepfather Zacharie Boudrot (her fourth husband), and a 15-year-old Boudrot stepbrother.  Within days of his arrival at New Orleans, Jaco married an Acadian exile there.300

Dugas

By 1755, descendants of Abraham Dugas the master gunsmith and Marguerite Doucet could be found at Annapolis Royal, Chignecto, Minas, and Cobeguit in British-controlled Nova Scotia, and at Ékoupag on Rivière St.-Jean, on Île St.-Jean and Île Royale in areas controlled by France.  Dugass were especially numerous at Annapolis, Cobeguit, and on Île St.-Jean.  

The Acadians at Chignecto were the first to endure the great disruption.  In the early 1750s, the fanatical French priest Abbé Jean-Louis Le Loutre and his Mi'kmaq Indians burned a number of Acadian settlements at Chignecto, forcing the settlers to move from the British-controlled area east of the Missaguash River to the Aulac area west of Fort Beauséjour, still controlled by the French.  Dugass at Cobeguit at the far end of the Minas Basin, noting the fate of their kinsmen at Chignecto, crossed the Mer Rouge to Île St.-Jean and joined their kinsmen there, but many of the Dugass remained at Cobeguit.  When British and New England forces attacked Fort Beauséjour at Chignecto in June 1755, Acadians, pressured by the French, served in the fort as militia.  They, too, along with the French troupes de la marine, became prisoners of war when the fort surrendered on June 16.  Lieutenant-Governor Lawrence was so incensed to find so-called French Neutrals fighting with French regulars at Beauséjour that he ordered his officers to deport the Chignecto Acadians to the southernmost British colonies on the Atlantic seaboard.  Later that summer, when the Cobeguit Acadians learned of the British roundups at Chignecto and at nearby Grand-Pré and Pigiguit, the entire population of the settlement, including Dugass, hurried north to the Mer Rouge and joined their kinsmen on Île St.-Jean, now crowded with hundreds of other refugees from British Nova Scotia. 

In late autumn of 1755, the British shipped the Acadians in the Annapolis Basin to Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, and North Carolina.  Dugass ended up on the Helena, bound for Massachusetts.  However, the ship heading to North Carolina, the Pembroke, never got there.  Soon after the Pembroke embarked from Goat Island in the lower basin with 232 exiles aboard, the Acadians, among them Charles Dugas, seized the vessel, sailed it to Baie Ste.-Marie on the western coast of Nova Scotia and then crossed the Bay of Fundy to the lower Rivière St.-Jean, where they abandoned the ship and escaped into the wilds of present-day New Brunswick.  The rest of their Annapolis valley brethren were not so lucky.  After their ship reached Boston, Dugass deported to Massachusetts were parcelled out to other communities in the colony.  In 1756, colonial officials counted four "Nova Scotia French" families at Marblehead, including that of Joseph Degan, actually Dugas, a widower, his children Anne, Mary, Elizabeth, Mohach? [Monique], and Peter, and Isadore Gordo, "his wife & one child."  In July 1760, officials in Essex County, Massachusetts, counted Michael Dugoy, perhaps Dugas, age 44, "a sickly man"; his wife Eliza [Robichaud], age 44; and their children Amon, age 15; Mary, age 12; Joseph, age 7; Modesty, age 9; and Anna, age 5.  In August 1761, officials in Massachusetts counted more Dugass being held in the colony:  Glaud, or Claude, Dugast, wife Margaret [Boudrot], and their son John, or Jean, were at Grafton; Charles Dugat, Mary, Margaret, and Joseph at Oxbridge; Gould, probably another Claude, Dugar "and his wife" at Huxbridge; Margaret Dugar, Matten, and Félicité at Oxford; Charles and Joseph Dugar at Charlton, probably Charlestown; and Elizabeth Dugar and Hannah Dugar at Dudley.  Also that year, Massachusetts officials counted Joseph Dugau? and his daughters Mary and Monique at Sherbourn, and Anne Dugua, Eliz. Dugua, and Margt. Gordeau at Hopkinton, both in Middlesex County (the same family that had been counted at Marblehead five years earlier).  According to genealogist Bona Arsenault, the British deported Marie-Josèphe Girouard, widow of Louis Dugas, and her three children to Connecticut in 1755.  Meanwhile, the Dugass who had escaped the British roundup at Annapolis Royal crossed the Bay of Fundy the following winter and found refuge on lower Rivière St.-Jean, where Dugas cousins lived.  Some moved on to Miramichi and other places of refuge on the Gulf of St. Lawrence or endured the long trek up the St.-Jean portage to Canada.  

Living in territory controlled by France, the many Dugass on Île St.-Jean and Île Royale, and the Dugas family on Rivière St.-Jean, escaped the British roundup in Nova Scotia in the fall of 1755.  Their respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  After the fall of the French fortress at Louisbourg in July 1758, the victorious British swooped down on the rest of Île Royale and on Île St.-Jean and rounded up most of the Acadians there, Dugass among them.  The British also attacked the Rivière St.-Jean communities, including Ékoupag, but the Dugass there escaped.  Later that year, the British packed hundreds of captured island Acadians into hired merchant vessels and shipped them to St.-Malo and other French ports.  The deportation devastated the Dugas family.  Marguerite Dugas, husband Charles Hébert, and seven of their children perished on one of the two British transports lost at sea in the middle of December.  Pierre of Anse-à-Pinnet, son of Claude Dugas, fils of Cobeguit, age 50, wife Isabelle Bourg, age 47, and six of their children--Marguerite-Josèphe, age 21; Isabelle, age 19; Agnès, age 17; Pierre, fils, age 12; Prosper, age 7; and Rémy, age 3--crossed on the transport Tamerlane, which left the Maritimes in late November and reached St.-Malo in mid-January 1759 with all but six of its 56 passengers.  Pierre, Isabelle, and all of their children reached St.-Malo, but Isabelle and son Pierre, fils died in local hospitals in mid-February and March probably from the rigors of the crossing.  The great majority of the Dugass crossed on one or more of the five British transports that left the Gut of Canso in late November and reached St.-Malo in late January.  Charles Dugas, age 57, older brother of Pierre of the Tamerlane, crossed with wife Anne-Marie Benoit and 10 unmarried children--Anne, age 26; Marie-Madeleine, age 24; Jean-Baptiste, age 22; Marie-Josèphe, age 19; Pierre-Ignace, age 16; Pierre, age 14; Antoine, age 12; Victoire, age 10; and Marguerite and Joseph, ages unrecorded.  Charles and the two youngest children died at sea.  Anne-Marie and the eight older children survived the crossing.  Pierre, age 31, son of Claude Dugas III and nephew of Pierre and Charles, crossed with wife Marguerite Daigre, age 35, and four children--daughters Anne-Osite, called Osite, age 6; Marguerite-Blanche, age 4; and Victoire-Osite, age 2; and his brother Amand, age 12.  They all survived the crossing except the youngest, Victoire-Osite, who died at sea.  Joseph dit Petit Jos Dugas, age 59, crossed with wife Anne-Marie Hébert, age 54, and their three unmarried children--Joseph, fils, age 15; Jean, age 14; and Anne, age 10.  Petit Jos, Anne-Marie, and son Jean died at sea.  Joseph, fils and his sister Anne survived the crossing.  Petit Jos's oldest son Charles, age 35, crossed with wife Euphrosine Thériot, age 34, and a Dugas niece--Perpétué, age 5.  Charles and his niece arrived with their health intact, but Euphrosine died in a St.-Malo hospital in February.  Charles's brother Alexis, age 32, crossed with wife Anne Bourg, age 32, and six children--Anne-Josèphe, age 10; Josaphat, age 8; Grégoire, age 6, Joseph, age 4, and Perpétué, age 2.  Anne was pregnant on the voyage and gave birth at sea.  She and the newborn, along with four of the other children, died during the crossing.  Only Alexis and 10-year-old Anne-Josèphe reached St.-Malo.  Charles and Alexis's brother Ambroise, age 30, crossed with wife Marguerite Henry, age 29, and four children--Ambroise, fils, age 7; Marguerite-Josèphe, age 5; Françoise, age 3, and Joseph, age 15 months.  Ambroise, père and Ambroise, fils survived the crossing, but Marguerite and the other children died either at sea or in a St.-Malo hospital in February and March.  Charles et al.'s brother Pierre, age 26, crossed with wife Anne-Josèphe Henry, age 27, and three children--Jean-Pierre, age 5; Anne-Josèphe, age 4; and Marie-Rose, age 2.  Pierre and wife Anne-Josèphe survived the crossing, but all three of their children died at sea.  Françoise, age 20, daughter of Petit Jos and sister of Charles et al., crossed with husband Antoine Henry, age 22, and her 9-year-old first cousin Olivier Dugas.  The young couple died in a St.-Malo hospital in January and February probably from the rigors of the crossing, but Olivier survived the voyage.  Paul, age 48, younger brother of Petit Jos and uncle of Charles et al., crossed with wife Anne-Marie Boudrot, age 48, and five children--Marguerite, age 15; Marie, age 12; Simon, age 11; Paul, fils, age 9; and Isabelle, age 6.  Anne-Marie and son Paul, fils died in a St.-Malo hospital in January and February, probably from the rigors of the voyage.  Paul, père and the four youngest children survived the crossing.  Paul's daughter Marguerite-Josèphe Dugas, age 24, crossed with husband Joseph Bourg, age 26.  He survived the crossing, but she died at sea.  Paul's daughter Eulalie, age 20, crossed with husband Basile Henry, age 17.  They both survived the crossing.  Paul's daughter Madeleine, age 17, crossed with husband Jean-Baptiste Hébert, age 26.  They also survived the crossing.  Paul's younger brother Jean-Baptiste, age 40, crossed with his second wife Madeleine Moyse and six of his children from her and his first wife Marguerite Benoit--Jean-Baptiste, fils, age 17; Josèphe, age 15; Marin, age 12; Marie, age 10; Perpétué, age 6; Mathurin, age 3; and Anastasie, age 1 (son Olivier, age 9, had crossed with a cousin and her husband).  Jean-Baptiste, père and the five older children survived the crossing, but Madeleine and their two youngest children died at sea.  Marie-Claire Dugas, age 62, sister of Petit Jos, Paul, and Jean-Baptiste and widow of Jean Hébert, crossed with four children, age 19 to 14.  The 19-year-old son died at sea, and Claire died in a St.-Malo hospital in February probably from the rigors of the crossing.  The other three children made it to St.-Malo with their health unimpaired.  Marie Dugas, age 35, crossed with husband François Henry, six children, ages 14 to 2, and her sister Eulalie, age 21.  François and the three youngest children died at sea.  The others reached St.-Malo safely.  Isabelle Dugas, age 21, crossed with husband Jean-Baptiste Landry, age 35, two children from his first marriage, ages 8 and 5, and Jean-Baptiste's cousin Charles Robichaux, age 23.  They all survived the crossing.  Élisabeth Dugas, age 24, and husband Jérôme Lejeune, age unrecorded, crossed on the British transport Supply, which left the Maritimes in late November 1758, survived a North Atlantic storm that sank two other transports, took refuge at Bideford, England, in late December, and did not reach St.-Malo until the second week of March 1759.  Jérôme died at sea, and Élisabeth died at St.-Malo in August 1759 probably from the rigors of the crossing. 

The island Dugass who survived the crossing to St.-Malo settled in many of the city's suburbs.  For years, they subsisted on government handouts and on what work they could find.  The largest extended family consisted of the four surving sons of the recently-deceased Petit Jos Dugas and Anne-Marie Hébert of Cobeguit.  Oldest son Charles, now a widower, settled at St.-Sulaic, where he remarried to Anne, daughter of fellow Acadians François Naquin and Angélique Blanchard of Cobeguit and widow of François Gautrot, in September 1765.  She gave him no more children, but he helped raise his stepdaughter, Rose-Marie Gautroit, who had been born at nearby Plouër in December 1762.  Charles's younger brother Alexis, now a widower, and his daughter Anne-Josèphe also went to St.-Suliac, where he worked as a carpenter and where he remarried to Marguerite, daughter of fellow Acadians François Moyse dit Latrielle and Marie Brun of Cobeguit, in June 1760.  In May 1762, Marguerite gave Alexis another daughter, but Marguerite died the same day, age 37, probably from complications of giving birth.  Alexis did not remarry.  Daughter Anne-Josèphe married Jean-Baptiste, son of fellow Acadians Jean Hébert and his first wife Madeleine Doiron, at St.-Suliac in February 1768.  Charles and Alexis's brother Ambroise, also now a widower, took his son Ambroise, fils to St.-Suliac, where Ambroise, père died in October 1760, age 32.  His son was age 9 at the time of his father's death, so his uncles probably raised him.  Ambroise, fils became a sailor and married Marie, daughter of fellow Acadians Amand Pitre and Geneviève Arcement of Cobeguit, at St.-Suliac in March 1773.  Charles, Alexis, and Ambroise's brother Pierre and his wife Anne-Josèphe, their children gone, also went to St.-Suliac, where Anne-Josèphe gave Pierre three more children:  Marie-Rose, born in February 1760 but died at St.-Suliac in March 1761; Joseph, born in April 1762; and Marie-Madeleine in January 1764 but died 19 days after her birth.  Anne-Josèphe died at St.-Suliac in May 1766, at 35.  Pierre remarried to Cécile, another daughter of François Moyse dit Latrielle, fils and Marie Brun and widow of Michel Bourg, at St.-Suliac in June 1768.  She gave him no more children.  Pierre's youngest surviving brother, Joseph, fils, joined his older brother at St.-Suliac, where he worked as a pit sawyer and married Anastasie, daughter of fellow Acadians Pierre Henry and Anne Aucoin, in June 1761.  Anastasie gave Joseph, fils four children at St.-Suliac, all of whom survived childhood:  Joseph III was born in May 1762, Marie in March 1764, Cécile-Anne in September 1765, and Élisabeth-Eulalie in March 1768.  Anastasie died at St.-Suliac in March 1769, age 29, and Joseph, fils remarried to Anastasie, daughter of fellow Acadians Pierre Barrieau and Véronique Giroir, at nearby Pleudihen in May 1770.  They settled at St.-Suliac, where this Anastasie gave Joseph, fils two more children, who also survived childhood:  François-Basile-Étienne was born in April 1771 and Anastasie in February 1773.  Charles et al.'s youngest sister Anne married Joseph-Ignace, another son Jean Hébert and his first wife Madeleine Doiron, at St.-Suliac in February 1768, on the same day her niece Anne-Josèphe, daughter of brother Alexis, married Joseph-Ignace's brother Jean-Baptiste.  Another extended family consisted of the two younger brothers of Petit Jos of Cobeguit, uncles of Charles et al.  Paul Dugas, also now a widow, and his three unmarried children--Marie, Simon, and Élisabeth--settled at Pleurtuit.  Paul remarried to Hélène, daughter of fellow Acadians Pierre Blanchard and Françoise Breau and widow of Alexis Aucoin, at nearby Ploubalay in June 1760.  They settled at St.-Coulomb, where Hélène gave Paul two more daughters:  Marie-Osite, born in June 1761; and Anne in December 1764.  Paul's daughter Marie married Prosper-Honoré, son of fellow Acadians Honoré Giroir and Marie-Josèphe Theriot, at St.-Coulomb in February 1764.  Her younger sister Élisabeth married Ambroise, son of fellow Acadians Amand Pitre and Geneviève Arcement, at Pleurtuit in April 1774.  Paul's younger brother Jean-Baptiste, a widower again, took his six children by first wife Marguerite Benoit--Jean-Baptiste, fils, Marguerite-Josèphe, Marin, Marie, Olivier, and Perpétué--to St.-Suliac, where he remarried again--his third marriage--to Anne, daughter of fellow Acadians François Bourg and Madeleine Hébert and widow of Jean-Baptiste Blanchard, at St.-Suliac in September 1760.  They settled at nearby St.-Mélior-des-Ondes, where Anne gave Jean-Baptiste, père three more children:  Françoise, born at La Pahorie in July 1761 but died at age 16 months in November 1762; Mathurin, a twin, born at La Pahorie in May 1764; and his twin sister Anne.  Jean-Baptiste, père's oldest daughter Marguerite-Josèphe married Jean-Baptiste, son of fellow Acadians François Chiasson and Anne Doucet and widower of Louise Précieux, at St.-Mélior in June 1761.  After giving him two sons, she died at St.-Servan in June 1766, age 22.  Jean-Baptiste's oldest son Jean-Baptiste, fils followed his father and siblings to St.-Suliac, where he married Marie, daughter of fellow Acadians Séraphin Breau and Brigitte Martin, in February 1764.  Marie had come to France with her family via Virginia and England the year before.  In 1765, she and Jean-Baptiste, fils settled near his father's family at St.-Mélior-des-Ondes, returned to St.-Servan in 1766, were back at St.-Mélior in 1768, at nearby La Gouesnière in 1770, and at Château Malo in 1771.  Marie gave Jean-Baptiste, fils five children in the St.-Malo suburbs:  Joseph-Firmin was born at St.-Suliac in December 1764; Pierre-Cyrille in November 1766 but died at La Ville de Haut-Chemin near La Gouesnière at age 3 in October 1769; Marie-Josèphe was born at St.-Mélior in December 1768; Marie-Anne-Julienne at La Gouesnière in October 1770; and Pierre-Cyrille at St.-Servan in May 1772.  Jean-Baptiste, père's son Marin followed his father and siblings to St.-Suliac and married Françoise, daughter of fellow Acadians Paul Boudrot and Marie-Josèphe Doiron, at nearby St.-Servan in November 1766.  Françoise gave Marin four sons there, but only one of them survived childhood:  Joseph-Augustin was born in August 1767 but died at age 5 in October 1772; Jean-Baptiste le jeune was born in May 1769 but died at age 3 in October 1772; Olivier-Marc was born in April 1772 but died the following October; and Jean-Pierre-Marin was born in October 1773.  Another extended family in the St.-Malo suburbs consisted of Pierre, son of Claude Dugas, fils of Cobeguit and his recently-deceased older brother Charles's children.  Pierre, now a widower, took his five surviving children--Marguerite-Josèphe, Élisabeth or Isabelle, Agnès, Prosper, and Rémy--to St.-Suliac.  Daughter Marguerite-Josèphe married Charles, son of fellow Acadians Joseph Blanchard and Anne Dupuis, at St.-Suliac in January 1762.  Pierre's daughter Élisabeth married Anselme, son of fellow Acadians Jean Pitre and Marguerite Hébert of Cobeguit, at St.-Suliac in February 1763.  Pierre's youngest son Rémy died at St.-Suliac, age 8, in March 1763.  Pierre, at age 53, remarried to Marie-Madeleine, 39-year-old daughter of fellow Acadians Pierre Vincent and Marie Granger and widow of Alexandre Boudrot and Joseph Breau, at nearby St.-Servan in January 1764.  They settled at St.-Suliac.  She gave him no more children.  Pierre's daughter Agnès married Bénoni, another son of Joseph Blanchard and Anne Dupuis, in February 1764, but she died the following August, age 22, from complications of childbirth; her unnamed son had died two days earlier.  Pierre died in April 1771, age 60.  One wonders what became of his youngest surviving son Prosper, who would have been age 20 at the time of his father's death.  Pierre's older brother Charles's widow, Anne-Marie Benoit, and her eight surviving Dugas children--Anne, Marie-Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste, Marie-Josèphe, Pierre-Ignace, Pierre, Antoine, and Victoire--settled at St.-Énogat.  Daughter Anne married Olivier, son of fellow Acadians Denis Boudrot and Agnès Vincent and widower of Henriette Guérin, at St.-Énogat in May 1762.  In 1766, Charles's son Jean-Baptiste, who had become a fisherman, was reported absent at sea aboard the ship Aimable-Thérèse and that he had deserted his vessel at New Orleans in July 1765.  Interestingly, he would have been in the Louisiana city about the time some of his Dugas cousins would have arrived there from Halifax via Cap-Français, French St.-Domingue.  He did not remain in the Spanish colony.  He was back at Le Havre in October 1767 and at St.-Malo in November.  One wonders if he brought back letters from the Acadians in Louisiana to their families in the mother country.  His sister Marie-Madeleine married Pierre, son of fellow Acadians Jacques Quimine and Marie Chiasson and widower of Marie-Louise Grossin, at St.-Énogat in January 1770.  Anne-Marie died at St.-Énogat in September 1772, age 70.  Son Jean-Baptiste, now age 31, recently returned from his two-year venture to Louisiana and back, married Marie, 29-year-old daughter of fellow Acadians Michel Grossin and Marie Caissie, at nearby St.-Servan in February 1768.  They settled at St.-Énogat, where Marie gave Jean-Baptiste four children, not all of whom survived childhood:  Marie-Jeanne was born in December 1768 but died at age 4 in March 1773; Victoire-Marie was born in July 1770 but died at age 2 in July 1772; Jean-Grégoire was born in March 1772; and Marie-Josèphe in January 1774.  Jean-Baptiste's younger brother Antoine married Véronique, daughter of locals Énogat Cholus and Anne Jagoux, at St.-Énogat in June 1775.  Youngest sister Victoire also married a French local, Thomas Aillet, place and date unrecorded.  One wonders what happened to their siblings Marie-Josèphe, Pierre-Ignace, and Pierre.  Another extended family consisted of brothers Pierre le jeune, Charles, and Amand of Cobeguit.  Pierre le jeune, wife Marguerite Daigre, and their two surviving daughters--Anne-Osite and Marguerite-Blanche--settled at Plouër, where Pierre le jeune worked as a carpenter.  Marguerite gave him two more daughters there:  Anne-Marie was born in July 1761, and Marie-Victoire in August 1764.  Pierre le jeune's brother Amand remained with them until 1766, when he moved to nearby St.-Servan.  He was back at Plouër in 1771.  Meanwhile, their brother Charles, who had been deported from Île St.-Jean to Boulogne-sur-Mer in late 1758, arrived at St.-Malo aboard the brigantine Hazard in May 1766 and settled at St.-Servan.  With him was his wife Marguerite Granger, who he had married at Boulogne-sur-Mer, and two of their children, born in the Norman port.  Marguerite gave Charles four more children at St.-Servan and Plouër:  Pierre-Olivier dit Pierrot, born at St.-Servan in November 1766, within months of their arrival; Joseph-Simon in January 1769; Félicité-Marguerite at Plouër in February 1771 but died at age 2 1/2 in August 1773; and Victoire-Ange was born in August 1772.  Marguerite died at la Ville de La Croix Giguel near Plouër in March 1773, age 35. 

In 1758-59, island Dugass also landed in other French ports, including La Rochelle, Rochefort, and especially Boulogne-sur-Mer.  Charles Dugas of Cobeguit landed at Boulogne-sur-Mer and married fellow Acadian Marguerite Granger in the Norman port in c1761.  She gave him two children there:  Marie-Josèphe was born in February 1762; and Jean-Charles in July 1764.  In May 1766, they sailed on the brigantine Hazard to St.-Malo and settled near his brothers at St.-Servan, where Marguerite gave him four more children.  Claude Dugas le jeune, brother of Paul and Jean-Baptiste of St.-Malo, landed at Boulogne-sur-Mer with second wife Marguerite Cyr and children from his first wife.  Daughter Anne died at Boulogne-sur-Mer in January 1759, age 19, probably from the rigors of the crossing.  Marguerite gave Claude le jeune more children in the Norman port:  Charles was born in November 1759 but died the following February, Marie-Marguerite was born in July 1761, and Jean-Pierre in March 1764.  They evidently moved on to Île d'Aix near La Rochelle.  Son François was born there in July 1766 but died the following day.  Claude le jeune's second son Jean-Baptiste, by first wife Marie-Josèphe Aucoin, and his wife Marguerite-Josèphe Doiron, also ended up at Boulogne-sur-Mer, where Jean-Baptiste worked as a sailor.  Their son Claude-Bernard was born in the Norman port in August 1759, Marie-Margeruite-Pélagie in August 1761 but died at age 4 in August 1765, Jean-Marie-Alexis was born in June 1763, and Jean-Pierre le jeune in July 1764.  They followed his father and stepmother to Île d'Aix, La Rochelle.  Daughter Marie-Josèphe was born there in August 1765 but died at age 9 months in April 1766, and Pierre was born in September 1766.  They moved on to Rochefort, where son Jean-Baptiste, fils was born in January 1770.  Jacques Dugas, ship's carpenter and sugar refiner, and wife Catherine Edoux, Hedoux, Heden, or Ledou, ended up at Boulogne-sur-Mer.  Their son Louis-Joseph was born there in March 1760 but died eight days after his birth; and Jean-Louis was born in September 1762 but died five days after his birth.  Jacques died in the Norman port, age 43, in May 1763.  Was Jacques an Acadian?   Jean Dugas, a day laborer, and his wife Jeanne Greleau ended up at Rochefort.  Their son François was baptized there in Notre-Dame Parish, age unrecorded, in December 1771.  Was Jean an Acadian? 

By the early 1770s, French authorities were tired of providing for the Acadians languishing in the port cities.  A French nobleman offered to settle them on land he owned near the city of Châtellerault.  The hundreds of Acadians who went there in 1773, Dugass among them, tried mightily to bring life to the soil around the long line of houses in the woods of Poitou.  Families who went to Poitou included those of Paul Dugas and his second wife Hélène Blanchard of St.-Coulomb; Paul's daughters Marie-Madeleine and her husband Jean-Baptiste Hébert of St.-Mélior-des-Ondes, Marie and her husband Prosper-Honoré Giroir of St.-Jouan-des-Guerets, and Élisabeth and her husband Ambroise Pitre of St.-Suliac; Paul's younger brother Jean-Baptiste the carpenter and his third wife Anne Bourg of St.-Mélior; Jean-Baptiste's son Marin and his wife Françoise Boudrot of St.-Servan (but not son Jean-Baptiste, fils and his wife Marie Breau of Château Malo); Paul and Jean-Baptiste's nephew Pierre and his second wife Cécile Moyse of St.-Sulaic; Pierre's younger brother Joseph, fils and his second wife Anastasie Barrieau of St.-Suliac; the brothers' nephew Ambroise Dugas, fils and his wife Marie-Victoire Pitre of St.-Suliac; the brothers' niece Anne-Josèphe Dugas and her husband Jean-Baptiste Hébert of St.-Suliac; Paul and Jean-Baptiste's brother Claude le jeune and wife Marguerite Cyr of Île d'Aix, La Rochelle; Pierre Dugas the carpenter and his wife Marguerite Daigre of Plouër; Pierre's younger brother Charles of Plouër, who had just become a widower; Jean-Baptiste Dugas the sailor and his wife Marie Grossin of St.-Servan; and Marie-Madeleine Vincent, widow of Pierre Dugas of St.-Suliac.  More children arrived, more loved ones were buried, and new families were created in the woods of Poitou.  Marie Pitre gave husband Ambroise Dugas, fils a daughter, Anne-Marie, born at Leigné-les-Bois in December 1774.  Charles of Plouër lost a daughter, Victoire-Ange, age 2, at Châtellerault in July 1774.  He remarried to Marguerite, daughter of fellow Acadians Joseph Daigre and Marguerite Granger, at St.-Jean-Baptiste, Châtellerault, in September 1775.  Anastasie Barrieau gave Joseph Dugas, fils another son, Jean-Pierre, at Liegné-les-Bois in January 1775.  Françoise Boudrot gave Marin Dugas a daughter, Marie-Rose, at Senille in May 1775.  Claude le jeune's wife Marguerite Cyr died during their time in Poitou. 

In late 1775 and early 1776, after over two years of effort, the Dugass, with most of the other Poitou Acadians, retreated in four convoys to the port city of Nantes, where they lived once again on government hand outs and whatever work they could find.  Some of the families grew there.  Marie Grossin gave Jean-Baptiste Dugas another son at Nantes:  Étienne was baptized in St.-Similien Parish in December 1775 but died at age 2 in March 1778.  Marie-Victoire Pitre gave Amboise Dugas, fils four more children at Nantes:  Marguerite-Josèphe was baptized in St.-Nicolas Parish in May 1776; Constant-Ambroise in St.-Léonard Parish in December 1777 but died in St.-Jacques Parish, age 21 months, in September 1779; Louis-Ambroise was baptized in St.-Jacques Parish in May 1780; and Céleste there in May 1784.  Marguerite Daigre gave Charles Dugas of Plouër two more sons at Nantes:  Jean-Baptiste was baptized in St.-Similien Parish in July 1776 but died at age 2 there in October 1778; and Blaise was baptized in St.-Similien Parish in 1778 and also died young.  Françoise Boudrot gave Marin Dugas two more children at Nantes:  Marie-Louse was baptized in St.-Similien Parish in March 1777 but died at age 5 in March 1782; and Jean-Marie was baptized in St.-Nicolas Parish in June 1779 but died at St.-Martin-de-Chantenay, age 14 months, in August 1780.  Anastasie Barrieau gave Joseph Dugas, fils three more children in St.-Similien Parish:  Anne-Marguerite was born baptized there in January 1778; Olivier-Marie in February 1781 but died at age 1 1/2 in November 1782; and Margeruite -Euphrosine was baptized in August 1783.  Families also lost more loved ones.  Marin Dugas lost his only daughter Marie-Rose, also called Marie-Françoise, in St.-Nicolas Parish, age 15 months, in July 1776.  Pierre Dugas's second wife Cécile Moyse, age 52, in St.-Similien Parish in December 1776.  Ambroise Dugas, fils lost his oldest daughter Anne-Marie, age 4 1/2,  in St.-Pierre-de-Reze Parish in August 1779.  Jean-Baptiste Dugas the carpenter lost son Mathurin, age 17, at St.-Martin-de-Chantenay in August 1780.  Jean-Baptiste Dugas the sailor lost son Jean-Baptiste, fils, age 9, at St.-Martin-de-Chantenay in April 1781.  And new families were created.  Pierre Dugas the carpenter's daughter Anne-Ostie married Charles, fils, son of fellow Acadians Charles Hébert and Marguerite-Josèphe Bourg, in St.-Similien Parish in October 1778.  The carpenter's daughter Marguerite-Blanche married Pierre, son of fellow Acadians Joseph Bourg and Marie-Madeleine Granger, at St.-Martin-de-Chantenay in November 1784.  Another Pierre Dugas remarried --his third marriage--to Rose, daughter of fellow Acadians Jacques LeBlanc and Marguerite Labauve, at St.-Martin-de-Chantenay in August 1779.  Rose gave him two more children at Chantenay:  Rose was baptized in February 1782, and Anne-Perrine in January 1785.  Paul Dugas's daughter Marie-Osite married Étienne, son of fellow Acadians Charles Dupuis and Marie Trahan, at St.-Martin-de-Chantenay in November 1784.  Claude Dugas le jeune's daughter Marguerite married François-Xavier, son of fellow Acadians Antoine Boudrot and Brigitte Part, at St.-Martin-de-Chantenay in May 1785. 

A Dugas family from Port-Toulouse, Île Royale, came to France by a different route.  After the war with Britain ended in 1763, hundreds of Acadians from prison compounds in Nova Scotia, determined to remain under French jurisdiction, migrated to St.-Pierre and Miquelon, French-controlled islands off the southern coast of Newfoundland.  Within a few years, French authorities despaired that the islands' dwindling resources would be unable to support such a large population.  Pressured by French authorities and their poor living conditions, Joseph Dugas, who had escaped the British deportation to France in late 1758, along with his second wife Louise Arseneau and two of his children, Joseph, fils and Marie, from his first marriage, elected to go to France.  They reached St.-Malo with dozens of other island habitants aboard Joseph's schooner La Creole in November 1767, where they no doubt were welcome by their many cousins in the area.  It did not take them long to see that conditions in the French port and its suburbs were no better than on the crowded French islands.  They returned to St.-Pierre and Miquelon the following March.  But another war, this one the American Revolution, forced them from the islands again.  In 1778, France joined the United States in its fight against Britain.  The islands by now, with their smaller populations, were a chief source of salted cod for the European market, and the Acadians there were thriving.  This made the islands a tempting target, and British forces from Newfoundland seized St. Pierre and Miquelon later in the year.  "In scenes reminiscent of the deportations of 1755," wrote one historian, "the inhabitants of St. Pierre and Miquelon were forced aboard vessels, without being given time 'to even save their clothes,' while soldiers went from house to house, burning the structures and their contents.  Once again, the Miquelonnais were forced to sail to France."  Joseph Dugas, wife Louise Arseneau, his son Joseph, fils's widow Anastasie Bourg, and three of her Dugas children, made the crossing back to France aboard the brigantine La Jeannette, which reached St.-Malo in early November 1778.  Anastasie died at St.-Servan in June 1779, age 27.  Daughter Adélaïde Dugas died at St.-Servan the following September, age 1 1/2.  One wonders if they returned to Miquelon in 1784. 

In the early 1780s, when the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France the chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana, at least 55 of the Dugass still in the mother country--including brothers Charles, Alexis, Pierre, and Joseph; their uncles Paul and Jean-Baptiste; the Jean-Baptiste who had jumped ship in New Orleans two decades earlier; and Claude-Bernard of Boulogne-sur-Mer--agreed to take it.  Others--including Jean-Baptiste's son Jean-Baptiste, fils; the other Jean-Baptiste's brother Antoine, who had married a French girl; and Claude-Bernard's younger brothers--chose to remain in France. 

Back in North America, Dugass from Annapolis, Minas, and Rivière St.-Jean who, in 1755, had found refuge on the Gulf of St. Lawrence suffered more reverses in the final years of the war against Britain.  In July 1760, British forces attacked the French stronghold at Restigouche at the head of the Baie des Chaleurs, where hundreds of Acadians had found refuge from earlier roundups.  Before returning to their base, the British rounded up 300 Acadian exiles at Restigouche and held them as prisoners of war in Nova Scotia for the rest of the war.  Dugass were among the thousand or so Acadians who escaped the roundup.  On 24 October 1760, French officials at Restigouche counted Abraham Dugas as one of the seven capitaines in the garrison's militia; there were 10 people in the captain's household.  Jean Dugas "fils de Pre." of Ékoupag, with eight people in his household, also were counted there in late October.  In the early 1760s, the Dugass at Restigouche were either captured by, or surrendered to, British forces and held as prisoners of war in Nova Scotia.  In c1761, British officials at Fort Edward, Pigiguit, counted Dugass being held there:  Jean Dugas was listed alone, and Paul Dugas led a family of five.  In July 1762, Paul Dugas with a family of four was still being held at Fort Edward.  Paul and his family were still there in August, along with Chals. Dugas and his family of four.  The following October, there more Dugass being held at the fort:  Cha Dugas with a family of two, Paul Dugas with a family of five, and Ch. Dugas with a family of three.  Jean Dugas and his large family, along with other Dugass, evidently were held on Georges Island, Halifax harbor. 

Following the war with Britain, Acadians being held in Nova Scotia and the seaboard colonies, theoretically, were allowed to leave, but not until British officials counted them and discerned their intentions.  In the prison compound on Georges Island, Halifax, in August 1763, British officials counted Jean Dugas, his wife, and eight children; Joseph Dugas, his wife, and five children; Abraham Dugas, his wife, and seven children; and another Joseph Dugas, his wife, and three children.  That same month, British officials counted Charles, Pierre, Mazarin, Ozitte, and Jean Dugas in the prison compound at Fort Cumberland, formerly Beauséjour, Chignecto.  In August 1763, colonial officials in Massachusetts counted Claude Dugas, wife Margueritte, and five children, three boys and two girls, still in the colony.  In June 1766, Jean-Baptiste Dugas and his family of five, Claude Dugas and his family of nine, and Glaude Dugas and his family of seven, were listed among "the French" still in Massachusetts "Who Wish to go to Canada."  In August 1763, colonial officials in South Carolina found Dugass still in that colony "who desire to withdraw under the standard of their king his very Christian Majesty [Louis XV]":  Élisabeth Dugas was counted with husband Aimable Landry and no children; Angélique Dugas with husband Joseph Moreau, actually Marant, and two Ovilion, actually Orillon, orphans; and Rose Dugua with husband Jean Gautier, a Gautier son, and two Dugua orphans, Joseph, age 15, and Jean, age 12.  In 1764, Marie-Josèphe, daughter of Louis Dugas of Annapolis Royal, married into the Lanoue family in Connecticut, so her famliy was still in the colony. 

Dugass who had made the long trek to the St. Lawrence River valley in the late 1750s, had escaped the British roundups in greater Acadia, or had been held in New England for nearly a dozen years, chose to make new homes in Canada.  Though now also a British possession, the northern province was populated largely by fellow French Catholics, many of them Acadian exiles.  So, in a colony nearly as old as Acadia, descendants of Abraham Dugas began the slow, inexorable process of becoming Canadiennes.  Especially after 1766, they could be found in present-day Québec Province at Québec City, Ste.-Foy, Bécancour, Batiscan, Louiseville, St.-Jacques-de-l'Achigan, and St.-Paul-de-Lavaltire on the upper St. Lawrence, on the lower St. Lawrence at Rimouski, St.-Charles-de-Bellechasse, Rivière-du-Loup, and Cap-Chat; and at Carleton and Bonaventure on the northern shore of the Baie des Chaleurs.  They also settled at Caraquet in present-day northeastern New Brunswick.  In Nova Scotia they could be found at Chédabouctou on the Atlantic side of the peninsula; at Pointe-de-l'Église, now Church Point, Grosses-Coques, L'Anse-aux-Belliveau, and Meteghan on Baie Ste.-Marie, today's St. Mary's Bay, on the western side of the peninsula; at D'Escousse and Nureichak on Île Madame, and at Chéticamp on the western shore of Cape Breton Island.  They also settled in Newfoundland.  Typical of most, if not all, Acadian families, these Acadiennes of Canada lost touch with their Cadien cousins hundreds of miles away, and, until the Acadian reunions of the mid-twentieth century, may even have forgotten the others existed.  

During the early 1760s, in the final months of the war, Acadians exiled in the British colonies had been encouraged by French officials to go to St.-Dominique to work on a large French naval base at Môle St.-Nicolas.  Although driven from North America, the French were determined to hang on to what was left of their shrinking empire.  The new naval base on the north shore of St.-Domingue would protect the approaches to what was left of their possessions in the Caribbean basin.  French officials saw the Acadian exiles as a ready source of cheap labor.  They promised them land of their own if they came to St.-Domingue.  And so Acadians, including Dugass from New England and South Carolina, chose to go to the sugar island, but they found no farmland there, only empty promises, misery, and death in the jungles of northern St.-Domingue.  Beginning in the summer of 1765, after several years of what they saw as fruitless effort, Acadians sought permission to leave the naval base, but French officials refused to let them go.  Some, including Dugass, left the project anyway and moved to La Mirebalais in the island's interior in hopes of resuming their lives as farmers.  Anne Dugas, widow of Étienne Hébert, died at La Mirebalais in December 1764, in her late 70s.  Marguerite Dugas, wife of Joseph Babineau dit Des Lauriers, died there in April 1765, in her early 60s.  One of the Dugass in St.-Domingue moved elsewhere in 1765.  Angélique, daughter of François Dugas and Claire Bourg of Annapolis Royal, married Joseph Marant on the eve of Le Grand Dérangement.  The British deported them to South Carolina in 1755.  After being counted there in August 1763, they moved on to Môle St.-Nicolas, but they refused to remain there.  Instead of retreating to La Mirebalais, they evidently joined one of the expeditions of Acadians sailing from Halifax to Cap-Français on its way around to the Mississippi valley.  The couple took with them two Orillion orphans whose mother was Angélique's sister Marguerite.

The Dugass being held in Nova Scotia had a serious dilemma on their hands.  The Treaty of Paris of February 1763 stipulated in its Article 14 that persons dispersed by the war had 18 months to return to their respective territories.  In the case of the Acadians, however, this meant that they could return only to French soil.  Rivière St.-Jean was no longer French territory, and Port-Royal had not been French for over half a century.  British authorities refused to allow any of the Acadian prisoners in the region to return to their former lands as proprietors.  If Acadians chose to remain in Nova Scotia, they could live only in the interior of the peninsula in small family groups and work for low wages on former Acadian lands now owned by New England "planters."  If they stayed, they must also take the hated oath of allegiance to the new British king, George III, without reservation.  They would also have to take the hated oath if they joined their cousins in Canada.  After all that they had suffered on the question of the oath, no self-respecting Acadian would consent to take it if it could be avoided.   Some Halifax exiles, including Dugass, chose to relocate to Miquelon, a French-owned island off the southern coast of Newfoundland.  Others considered going to French St.-Domingue, today's Haiti, where Acadian exiles in the British colonies, including Dugass, already had gone, or to the Illinois country, the west bank of which still belonged to France, or to lower Louisiana, which, thanks to British control of Canada, was the only route possible to the Illinois country for Acadian exiles.  Whatever their choice, they would not remain in old Acadia.  So they gathered up their money and their few possessions and prepared to leave their homeland.  Of the 600 who left Halifax in late 1764 bound for Cap-Français, St.-Domingue, at least 25 of them were Dugass.301

Dumont

When the British deported the Acadians of Nova Scotia in the autumn of 1755, Joseph dit Dumont, widower of Marie Simon dit Boucher, and their daughters, living in territory controlled by France, remained unmolested.  Their respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  After the fall of the French fortress at Louisbourg in July 1758, British forces descended on Île St.-Jean, rounded up most of its Acadian habitants, and deported them to France.  Joseph and three of his daughters--Anne, age 20, Marie, age 17, and Hélène, age 12--made the crossing aboard one of the five British transports that left the Gut of Canso in late November 1758 and reached St.-Malo in late January 1759.  Joseph, age 46, died at sea, but his daughters survived the crossing.  

In France, Hélène Dumont grew up an orphan.  At age 20, she married Grégoire, son of fellow Acadians Jean Lejeune and Françoise Guédry of Minas and widower of Frenchwoman Charlotte Des Croutes, at St.-Servan, near St.-Malo, in June 1767.  Hélène gave Grégoire at least eight children, three sons and five daughters.  In the early 1770s, Hélène, Grégoire, and daughters Marie-Josèphe, born probably at St.-Servan in c1772, and Jeanne-Olive-Élisabeth, born in July 1772 at Pleurtuit, near St.-Malo, were part of an Acadian settlement in the Poitou region centered around the town of Châtellerault.  Another daughter was born at Châtellerault in May 1774, but she died the following August.  Jeanne-Olivier-Élisabeth died later that month; she was only 2 years old.  By December 1775, Grégoire and Hélène, along with dozen of other Acadians, had enough of the venture in Poitou.  They and remaining daughter Marie-Josèphe retreated with dozens of other Poitou Acadians to the port city of Nantes, where Grégoire, a sailor, found work when he could.  Three sons were born to them at Chantenay, near Nantes, in c1778, February 1781, and February 1783, but the oldest son died at age 6 in March 1784.  Another daughter was born in October 1784 but died a month later, leaving them only two sons and a daughter.  At about that time, the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France a chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana.  Hélène Dumont and her husband Grégoire Lejeune agreed to take it.237

Duon

In 1755, descendants of Jean-Baptiste dit Lyonnais Duon and Agnès Hébert could be found at Annapolis Royal and Minas.  Le Grand Dérangement of the 1750s scattered this large family to the winds. 

In the fall of 1755, The British transported the Acadians at Minas to Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and New England.  Jean-Baptiste Duon, fils's widow and children, and brothers Pierre and Cyprien and their families ended up on ships bound for Virginia.  Later that fall, the British transported the Acadians at Annapolis Royal to New England, New York, and North Carolina.  The ship to North Carolina, the Pembroke, was seized by the Acadians soon after it left the Bay of Fundy.  No Duons were on this vessel.  Abel dit Tibel Duon and his family ended up in Massachusetts.  Brother Louis-Basile and his family, his widowed mother, Agnès Hébert, and youngest sister Rosalie, landed in New York, where Agnès probably died.  Meanwhile, Abel dit Tibel and Louis-Basile's brothers Honoré, Charles, and Claude-Amable escaped the roundup and made their way north to the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore.  

The Duons shipped to Virginia endured a fate worse than most of the other refugees deported from Minas.  In mid-November 1755, when five transports appeared unexpectedly at Hampton Roads, the Virginia governor, Robert Dinwiddie, protested their deportation to his colony without his consent.  Many of the exiles died on the filthy, crowded ships anchored in Hampton Roads while the Virginia authorities pondered their fate.  Finally, Acadians from one vessel were moved up to Richmond, two of the vessels were unloaded at Hampton, and two more at Norfolk.  A hand full of young Acadians managed to slip away and trek overland through fields and forests and over the mountains, to French Canada, but most of the exiles remained in Virginia.  Finally, in the spring of 1756, Virginia's House of Burgesses made its decision ... the Acadians must go!  In May, the first shipment of Acadians in hired vessels left for England, and in two weeks all of them had gone--299 to Bristol, 250 to Falmouth, 340 to Southampton, and 336 to Liverpool--1,225 of the original 1,500.  Duons ended up at Liverpool, Bristol, and Southampton, where they were treated like common criminals.  

Although their seven years in England was filled with misery, the family did find occasion to celebrate amid the squalor and death.  The family celebrated at least five marriages to fellow Acadian exiles.  Pierre Duon remarried to another Aucoin, Marguerite, daughter of Joseph Aucoin and Anne Trahan, at Bristol in c1757.  Brother Cyprien married Marguerite, daughter René Landry, at Liverpool in January 1758.  Niece Marguerite, deceased brother Jean-Baptiste, fils's daughter, married Pierre, son of Pierre Trahan and Jeanne Dagire of Pigiguit, at Liverpool in May 1758.  Her brother Honoré le jeune, named after an uncle, married Anne-Geneviève, 17-year-old daughter of François Trahan and Angélique Melanson of Pigiguit, at Liverpool in October 1758.  Their sister Marie married Joachim Trahan, widower of Marguerite Landry, at Liverpool in October 1759.  Sister Élisabeth, or Isabelle, married Alexandre, son of Alexis Aucoin and Anne-Marie Bourg and widower of Marie Trahan, at Liverpool also in October 1759.  The Duon family also celebrated births in England, at least three of them at Liverpool.  Pierre Duon's daughter Françoise was born in c1758, and son Jean-Charles in c1762.  Cyprien's son Jean-Baptiste was born in October 1759.  Honoré le jeune's daughter Marie was born in the late 1750s or early 1760s.  

In May 1763, after prolonged negotiations between the French and British governments, the Acadians in England were repatriated to France.  Pierre Duon and his family, traveling from Southampton, disembarked from the ship La Dorothée at St.-Malo on May 23 and settled in the suburb of Plouër.  Brother Cyprien, nephew Honoré le jeune, and the other Duons from Liverpool landed at Morlaix, also in Brittany.  Honoré le jeune's son Françoise-Marie was born at Morlaix in March 1764.  Pierre Duon and second wife Marguerite had more children at Plouër:  Cyprien-Pierre was born in September 1765, and Pierre-Jean in January 1770.  But they also buried two children:  Jean-Charles died at age 3 in October 1765, and 10-month-old Pierre-Jean died in November 1770.  Meanwhile, Pierre's daughter Marguerite by first wife Angélique Aucoin married Josaphat, daughter of fellow Acadians Alexis Doiron and Marguerite Thibodeau, at Plouër in August 1766.  Pierre and his family did not join their kinsmen on Belle-Île-en-Mer.  Perhaps as a reaction to the ill-treatment of Acadians in the mother country, Pierre, wife Marguerite, daughter Françoise, son Cyprien-Pierre, and daughter Marguerite and her family, returned to North America via the Channel Islands and England in 1773.    

Pierre's brother Cyprien, nephew Honoré le jeune, and the other Duons remained in the mother country, but they did not remain at Morlaix.  In 1765, they followed other Acadians from England to Belle-Île-en-Mer off the southern coast of Brittany, where they helped create an agricultural settlement on the rocky island.  They did not coax much from the island's soil, but they did produce more children there.  Cyprien and wife Marguerite Landry had at least three more children at Bangor on the island:  Joseph, later called Joseph dit Grois, was born in April 1766; Jean-Pierre in March 1769; and Marie-Élisabeth in June 1771.  Honoré le jeune and his wife also had more children at Bangor:  Augustin-Marie was born in June 1766; Honoré-Jacques-Marie-Louis, called Jacques, in August 1768; Jean-Charles in June 1772; Philippe-Marie in June 1774; and Marie-Françoise in March 1777.  The Duons also buried children on Belle-Île-en-Mer.  Honoré le jeune's son François-Marie died at Le Palais at age 20 months in October 1765.  Cyprien's daughter Marie died at Bangor, age 20, in October 1781.  And the Duons celebrated at least one marriage there.  Honoré le jeune's daughter Marie married Frenchman Antoine, son of Jacques Maitrejean and Christine La Roche, at Bangor in June 1777.  Antoine was age 26 at the time of the wedding, and Marie was still in her teens.  By 1782, Honoré le jeune and his family had abandoned the settlement on Belle-Île-en-Mer and joined hundreds of other Acadians in the port city of Nantes.  Son Robert-François was born in the suburb of Chantenay in February 1782 but died the following November; and another son, Louis-Désiré, died at Chantenay, age three weeks, in May 1784.  

Not long after Honoré Duon le jeune moved from Belle-Île-en-Mer to Nantes, the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France the chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana.  Honoré le jeune and his wife, sisters Élisabeth and Marguerite and their husbands, and Cyprien's sons Jean-Baptiste and Joseph dit Gros, now grown, agreed to take it.  Honoré le jeune's daughter Marie, and brother Cyprien and the rest of his family, remained in France.  Cyprien died at Calestrene near Bangor in c1798, in his late 60s.  

In North America, the Duons who had escaped the roundup at Annapolis Royal found refuge at Miramichi on the Gulf of St. Lawrence, where they celebrated a marriage.  Claude-Amable married Marie-Josèphe, daughter of fellow Acadian Michel Vincent of Pigiguit, at Miramichi in c1757; Marie-Josèphe was a sister of brother Honoré's wife Anne-Marie.  But their stay at Miramichi proved to be short-lived.  The place soon became so crowded with refugees that its limited resources could not support them all.  Many Acadians there, including Honoré, Charles and Claude-Amable Duon, surrendered to the British in the late 1750s to avoid starvation.  They ended up in prison of war camps in Nova Scotia.  British officials counted the Duons at Fort Edward, formerly Pigiguit, in 1761 and 1762.  

After the war with Britain finally ended in 1763, British officials in New England and New York surveyed the Acadians still in their colonies but were reluctant to let them go.  Most of the exiles refused to remain and moved on to Canada and greater Acadia.  Abel dit Tibel Duon and his family returned to greater Acadia by 1767, but they could not return to Minas.  British officials in Nova Scotia refused to allow the Acadians to return to their old homes on the Fundy shore.  Abel dit Tibel and his family chose to settle at Cap-Sable, where his wife was born and where his sister Jeanne had once lived.  By 1766, brother Louis-Basile and youngest sister Rosalie, who had gone to New York with their widowed mother (who probably died in the British colony), had re-settled on the French-controlled island of Martinique.  Louis-Basile remarried there to fellow Acadian Anne Savoie, and Rosalie married twice there, to Frenchmen Jean Landieu and Pierre Loustaneau, and there they remained.  

Acadians being held in Nova Scotia faced a hard dilemma.  The Treaty of Paris of February 1763 stipulated in its Article 14 that persons dispersed by the war had 18 months to return to their respective territories.  However, British authorities refused to allow any of the Acadian prisoners in the region to return to their former lands as proprietors.  If Acadians chose to remain in, or return to, Nova Scotia, they could live only in small family groups in previous unsettled areas or work for low wages on former Acadian lands now owned by New England "planters."  If they stayed, they must also take the hated oath of allegiance to the new British king, George III, without reservation.  They would also have to take the oath if they joined their cousins in Canada.  After all they had suffered on the question of the oath, few self-respecting Acadians would consent to take it if it could be avoided.  Some Halifax exiles chose to relocate to Miquelon, a French-controlled island off the southern coast of Newfoundland.  Others considered going to French St.-Domingue, where Acadian exiles in the British colonies already had gone, or to the Illinois country, the west bank of which still belonged to France, or to French Louisiana, which, thanks to British control of Canada, was the only route possible to the Illinois country for Acadian exiles.  Whatever their choice, they refused to remain in L'Acadie.  So they gathered up their money and their few possessions and prepared to leave their homeland.  Of the 600 who left Halifax in late 1764 bound for Cap-Français, St.-Domingue, eight were Duons.236

Duplessis

Living on an island controlled by France, Claude-Antoine Duplessis, wife Catherine Lejeune, and their family escaped the British roundup in Nova Scotia during the autumn of 1755.  Their respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  After the fall of the French fortress at Louisbourg in July 1758, the victorious British rounded up most of the Acadians on Île St.-Jean and deported them to France.  Claude-Antoine, now age 49, wife Catherine, age 60, François-Marin, age 9, and a 16-year-old surgeon's apprentice made the crossing on one of the five British transports that left the Gut of Canso in late November 1758 and reached St.-Malo in late January 1759.  For some reason, Anastasie-Adélaïde, age 21, was not with them.  Claude-Antoine and Catherine survived the crossing, but their son died at sea.  The apprentice--called Louis La Bore, age 16, on the passenger's list--died in a hospital probably at St.-Malo several months after they reached the port city.  Claude-Antoine and Catherine settled first at Chateauneuf, at the far eastern edge of Brittany, then moved to St.-Suliac, near St.-Malo, in 1762.  A year later, they moved to nearby St.-Servan, where Claude-Antoine died in September 1772; he was 62 years old.  

Meanwhile, Claude-Antoine's younger daughter Marie-Louise had married Pierre, fils, son of fellow Acadians Pierre Gautrot and Marie Bugeaud of Grand-Pre, on Île St.-Jean in c1758.  They, too, fell into the hands of the British later that year and were deported to France aboard one of the five British transports that left the Gut of Canso in late November and reached St.-Malo in early January.  Pierre and Marie-Louise survived the crossing, she despite her pregnancy.  Their son Nicolas was born probably at St.-Malo in March 1759, two months after they reached the Breton port, but he died a few months later.  Pierre worked as a farm hand and a carpenter in France.  Between 1761 and 1778, Marie-Louise gave Pierre, fils 10 more children, six daughters and four sons.  Most of them died young, two of them, age 9 and 4, when the family was part of the settlement effort in the Poitou region.  In December 1775, after two years of effort, Pierre, Marie-Louise, four of their children, and Marie-Louise's widowed mother, with dozens of other Poitou Acadians, retreated to the port city of Nantes, where they lived as best they could on government handouts and what work they could find there.  

In the early 1780s, the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France a chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana. Marie-Louise Duplessis and her husband Pierre Gautrot agreed to take it, but only one of their 11 children went with them.238

Dupuis

By 1755, descendants of Michel Dupuis and Marie Gautrot could be found at Annapolis Royal, Minas, and Chignecto, and on Île St.-Jean.  Le Grand Dérangement of the 1750s scattered this family even farther. 

The Acadians at Chignecto were the first to endure a disruption of their lives.  In the spring and summer of 1750, about the time that Jean-Charles Dupuis of Minas remarried to a Cormier at Chignecto, Canadian soldiers, assisted by Abbé Le Loutre and his Mi'kmaq warriors, burned Acadian homesteads in the British-controlled area east of Rivière Missaguash, forcing the habitants there to move to the French-controlled area west of the river.  The Dupuiss may have been among them.  After yet another war erupted between Britain and France in 1754, the Chignecto Acadians were caught in the middle of it.  When British and New England forces attacked Fort Beauséjour in June 1755, Chignecto Acadians served in the fort as militia.  They, too, along with the French troupes de la marine, became prisoners of war when the fort surrendered on June 16.  Governor Lawrence was so incensed to find so-called French Neutrals fighting with French regulars at Beauséjour he ordered his officers to deport the Chignecto Acadians to the southernmost British colonies on the Atlantic seaboard.  Jean-Charles was not among them.  He and his wife evidently escaped the British roundup at Chignecto that fall and sought refuge in Canada.

The Dupuiss were hit especially hard when British and New-English forces rounded up hundreds of Acadians at Minas and Annapolis Royal in late fall of 1755.  Dupuiss at Minas were deported to Massachusetts, Maryland, and Virginia.  Dupuiss at Annapolis ended up on transports destined for Massachusetts, Connecticut, and South Carolina.  The Dupuiss shipped to Virginia endured a fate worse than most of the Acadians deported from Minas.  In mid-November, when five transports appeared unexpectedly at Hampton Roads, the Virginia governor, Robert Dinwiddie, protested their deportation to his colony without his consent.  Many of the exiles died on the filthy, crowded ships anchored in Hampton Roads while the Virginia authorities pondered their fate.  Acadians from one vessel were moved up to Richmond, two of the vessels were unloaded at Hampton, and two more at Norfolk.  A hand full of young Acadians managed to slip away and trek overland through fields and forests and over the mountains, to French Canada, but most of the exiles remained in Virginia.  Finally, in the spring of 1756, Virginia's House of Burgesses made its decision ... the Acadians must go!  In May, the first shipment of Acadians in hired vessels left for England, and in two weeks all of them had gone--299 to Bristol, 250 to Falmouth, 340 to Southampton, and 336 to Liverpool--1,225 of the original 1,500.  Their ordeal only worsened in the English ports, where they were treated like common criminals and where many died of smallpox.  Dupuiss were held at Penryn near Falmouth and at Southampton.  Madeleine Dupuis married into the Daigre family at Southhampton.  Her parents, Charles Dupuis and Marie-Madeleine Trahan of Rivière-aux-Canards, did not survive their time there. 

Some of the Dupuiss at Annapolis, like their cousin at Chignecto, escaped the British roundup of 1755 and sought refuge in Canada.  Jean-Pierre Dupuis and members of his family, after spending a hard winter on the Fundy shore, crossed the bay the following spring, made their way to the Acadian settlements on lower Rivière St.-Jean, and, either via the St.-Jean portage or the Gulf of St. Lawrence, continued on to Canada.  Jean-Pierre died at Québec in October 1757, age 60, victim, perhaps, of the smallpox epidemic that struck the Acadian refugees in the area that fall and winter.  His sons Michel, Justinien, and Cyprien and their families evidently remained on the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore.  By the late 1750s, they found refuge in the French stronghold at Restigouche at the head of the Baie des Chaleurs. 

Living in territory controlled by France, the Dupuis family on Île St.-Jean escaped the British roundups in Nova Scotia in the fall of 1755.  Their respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  After the fall of the French fortress at Louisbourg in July 1758, the victorious British swooped down on Île St.-Jean and rounded up most of the Acadians there, the Dupuiss among them.  Ambroise Dupuis, wife Anne Aucoin, and their seven children--three sons and four daughters, ages 16 to 2, were placed aboard the hired vessel Tamerlane, which, along with 14 other transports, escorted by a Royal Navy frigate, left Port-La-Joye, Île St.-Jean, on November 4.  Debouching into the Mer-Rouge, the flotiall headed for Louisbourg on Île Royale via the Gut of Canso.  No sooner had the flotilla entered the treacherous Gut than a storm drove two of the tranports aground.  The Tamerlane was one of them.  The ship was salvaged and repaired and joined its sister vessels in the shelter of Chedabouctou Bay later in the month.  On November 25, 10 of the transports, including the Tamerlane, set sail from Chedabouctou for ports in the south of England, where they would replenish their food and water before continuing on to their common destination, the Breton port of St.-Malo.  The ships became separated, and two of them perished in a North Atlantic storm near the southwest coast of England.  Luckily for the Dupuiss, the Tamerlane survived the storm intact and was the second among the 10 transports that reached St.-Malo, on January 16.  Only six of the vessel's 56 passengers died at sea.  The Dupuiss were among the lucky ones--every member of the famliy survived the crossing that took the lives of hundreds of their fellow Acadians.  Ambroise took his family to the St.-Malo suburb of Plouër, where Anne gave him another daughter in December 1761.  Ambroise died at La Ville de la Moynnerie near Plouër in March 1763, in his mid-40s.  Second daughter Marie married into the Bourg family at Plouër in February 1768.  Oldest son Ambroise, fils also married at Plouër, in July 1764, and settled at nearby St.-Servan before returning to Plouër.  Between 1765 and 1780, wife Anne, daughter of fellow Acadians Charles Thériot and Françoise Landry, gave Ambroise, fils nine children in the two communities, but most did not survive childhood:  Jean-Baptiste was born at St.-Servan in July 1765 but died there at age 18 months in October 1766, Jean-Charles was born in June 1767, an unnamed son died the day after his birth in January 1769, Jean-Simon-Raphaël was born at Plouër in October 1770 but died at Boisanne near Plouër at age 3 in May 1773, Pierre-Ambroise was born at Plouër in October 1772 but died at Boisanne the following December, Marie-Anne-Claire was born "at night" in August 1774 but died at St.-Servan the following March, Marguerite-Marie was born at St.-Servan in May 1777, Laurent-Charles in August 1778, and Amand-Pierre in March 1780.  As the birth dates of his children reveal, Ambroise, fils not take his family to Poitou in 1773 nor to Nantes later in the decade.  They remained, instead, in the St.-Malo area, where Ambroise, fils worked at whatever skill he possessed.  His younger brothers, however, did not remain at St.-Malo.  In February 1769, Augustin, in his mid-20s, and François, in his early 20s, journeyed aboard Le Créole, probably via the Channel Islands and England, to Île Miquelon, a French-controlled island off the southern coast of Newfoundland.  Augustin died at nearby Île St.-Pierre that November, but François survived the ordeal.  He made his way to New England and, that October, married Monique, daughter of fellow Acadians Jean-Baptiste Richard and Marguerite Robichaud, at Boston, Massachusetts. 

In the spring of 1763, after prolonged negotiations between the French and British governments, the Acadians in England, including Dupuiss, were repatriated to France.  Jean-Baptiste, son of Antoine of Minas, held at Penryn near Falmouth, was a bachelor in his late 20s when he crossed to St.-Malo with a widowered brother-in-law.  Jean-Baptiste died at St.-Servan in March 1783, in his late 40s.  He never married.  Joseph Dupuis, a 20-year-old bachelor, crossed aboard La Dorothée, which reached St.-Malo in late May.  He went to St.-Servan, but he did not remain there.  In February 1769, he embarked on L'Antoine-Joseph for Île Miquelon and disappears from the historical record.  Madeleine Dupuis, husband Eustache Daigre, and her younger siblings Joseph, Étienne, and Marguerite, held at Southampton, traveled aboard L'Ambition, which landed at St.-Malo in late May.  They settled at Plouër.  A Dupuis widow also was repatriated to St.-Malo.  Marie, also called Marguerite, Dupuis, widow of Charles Babin, held at Southamtpon, crossed to St.-Malo with two grown Babin sons.  Other Dupuiss were sent to Morlaix in northwest Brittany.  Marie-Josèphe Dupuis, widow of Pierre Thériot of Rivière-aux-Canards, crossed with five children, three daughters and two sons.  Germain Dupuis le jeune of Minas, wife Marguerite Granger, and their infant son Jacques-Guillaume, held at Penryn, also landed at Morlaix.  Between 1764 and 1778, Marie-Marguerite gave Germain le jeune seven more children, two sons and five daughters, in St.-Martin des Champs Parish, Morlaix:  Marie-Josèphe in February 1764, Marie-Marguerite in July 1766, Théotiste-Marie or Marie-Théotiste in September 1768, Jean-Marie-Germain in August 1773, Amand-Charles in 1775, and Marie-Josèphe-Esther in March 1778.  In November 1765, the two widows who had gone to St.-Malo and Morlaix, but not their Dupuis kin in those ports, followed dozens of their fellow exiles to Belle-Île-en-Mer off the southern coast of Brittany.  A young Dupuis who remained at St.-Malo created his own family there.  Joseph Dupuis married twice at Plouèr, first to Marie-Rose, daughter of fellow Acadians Olivier Daigre and Angélique Doiron, in February 1768.  She died at nearby Lysnais the following December, perhaps from the rigors of childbirth.  Joseph remarried to Marie, daughter of fellow Acadians Jean-Baptiste Landry and Élisabeth Aucoin, in November 1771.  Their son Pierre-Joseph was born at Plouër in October 1772 but died at age 10 months in August 1773.  Later that year, Joseph, Marie, and his younger brother Étienne were the only Dupuiss who became part of the settlement venture in Poitou.  Marie gave Joseph a daughter at Châtellerault in May 1774.  In March 1776, Joseph, Marie, Élisabeth, and Étienne retreated with dozens of other Poitou Acadians to the port city of Nantes.  Marie gave Joseph two more daughters at Nantes in 1776 and 1779, but they died young.  Marie died in St.-Similien Parish, Nantes, in January 1781, age 30.  Joseph did not remarry.  Brother Étienne settled at nearby Chantenay and worked as a seaman in the Breton port.  At age 35, he married Marie-Osite, 24-year-old daughter of fellow Acadians Paul Dugas and his second wife Hélène Blanchard, at St.-Martin-de-Chantenay in November 1784.  Marie-Osite was a native of St.-Coulomb near St.-Malo.

In the early 1780s, when the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France the chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana, nine of the Dupuiss agreed to take it.  They included siblings Joseph, Étienne, Marguerite, and Madeleine and their families at Nantes, and Ambroise, fils and his family at St.-Malo.  Germain le jeune and his family chose to remain in France.  In June 1791, early in the French Revolution, French authorities counted him, wife Marie-Marguerite, their 18-year-old son Jean-Marie-Germain, and four of their daughters--Marie-Josèphe, age 26; Marie-Théotiste, age 22; Marie-Marguerite, age 20; and Marie-Josèphe-Esther, age 13--still at Morlaix.  One wonders what happened to their sons Amand-Charles and Jacques-Guillaume and their daughter Élisabeth-Marie-Thérèse. 

In North America, Dupuiss from Annapolis and Minas who had escaped the British roundup in 1755 and found refuge on the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore, endured another roundup five years later at Restigouche.  Cyprien Dupuis married a Préjean from Annapolis Royal there in June 1760.  The British attacked the French stronghold the following month and, on the way back to their base at Louisbourg, rounded up 300 Acadian refugees.  Dupuiss may have been among them, or, if they escaped this latest roundup, they either were captured by, or surrendered to, British forces in the early 1760s and were held in prisoner-of-war compounds in Nova Scotia.  Cyprien's older brother Michel, wife Anne Gaudet, and their family ended up at Fort Edward, Pigiguit, by 1762.  Cyprien, wife Françoise-Rosalie, and their family were held at Fort Cumberbland, formerly Beauséjour, at Chignecto.  Brother Justinien and his wife Anne Girouard may have died in exile by then, so their young son Joseph lived with either Michel or Cyprien. 

After the war with Britain ended in February 1763, Acadians being held in Nova Scotia and the seaboard colonies, theoretically, were allowed to leave, but not until British officials counted them and discerned their intentions.  At war's end, Michel, if he was still living, wife Anne, perhaps now a widow, their two daughters,and nephew Joseph Dupuis likely were still at Fort Edward.  Brother Cyprien, wife Françoise-Rosalie, and two of their children were counted at Fort Cumberland in late August 1763.  In Massachusetts, colonial officials in July 1760 had counted Amand Dupuis, wife Blanche Landry, and three children--Mary, Margaret, and Ferman--of Minas at Andover; and Peter Dupee, perhaps Dupuis, and his wife at "Rowrey."  In August 1761, Massachusetts officials found Sylvain Dupuis, wife Françoise LeBlanc, and seven children--Paul, Frances, Jason, John, Margaret, Joseph, and Elilza--in Worcester County on the eve of their relocation to Hampshire County.  Two years later, in August 1763, colonial officials in the Bay Colony recounted the Acadians and found at least seven Dupuis families still in the colony:  Lichaine, actually Sylvain, wife Françoise, six sons and three daughters; Amand, wife Blanche, a son and four daughters; Germain, père, a widower, a son and two daughters; son Germain, fils, his unnamed wife, four sons and four daughters; brother Olivier, wife Anne Boudrot, three sons and two daughters; brother François, wife Françoise, actually Marguerite, Préjean, two sons and three daughters; and Jean, wife Josette, and a son.  That same year, colonial officials in Connecticut counted at least 10 Dupuis families in that colony who expressed a desire to go to France:  Charles with eight persons in his family; Jean-Baptiste with four persons; another Charles and his wife; another Jean-Baptiste and his wife; his brother Alexandre and two children; Simon-Pierre, his wife, brother Charles, a sister, and six children; yet another Charles with his wife and child; Fabien, a widower, with seven children; Antoine, fils, his wife, and nine children; and Pierre, his wife, and four children--perhaps the largest concentration of Dupuiss in the Acadian diaspora.  In July 1763, colonial officials in Maryland counted Dupuiss there, most of them concentrated at Port Tobacco on the lower Potomac:  Anne Breau, widow of Jean-Baptiste Dupuis, her daughters Marie, Marguerite, and Monique, and son Pierre; and Jean-Baptiste Dupuis, wife Anne Richard, son Firmin and daughter Marie.  Also counted in the colony were Anne-Madeleine Dupuis, wife of Jean Guidry, with four of their children, at Port Tobacco; and Marguerite Dupuis at Port Tobacco.  Down in South Carolina in August 1763, colonial officials counted Acadians still in that colony.  They included Anne Brun, widow of Joseph Dupuis of Annapolis Royal, and her 20-year-old son Joseph, fils

Most of the Dupuiss who had escaped the British in greater Acadia or had been held for so long in New England chose to move on to Canada.  Though now also a British possession, the northern province was populated largely by fellow French Catholics, many of them Acadian exiles.  So, in a colony nearly as old as Acadia, Dupuiss began the slow, inexorable process of becoming Canadiennes.  Especially after 1766, they could be found on the St. Lawrence above Québec at Bécancour, Nicolet, St.-Grégoire, Trois-Rivières, Repentigny,  Contrecoeur, L'Assomption, St.-Jacques-de-l'Achigan, Rivière-du-Loup now Louiseville, St.-Philippe-de-La-Prairie, St.-Anicet, Châteauguay,Le Cèdres, and Montréal; at Laprairie and L'Acadie in the Richelieu valley; on the St. Lawrence below Québec at Kamouraska and L'Islet; at Rivière St.-Jean and Memramcook in present-day New Brunswick; and at Windsor, formerly Pigiguit, in Nova Scotia.  Typical of most, if not all, Acadian families, these Acadiennes of Canada lost touch with their Cadien cousins hundreds of miles away, and, until the Acadian reunions of the mid-twentieth century, may even have forgotten the others existed.  

During the early 1760s, in the final months of the war, Acadians exiled in the British colonies had been encouraged by French officials to go to St.-Dominique to work on a new naval base there.  Although driven from North America, the French were determined to hang on to what was left of their shrinking empire.  The new base at Môle St.-Nicolas on the north shore of St.-Domingue would protect the approaches to what was left of their possessions in the Caribbean basin.  French officials saw the Acadians as a ready source of cheap labor and enticed them with promises of land of their own if they came to the sugar colony.  And so Acadians, including Dupuiss from Connecticut and South Carolina, chose to go to the tropical island.  Time there for many of them was short and tragic.  Pierre, son of Antoine, fils of Connecticut, age 7, died at Mirebalais in the island's interior in September 1764.  Two more of Antoine, fils's sons--Antoine III, age 4; and Félix, age 10--died there the following month.  Antoine, fils himself died at Mirebalais in August 1765, age 46.  His wife Anne Boudrot likely had died by then.  In the spring of 1767, Antoine, fils's younger brother Joseph, still a bachelor, accompanied by a niece and three nephews, one of them an infant, evidently hooked up with the Acadian expedition aboard the ship Virgin, which left Baltimore, Maryland, in April bound for New Orleans and lingered at Cap-Français for 17 days.  This gave Joseph and his charges an opportunity to escape what had befallen their loved ones.  The Virgin reached La Balize on July 12 and New Orleans on July 23, the same day Joseph and his brother's children appear on a Spanish list of new arrivals in the city.  Other Dupuiss in St.-Domingue also paid a heavy price for going there:  Simon from Connecticut, younger brother of Antoine Dupuis, fils, lost two sons--François, age 6; and Firmes, age 3--at Mirebalais in September 1764.  His son Pierre was baptized there, age 2 1/2, in August or September.  Simon himself died at Mirebalais in November 1764, age 35.  Joseph, the 2-1/2-year-old son of Michel Dupuis and Marie LeBlanc, died at Mirebalais in October 1764.  Another Joseph, son of Fabien Dupuis, who had died in Connecticut, died at Mirebalais in October, age 8.  Fabien's widow Judith Hébert died there in November, age 39.  Yet another Joseph Dupuis, age 15, died at Mirebalais the following December.  Four young Dupuis men, one married, the other three bachelors, sons perhaps of Charles-Olivier of Annapolis Royal who had been deported to Connecticut, died at Mirebalais within weeks of another:  Charles, husband of Rosalie Préjean, in October 1764, age 26; Pierre-Poncy in November, age 23; Paul, age 20, in November; and Simon, age 18, in November.  Charles and Rosalie's son Jean-Baptiste was baptized at Mirebalais, age 2, a week after his father's death.  Étienne Dupuis died at Mirebalais in January 1765, age 17.  Euphrosine, called Froisine, daughter of Amand Dupuis and Marie Dugas, had married Gabriel, son Guillin Vincent and Catherine Teizan, at Mirebalais in September 1764.  Euphosine died at Mirebalais the following January, age 28.  Jean-Baptiste Dupuis, also from Connecticut, also died at Mirebalais in January 1765, age 41.  His 5-year-old son Étienne had died there the previous October, at the same time and the same place his son Jean-Baptiste, fils had been baptized at age 6.  Marie-Anne Dupuis died at Mirebalais in January 1765, age 12.  Ephigenie Dupuis, widow of ____ Hébert, died at Mirebalais in June 1765, age 36.  Madeleine Dupuis, age 13, died at Mirebalais in July 1766.  Despite the staggering loss to the family during its first two years in the colony, some Dupuiss chose to remain:  Marguerite, daughter of the deceased Fabrien Dupuis and Judith Hébert from Connecticut, died at Mirebalais in May 1775, age 15.  François Soline, son of Jean-Baptiste Dupuy and Rose Rifaud, was born at Môle St.-Nicolas, site of the naval base, in October 1777.  One wonders if Jean-Baptiste was an Acadian Dupuis

The hand full of Dupuiss being held in Nova Scotia had a serious dilemma on their hands.  The Treaty of Paris of February 1763 stipulated in its Article 14 that persons dispersed by the war had 18 months to return to their respective territories.  In the case of the Acadians, however, this meant that they could return only to French soil.  Rivière St.-Jean was no longer French territory, and Port-Royal had not been French for over half a century.  British authorities refused to allow any of the Acadian prisoners in the region to return to their former lands as proprietors.  If Acadians chose to remain in Nova Scotia, they could live only in the interior of the peninsula in small family groups and work for low wages on former Acadian lands now owned by New England "planters."  If they stayed, they must also take the hated oath of allegiance to the new British king, George III, without reservation.  They would also have to take the hated oath if they joined their cousins in Canada.  After all that they had suffered on the question of the oath, no self-respecting Acadian would consent to take it if it could be avoided.   Some Halifax chose to relocate to Miquelon, a French-owned island off the southern coast of Newfoundland.  Others considered going to French St.-Domingue, today's Haiti, where Acadian exiles in the British colonies, including Dupuiss, already had gone, or to the Illinois country, the west bank of which still belonged to France, or to lower Louisiana, which, thanks to British control of Canada, was the only route possible to the Illinois country for Acadian exiles.  Whatever their choice, they would not remain in old Acadia.  So they gathered up their money and their few possessions and prepared to leave their homeland.  Of the 600 who left Halifax in late 1764 bound for Cap-Français, St.-Domingue, at least four of them were Dupuiss.

Meanwhile, the Dupuiss in Maryland endured life among English colonists who, despite their Catholic roots, did not care much for the French "papists" thrust upon them.  When word reached the Acadians in Maryland that the Spanish would welcome them in Louisiana, where some of their relatives had gone, they pooled their meager resources to charter ships that would take them to the Mississippi colony.  The Dupuiss, still living at Port Tobacco, left for Louisiana in late December 1767 and arrived the following February.  They were the third contingent of Acadians from the Chesapeake colony to go Louisiana since 1766.  They could not have anticipated the cold reception awaiting them in the Spanish colony.302

Durel

In 1755, descendants of Charles Lacroix dit Durel and Judith Chiasson could still be found on Île St.-Jean, where Charles and Judith had settled in c1730.  Le Grand Dérangement of the 1750s scattered his family to the winds. 

Living in territory controlled by France, they and other Acadians on the island remained unmolested by the British roundup of their fellow Acadians in Nova Scotia during the fall of 1755.  Their respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  In late 1758, after the fall of the French fortress at Louisbourg in July, the victorious British swooped down on Île St.-Jean, rounded up most of the Acadians there, and deported them to France.  Charles's daughter Marguerite and her husband Joseph Préjean, fils managed to elude the British dragnet and escape from Île St.-Jean to Restigouche at the head of the Baie des Chaleurs.  Marguerite's sisters Anne-Marie and her husband Charles Pinet dit Pinel, and sister Judith ended up on a crowded ship that took them to Cherbourg in Normandy.  But other members of the family were not so lucky.  The sisters' mother Judith Chiasson, her second husband Pierre Le Prieur dit Dubois, with whom the sisters had been counted at Havre-de-la-Fortune in August 1752, and their younger siblings and half-siblings, all perished aboard the British transport Violet, which sank in a North Atlantic storm in December on its way to St.-Malo.  Judith married Jean, son of perhaps fellow Acadians Abraham Daigre and Marie Boudrot of Havre-de-la-Fortune, in c1759 perhaps at Cherbourg, or she may have married him on Île St.-Jean on the eve of the island's dérangement

In the late 1750s or early 1760s, Marguerite and her husband Joseph ended up as prisoners at Fort Edward, formerly Pigiguit, Nova Scotia, with dozens of other Acadians whom the British had captured in the region.  Daughter Victoire was born in Nova Scotia in c1761.  When the war with Britain finally ended, Marguerite and Joseph chose to accompany 600 of their fellow exiles to the Mississippi Valley, where they could start a new life away from the hated British.  

Meanwhile, in France, Marguerite's younger sister Anne-Marie and her husband Charles Pinet dit Pinel had at least five children:  Louis, born at Cherbourg in c1763, Marie-Modeste in c1765, Marie-Madeleine in c1771, Martin-Charles at La Chapelle-Roux in January 1775, and another daughter whose name has been lost to history.  Judith and her husband Jean Daigle, who worked as a fisherman, had at least three children in Cherbourg:  Jean-Baptiste was born in December 1759, Charles-Lazare in August 1761, and Firmin in April 1763.  La Chapelle-Roux, where Anne-Marie's son Martin-Charles was born, is in the Poitou region of France, so she and Charles evidently were part of the settlement scheme in that region which began in 1773.  After two years of effort, they retreated with dozens of other disgruntled Poitou Acadians to the port city of Nantes, where they subsisted as best they could on government handouts and what work they could find there.  Daughter Marie-Modeste Pinet dit Pinal married Jean-Baptiste-Charles, son of fellow Acadians Charles Haché and Marie Hébert, at St.-Martin-de-Chantenay near Nantes in November 1784.  

In the early 1780s, the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France the chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana.  Charles and Anne-Marie, along with daughter Marie-Modeste and her husband, agreed to take it.  Jean and Judith did not go, but one of their sons, Jean-Baptiste Daigle, made the trip in 1785.239

Flan

In 1755, the three married daughters of Jean-François Flan of Paris and Marie Dupuis were living with their families at Minas.  In the fall of that year, British forces deported Jean-François's second daughter, Anne, her husband Alexandre Landry, and their children to Maryland, where Alexandre died in the late 1750s or early 1760s.  Jean-François's youngest daughter Marguerite, her husband Abraham dit Petit-Abram Landry, and their children, some from his first marriage, also ended up in Maryland.  In July 1763, colonial officials counted the widowed Anne and six of her children, four sons and two daughters, with other Acadians at Baltimore.  Marguerite and her family, including 10 children, were counted at the same time at Oxford, on Maryland's Eastern Shore.  Marguerite died in Maryland in the mid-1760s, in her late 40s, leaving Petit-Abram Landry a widower again. 

When word reached the Acadians in Maryland that they would be welcome in French Louisiana, they pooled their meager resources to charter ships that would take them south to New Orleans.  Petit-Abram Landry and nine of his children, six of them from second wife Marguerite Flan, were among the first of the Maryland Acadians to emigrate to Louisiana, in 1766.  In April 1767, Anne Flan, still a widow (she never remarried), left Baltimore for Louisiana with most of her children and 200 other Acadian exiles.

One wonders where Jean-François's oldest daughter Marie-Josèphe Flan, her husband Charles-André LeBlanc, and their children, also living at Minas in 1755, ended up during Le Grand Dérangement.  Were they also deported to Maryland, along with Marie-Josèphe's younger sisters Anne and Marguerite?  Did Marie-Josèphe and Charles-André end up in Pennsylvania, Virginia, Connecticut, or Massachusetts with other Minas Acadians?  Or did they escape the roundup at Minas and seek refuge in Canada?240

Forest

In 1755, descendants of Gereyt dit Michel de Forest and his first wife Marie Hébert, mother of his four sons, could be found at Annapolis Royal; in the Minas Basin, especially at Ste-Famille, Pigiguit; at Chignecto; and on Île St.-Jean and Île Madame.  By then, members of the family had shortened their name to Forest.  Le Grand Dérangement of the 1750s scattered this family even farther. 

The Acadians at Chignecto were the first to endure a disruption of their lives.  In the spring and summer of 1750, Canadian soldiers, assisted by Abbé Le Loutre and his Mi'kmaq warriors, burned Acadian homesteads in the British-controlled area east of Rivière Missaguash, forcing the habitants there to move to the French-controlled area west of the river.  Forests may have been among them.  After yet another war erupted between Britain and France in 1754, the Chignecto Acadians were caught in the middle of it.  When British and New England forces attacked Fort Beauséjour in June 1755, Chignecto Acadians, perhaps including Forests, served in the fort as militia.  They, too, along with the French troupes de la marine, became prisoners of war when the fort surrendered on June 16.  Lieutenant-governor Lawrence was so incensed to find so-called French Neutrals fighting with French regulars at Beauséjour he ordered his officers to deport the Chignecto and trois-rivières Acadians to the southernmost British seaboard colonies.  That fall, a widow and her three Forest sons ended up in South Carolina.  Colonial officials sent them to Prince Frederick's Parish, Winyaw, north of Charles Town.  Judith Forest, wife of Joseph Poirier, and Marguerite Forest, also were deported to the southern colony.  Another Forest family, if they were still at Chignecto, ended up in Pennsylvania.  But most of the Forests at Chignecto and the trois-rivières escaped the British roundup and sought refuge in Canada or on the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore.  One of them, Jean-Joseph Forest of Chepoudy, died at Québec in December 1757, victim, perhaps, of the smallpox epidemic that struck the Acadian refugees there that fall and winter. 

The Forests were hit especially hard when British and New-English forces rounded up hundreds of Acadians at Minas and Annapolis Royal in late fall of 1755.  Forests living in the Minas Basin, especially those at Ste.-Famille, Pigiguit, ended up on transports destined for Virginia, Maryland, and Massachusetts.  Amazingly, a young Forest from Pigiguit escaped the British roundup there and sought refuge on the Gulf of St. Lawerence shore.  Forests at Annapolis were deported to Connecticut, Massachusetts, and South Carolina.  They were especially numerous aboard transports bound for Connecticut.  Some members of the family managed to escape the roundup at Annapolis that fall, slip cross the Bay of Fundy the following spring, and seek refuge in Canada or on the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore. 

The Forests shipped to Virginia endured a fate worse than most of the Acadians deported from Minas.  In mid-November, when five transports appeared unexpectedly at Hampton Roads, the Virginia governor, Robert Dinwiddie, protested their deportation to his colony without his consent.  Many of the exiles died on the filthy, crowded ships anchored in Hampton Roads while the Virginia authorities pondered their fate.  Acadians from one vessel were moved up to Richmond, two of the vessels were unloaded at Hampton, and two more at Norfolk.  A hand full of young Acadians managed to slip away and trek overland through fields and forests and over the mountains, to French Canada, but most of the exiles remained in Virginia.  Finally, in the spring of 1756, Virginia's House of Burgesses made its decision ... the Acadians must go!  In May, the first shipment of Acadians in hired vessels left for England, and in two weeks all of them had gone--299 to Bristol, 250 to Falmouth, 340 to Southampton, and 336 to Liverpool--1,225 of the original 1,500.  Their ordeal only worsened in the English ports, where they were treated like common criminals and where many died of smallpox.  The Forests who survived the deportations were held at Southampton. 

Living in territory controlled by France, the two Forest families on Île St.-Jean and Île Madame escaped the British roundups in Nova Scotia in the fall of 1755.  Their respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  After the fall of the French fortress at Louisbourg in July 1758, the victorious British swooped down on the islands and rounded up most of the Acadians there, Forests among them.  The British deported Victor Forest and his family, which included his second wife and two of her siblings, from Île St.-Jean to Cherbourg, France.  The British sent Victor's younger brother Pierre and his family, which included a daughter and younger brother Jacques, fils, to St.-Malo.  Pierre's infant daughter died at sea.  The British deported Marie-Madeleine LeBlanc, widow of the brothers' cousin Jean-Baptiste Forest, fils, and three of her children from Île Madame to St.-Malo.  The crossing devastated her little family.  Marie-Madeleine, her oldest son, and her youngest daughter died in a St.-Malo hospital soon after they reached the Breton port.  Only younger son Étienne, age 8 in 1758, survived the rigors of the crossing.  He lived with relatives in the St.-Malo suburbs until he came of age.  His couisn Pierre Forest and his wife Anne-Blanche Robichaud had three more children, all sons, at St.-Malo:  Pierre-Joseph was born at Plouër in June 1760; François-Jean in April 1762 but died at St.-Servan in June 1764; and Jean-Joachim was born at St.-Servan in February 1766 but died there in July 1767. Pierre, père drowned in July 1768, age 34, and was buried at St.-Servan.  Meanwhile, older brother Victor took his family from Cherbourg to St.-Malo in June 1759 and settled at Pleurtuit.  Second wife Anne-Josèphe Hébert gave Victor half a dozen children there:  Joseph-Victor was born at St.-Suliac in May 1760; twins Jean-Baptiste-François and Amand-Olivier in December 1761, but Amand-Olivier died in January 1763; and triplets Victor, Marie, and Anne-Perrine were born at la Ville de Port St.-Hubert, near Plouër, in March 1764.  Almost miraculously, all three of the children survived childhood, but their mother did not survive their birth.  She died at la Ville de Port St.-Hubert the day of their birth.  Victor remarried to Frenchwoman Julienne Rosereux probably at St.-Servan in c1766.  She gave him six more children there:  Pierre-Guillaume was born in March 1767 but died eight days after his birth; Servanne-Julienne was born in May 1768; Marie-Adélaïde in August 1770; Jeanne-Élisabeth in February 1772; Jean-Jacques in September 1774; and Étienne-Gilles in c1778.  Victor, at age 51, remarried again--his fourth marriage!--to Marie-Jeanne-Catherine, daughter of French locals André Richer and Madeleine Renoux and sister of his soon-to-be stepmother Angélique Richer, at St.-Servan in February 1784.  Meanwhile, Victor and Pierre's younger brother Jacques, fils married Tarsille, daughter of fellow Acadians Charles Guérin and Marguerite Henry, at St.-Servan in August 1774.  One wonders if they had any children.  None of the brothers went to Poitou in 1773. 

In the spring of 1763, after prolonged negotiations between the French and British governments, the Acadians in England, including Forests, were repatriated to France.  Victor, Pierre, and Jacques, fils's parents and their younger siblings crossed from England aboard La Dorothée and settled at Plouër near their loved ones.  Likely because they wished to remain near their loved ones, Jacques, père's and wife Claire Vincent did not follow the majority of their fellow exiles from England to Belle-Île-en-Mer off the southern coast of Brittany in November 1765.  Claire died at St.-Servan in March 1769, age 64.  Jacques, père, along with his sons, did not participate in the settlement in Poitou in the early 1770s, nor did they join other Acadian exiles at Nantes later in the decade.  Jacques, père's youngest son Ignace married Jeanne-Cécile, daughter of French locals Pierre Descrouttes and Élisabeth Calisan, at St.-Servan in May 1777.  One wonders if they had any children.  Jacques, père, in his mid-70s, remarried to Angélique, daughter of French locals André Richer and Madeleine Renoux and sister of his oldest son Victor's fourth wife, probably at St.-Servan in late 1784 or early 1785.  Another Forest family led by a Jacques also arrived at St.-Malo aboard La Dorothée in May 1763.  This Jacques Forest, age 24 when the British deported him from Minas to Virginia in 1755, married Marguerite, daughter perhaps of Maurice Comeau and Marguerite Thibodeau, in England in c1759.  Their son Benjamin was born there the following year.  They settled at St.-Servan, where Marguerite gave Jacques three more children:  Marie was born in July 1764; Élisabeth-Marie in November 1766; and Pierre-Nicolas in September 1769.  As the birth dates of their children reveal, they also did not go to Belle-Île-en-Mer in November 1765, but they did go to Poitou in 1773.  Marguerite gave Jacques another daughter, Marguerite, in Poitou in c1774.  Jacques and his family retreated with dozens of other disgruntled Poitou Acadians to the port city of Nantes in December 1775, where daughter Marguerite died in September 1777.  They returned to St.-Malo by April 1784, when oldest daughter married Marie married into the Aucoin family there.  Daughter Élisabeth-Marie married into the Bedel family there the following month. 

In the early 1780s, when the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France the chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana, 17 Forests agreed to take it.  They included Jacques, père and his son Victor and married daughters Anne-Rosalie and Madeleine and their families, and cousins Étienne, now a middle-aged bachelor, and Jacques and his family, including a married daughter, all at St.-Malo, and a Forest wife at Nantes.  However, Jacques, père's younger sons Jacques, fils and Ignace and their families, son Pierre's widow and her surviving Forest son, and cousin Jacques's daughter who married a local Frenchman, chose to remain in the mother country. 

Meanwhile, in North America, some of the Forests who had escaped the British roundups in Nova Scotia 1755 and found refuge on the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore endured another roundup five years later at Restigouche at the head of the Baie des Chaleurs.  The British attacked the French stronghold in July 1760, and, on the way back to their base at Louisbourg, rounded up 300 Acadian refugees.  Forests may have been among them.  However, Charles Forest of Chignecto and his family of eight appear on a list of 1,003 Acadians still at Restigouche in October 1760, so they had escaped this latest roundup.  Soon afterwards, however, they either were captured by, or surrendered to, British forces in the region and were held in a prisoner-of-war compound in Nova Scotia.  Two Charles's cousins, Joseph Forest and his family of three and his brother Charles and his family of six, were counted at Fort Edward, Pigiguit, Nova Scotia, in July 1762.  Joseph died soon after the counting. 

After the war with Britain finally ended in February 1763, Acadians being held in Nova Scotia and the seaboard colonies theoretically were free to go, but not until British officials counted them and discerned their intentions.  Forests probably were still at Fort Edward in 1763.  In August of that year, British officials in Nova Scotia counted Charles Forest and his family of eight at Fort Cumberland, formerly Beauséjour, near their old home at Chignecto.  At the same time in Massachusetts, colonial officials counted Antoine Foret, his wife Margueritte, their six children, and "Widow Elizabeth mother-in law of Foret"; Simon Foret, his wife Marguerite Gautrot, their seven children, and "Widow Forait," perhaps his mother Madeleine Babin; Michel Forait, wife Magdelaine, and their five children; Charlot Foret, perhaps a widower, four children, and the "Widow of Michel Foret," likely his mother, still in the colony.  Sometime in 1763, colonial officials in Connecticut counted a number of Forest families still in the colony:  Benoit Forest and his family of five, Victor Forest and his family of five, Jean-Pierre Fouret and his family of seven, Jacques Fourest and his family of 10, and Mathieu Forest and his family of six--perhaps the largest concentration of Forests in the Acadian diaspora.  In June 1763, colonial officials in Pennsylvania counted Pierre Forrest, his wife Marguerite, and two children, and Jean Forrest, his wife Anne, and their child still in the colony.  In Maryland that July, colonial officials counted Bonaventure Foray, his wife Claire Rivet, their four daughters, and a Boudreau orphan, and Jean Foray, his wife Margueritte Richard, and a Prince orphan at Upper Marlborough; Osite Forest, actually Gautrot, widow of Olivier Forest, and her daughter Marie at Snow Hill on the Eastern Shore; and Pierre Forreit, his wife Marguerite Blanchard, and their son Pierre, fils at Baltimore.  Down in South Carolina in August 1763, colonial officials counted Judith Forest, her husband Joseph Poirier, and their family still in the colony.  One wonders what happened to the other Forests who had gone there in 1755. 

Most of the Forests being held in New England chose to move on to Canada.  Though now also a British possession, the northern province was populated largely by fellow French Catholics, many of them Acadian exiles.  So, in a colony nearly as old as Acadia, Forests began the inexorable process of becoming Canadiennes.  Especially after 1766, they could be found on the St. Lawrence above Québec at Bécancour, L'Assomption, Nicolet, St.-Grégoire, St.-Jacques-d-l'Achigan, St.-Michel-d'Yamasaka, Laprairie, and Pointe-aux-Trembles; on the St. Lawrence below Québec at St.-Charles-de-Bellechasse, St.-Michel-de-Bellechasse, St.-Pierre-du-Sud, and Montmagny; at Bonaventure in Gaspésie north of the Baie des Chaleurs; in Nova Scotia at Minoudy south of Chignecto, Windsor, formerly Pigiguit, and at Arichat on Île Madame.  Typical of most, if not all, Acadian families, these Acadiennes of Canada lost touch with their Cadien cousins hundreds of miles away, and, until the Acadian reunions of the mid-twentieth century, may even have forgotten the others existed.  

During the early 1760s, in the final months of the war, Acadians exiled in the British colonies had been encouraged by French officials to go to St.-Dominique to work on a new naval base there.  Although driven from North America, the French were determined to hang on to what was left of their shrinking empire.  The new base at Môle St.-Nicolas on the north shore of St.-Domingue would protect the approaches to what was left of their possessions in the Caribbean basin.  French officials saw the Acadians as a ready source of cheap labor and enticed them with promises of land of their own if they came to the sugar colony.  And so Acadians being held in the British seaboard colonies, including Forests, chose to go to the tropical island.  When Acadian exiles from Halifax and Maryland came through or transshipped at Cap-Français down the coast from Môle in the mid- and late 1760s, none of the Forests on French St.-Domingue joined them on their way to Spanish Louisiana.  Joseph, son of Athanase Forest and Marie-Josèphe Fouchard, was baptized at Môle St.-Nicolas, age 3 1/2 months, in November 1777.  Paul, son of Germain Forest and Marguerite Daigle of Pointe-de-Beauséjour, Chignecto, died at Môle St.-Nicolas in June 1779, no age given.  Joseph, fils, son of Joseph Forest and Jeanne Delon, at Môle St.-Nicolas in September 1781. 

The Forests being held in Nova Scotia had a serious dilemma on their hands.  The Treaty of Paris of February 1763 stipulated in its Article 14 that persons dispersed by the war had 18 months to return to their respective territories.  In the case of the Acadians, however, this meant that they could return only to French soil.  Rivière St.-Jean was no longer French territory, and Port-Royal had not been French for over half a century.  British authorities refused to allow any of the Acadian prisoners in the region to return to their former lands as proprietors.  If Acadians chose to remain in Nova Scotia, they could live only in the interior of the peninsula in small family groups and work for low wages on former Acadian lands now owned by New England "planters."  If they stayed, they must also take the hated oath of allegiance to the new British king, George III, without reservation.  They would also have to take the hated oath if they joined their cousins in Canada.  After all that they had suffered on the question of the oath, no self-respecting Acadian would consent to take it if it could be avoided.   Some Halifax chose to relocate to Miquelon, a French-owned island off the southern coast of Newfoundland.  Others considered going to French St.-Domingue, today's Haiti, where Acadian exiles in the British colonies, including Forests, already had gone, or to the Illinois country, the west bank of which still belonged to France, or to lower Louisiana, which, thanks to British control of Canada, was the only route possible to the Illinois country for Acadian exiles.  Whatever their choice, they would not remain in old Acadia.  So they gathered up their money and their few possessions and prepared to leave their homeland.  Of the 600 who left Halifax in late 1764 and early 1765 bound for Cap-Français, St.-Domingue, at least a dozen of them were Forests.

Meanwhile, the Forests in Maryland endured life among English colonists who, despite their Catholic roots, did not care much for the French "papists" thrust upon them.  When word reached the Acadians in Maryland that the Spanish would welcome them in Louisiana, where some of their relatives had gone, they pooled their meager resources to charter ships that would take them to the Mississippi colony.  The first and second contingents of Acadians from Maryland that reached New Orleans in 1766 and 1767 contained at least 15 Forests.303

Fouquet

When British forces rounded up the Acadians in Nova Scotia in the autumn of 1755, Charles Fouquet, wife Marie-Judith Poitevin, and their family, living in territory controlled by France, remained unmolested.  Their respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  After the fall of the French fortress at Louisbourg in July 1758, British forces descended on Île St.-Jean, rounded up most of its Acadian habitants, and deported them to France.  Charles and four of his sons--Louis, Jean-Aubin, Martin, and Simon--ended up on one or more of the five British transports that left the Gut of Canso in late November.  Wife Marie-Judith, age 50, and five of their other children--daughters Marie-Judith, age 23, Anne, age 17, Françoise, age 12, Élisabeth, age 14, and son Charles, fils, age 8--became separated from Charles and the older boys and sailed on another transport.  Jean-Aubin and Martin reached Cherbourg in March 1759, but of Charles, père and his other sons the record says only "The fate of their father is unknown," which means he probably did not survive the crossing.  Marie-Judith and her children survived the crossing that took the lives of hundreds of their fellow Acadians and reached St.-Malo in late January 1759.  Daughter Élisabeth, weakened by the rigors of the crossing, died in the hospital probably at St.-Malo two months after she reached the Breton port.  Her mother also must have have been fatally weakened by the voyage.  When Élisabeth's older sister Marie-Judith Fouquet married Honoré, son of fellow Acadians Charles Thériot and Angélique Doiron and widower of Isabelle Bergeau, at St.-Servan near St.-Malo in February 1760, both of the bride's parents were recorded in the marriage record as deceased.  

Marie Fouquet and husband Honoré Thériot settled at Pleudihen near St.-Malo, where they had at least seven children.  Anne married a French sailor, Georges, son of Nicolas Pollin and Jeanne Label of St.-Servan, at Rochefort in June 1764.  Jean-Aubin married Marguerite, daughter of fellow Acadians Jacques Quimine and Marie-Josèphe Chiasson of Chignecto and Île St.-Jean, probably in the late 1760s; this may have been Jean-Aubin's third marriage.  Marguerite gave him at least two daughters:  Marie-Charlotte, born at Port-Louis in c1770, and Jeanne-Madeleine in c1774. 

In the early 1780s, the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France the chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana.  Jean-Aubin Fouquet and his wife Marguerite agreed to take it.  The rest of his family remained in France.241

Gaudet

By 1755, descendants of Jean Gaudet and his two wives could be found in greater Acadia at Annapolis Royal; Chignecto, including Beaubassin, Veskak, and Tintamarre; Petitcoudiac and Memramcook in the trois-rivières area west of Chignecto; Minas, including Grand-Pré and Pigiguit; on Île St.-Jean in the French Maritimes; and in Canada.  The fate of an Acadian family during Le Grand Dérangement was determined largely by how long its members had lived in the colony and where they settled in greater Acadia.  Generally, the older the family, the more scattered it became by 1755, and the more dispersed it was then, the more scattered it would become in the decades that followed.  As one of the oldest families in Acadia, this certainly was true for the Gaudets.  The Great Upheaval of the 1750s scattered this large family even farther. 

The Acadians at Chignecto were the first to endure a disruption of their lives.  In the spring and summer of 1750, Canadian militia, along with Mi'kmaq led by Abbé Jean-Louis Le Loutre, burned Acadian homesteads east of Rivière Missaguash, forcing the habitants to move to the French-controlled area west of the river.  Gaudets were among the refugees affected by this petit dérangement.  After yet another war erupted between Britain and France in 1754, the Chignecto Acadians were caught in the middle of it.  When British and New England forces attacked Fort Beauséjour in June 1755, Gaudets likely were among the Chignecto Acadians who were serving in the fort as militia.  They, too, along with the French troupes de la marine, became prisoners of war when the fort surrendered on June 16.  Nova Scotia Lieutenant-Governor Charles Lawrence was so incensed to find so-called French Neutrals fighting with French regulars at Beauséjour that he ordered his officers to deport the Chignecto Acadians to the southernmost British colonies on the Atlantic seaboard.  At least one Gaudet family ended up in South Carolia.  Most of the Gaudets at Chignecto, however, escaped the British and sought refuge on the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore or moved on to Canada. 

Some of their cousins at Annapolis Royal were not so lucky.  The British deported Germain Gaudet, second wife Marguerite Thibodeau, and their children, as well as François Gaudet and his wife to New York.  A colonial record dated 6 May 1756 notes that Jerema Gouder and his family of two were among the "French neutrals sent by Gov. Lawrence from Nova Scotia to New York" and parcelled out to five counties in the Manhattan area.  Colonial authorities sent Germain and his wife to Huntingon, Queens County, on Long Island.  Charles Gaudet, second wife Nathalie Robichaud, and their children ended up in Connecticut.  But, again, most of the Gaudets at Annapolis Royal escaped the British in 1755 and sought refuge in Canada or on the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore. 

Living in territory controlled by France, none of the Gaudets on Île St.-Jean and Île Royale were touched by the British roundup of their cousins in Nova Scotia during the fall of 1755.  Their respite from British oppression was short-lived, however.  After the British captured the French fortress at Louisbourg in July 1758, they swooped down on the islands and rounded up most of the Acadians there, Gaudets among the