APPENDICES

Ships of the Acadian Expulsion, 1755-58

Unless otherwise noted, the information below is taken from Dr. Don Landry's website <landrystuff.com/ExpulsionShips.html> [now  inaccessible].

1755-56

Dr. Landry writes:  "It appears that the ships used for the expulsion of the Acadians from Nova Scotia ... were a variety of makeshift second hand cargo vessels, making up a fleet of about 24 sailing vessels.  Governor Shirley [of Massachusetts] and Colonel Lawrence [lieutenant governor of Nova Scotia] had contracted, or chartered these vessels, by the month, for a flat fee per head [9s. per ton], from Charles Apthorp and Thomas Hancock of the Boston Mercantile firm of Apthorp and Hancock.  And, after they were outfitted and converted in Boston to hold 2 persons per ton (in some cases 300 to 500 persons) [a maritime ton was 100 cubic feet of capacity], they were brought over from Boston to Nova Scotia.  The transports were ready on the 11th of October."  He also writes:  "The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence and was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked."

The ships are listed first by departure point, then chronologically by departure date, then alphabetically by destination and ship's name for same day of departure.  HMS means of course His Majesty's Ship and designates a warship in the Royal Navy.  

Milling, Exile Without End, 47, lists an HMS Jamaica, under master Samuel Hood, as one of the two British warships that went to South Carolina with Acadian prisoners of war, but I have found this ship in no other source.  It arrived with HMS Syren, so it may also have come from Chignecto in late 1755.

Note that this list contains no ships that removed Acadians from Cobeguit in the fall of 1755.  This is because virtually the entire population of that settlement escaped to Île St.-Jean, now Prince Edward Island, via Tatamagouche and other North Shore ports, before British forces could get to them that summer.  Île St.-Jean at the time was a French possession, so, by escaping to the island, the Cobeguit refugees enjoyed a respite from British oppression; in fact, many Acadians from Cobeguit had moved there in the early 1750s at the behest of the Abbé Le Loutre, a French priest who controlled the local Mi'kmaq bands and who used threats of pillaging and murder to pressure the Acadians into supporting the French.  The Île St.-Jean Acadians' respite from deportation ended in the autumn of 1758 when the French stronghold at Louisbourg on nearby Île Royale fell to the British in late July.  British forces descended on Île St.-Jean, rounded up most of its Acadian habitants, and deported them on overcrowded ships to France.  Many of the Cobeguit migrants were among the Acadians rounded up on the island.  

Chepoudy, Petitcoudiac, and Memramcook (the trois-rivières) were Chignecto-area settlements.  In the summer of 1755, the trois-rivières settlements lay in territory claimed but not controlled by Britain.  Such was the case also of the Beaubassin area of Chignecto west of the Missaguash River, the present boundary between the Canadian provinces of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick.  The fall of French Fort Beauséjour near Beaubassin on 16 June 1755, which the British renamed Fort Cumberland, and the summons by Lieutenant Colonel Monckton of the Chignecto area men to Fort Cumberland on August 10 to hear Governor Lawrence's proclamation, nabbed 420 Acadian men and boys, hence the hundreds deported from there.  If a man from the trois-rivières answered Monckton's summons and fell into the clutches of the British, his family likely departed with him on one of the Chignecto transports two months later.  But most of the Acadians from the trois-rivières, especially from the upper Petitcoudiac, fled into the woods after Beauséjour fell and escaped deportation.  Meanwhile, while waiting for the transports to arrive, the British confined some of the Chignecto men at nearby Fort Lawrence.  On the night of October 1, 85 of the Fort Lawrence detainees, led probably by resistance leader Joseph Broussard dit Beausoleil of Petitcoudiac, escaped through a tunnel, and most of them probably eluded deportation.  Meanwhile, British forces burned the farms at Chepoudy, on the lower Petitcoudiac, and on the Memramcook as they had done at Minas, Beaubassin, and in the Annapolis River valley, to deny the escapees sustenance during the winter months ahead.  When a British force was burning the villages on the Petitcoudiac in early September, a force of French troupes de la marine, Acadian partisans, and Indians, led by Lieutenant Charles Deschamps de Boishébert, recently arrived from Rivière St.-Jean, drove them away, but only after Monckton's men captured 30 women and children and destroyed hundreds of buildings and a large quantity of wheat.  The British did not return to the upper Petitcoudiac until 1758, after the fall of Louisbourg, so that area became a center of resistance, led by Beausoleil Broussard and others, against the hated invaders.  

In the autumn of 1755, the British did not or could not get at the Acadians on Rivière St.-Jean, in present-day New Brunswick, hence no transports were sent from there.  On 30 June 1755, soon after the fall of Beauséjour, a British naval force under ex-privateer Captain John Rous attacked the French fort near the mouth of Rivière St.-Jean, Fort Menagouèche, but not until the fort's commander, Lieutenant Charles Deschamps de Boishébert, blew up the fort and withdrew upriver to a narrow bend, where, from a previously established fortified camp, Fort Nerepis, he and his men blocked passage up the river.  As a result, the settlements farther up the St.-Jean at Ste.-Anne-du-Pays-Bas, Ekoupag, and Nashouat, where most of Acadians in the area lived, were safe for now.  This was fortunate for the 300 or so Annapolis valley Acadians who escaped deportation in the autumn of 1755.  After languishing in the woods above the valley and enduring a terrible winter on the Fundy shore, in March 1756 they crossed the bay to the French-controlled side and found succor among their countrymen on Rivière St.-Jean.  Acadians from Annapolis Royal bound for North Carolina aboard the ship Pembroke, after seizing the vessel, sought refuge among the Acadians on the St.-Jean in the winter of 1756, as did refugees from the trois-rivières area who had managed to elude British forces the previous autumn.  By the spring of 1756, in fact, Boishébert reported to his superior, the governor-general of Canada, that he was attempting to feed and shelter upwards of 600 refugees and settlers on the St.-Jean, nearly triple the size of the population there before the deportations!  In mid-June 1756, more refugees appeared on the river, including five families from South Carolina, who, after being released by the governor of that faraway colony, had made the long, perilous journey back to Acadia by boat.  Nine men among these refugees, including Alexandre and Victor Broussard dit Beausoleil, had escaped from South Carolina before the governor's "amnesty" and had made their way overland through Indian country, determined to return to their families in the Chignecto area.  Only the Broussards made it to Rivière St.-Jean.  They continued on to Shediac, on the Gulf of St. Lawrence, to join their relatives there, but the other refugees from South Carolina lingered at the settlements along the St.-Jean.  As a result of the overcrowding and lack of subsistence on the river, Boishébert urged refugee families to move on to Miramichi, north of Shediac, or to Québec, where many of their fellow Acadians already had gone via the St.-Jean portage route to Rivière-du-Loup on the lower St. Lawrence.  Some of the South Carolina refugees were allowed to join their kinsmen on Île St.-Jean although the island had become crowded with refugees from Chignecto and Cobeguit.  Not until the late summer of 1758, after the fall of Louisbourg on Île Royale, did the British send a large expedition, under Brigadier Robert Monckton, the despoiler of Chignecto, to round up the Acadians on Rivière St.-Jean.  Monckton's numbers overawed the few French and Indians defending the lower river.  Monckton built Fort Frederic at the mouth of the river, which prompted most of the Acadians upriver to move on to Québec or to Restigouche at the head of the Baie des Chaleurs, or face deportation.  A few months later, in February 1759, Monckton sent New English rangers under Lieutenant Moses Hazen to the upriver settlements, with terrible consequences for the hand full of Acadians still living there.  

The small number of transports that took away the Acadians at Cap-Sable in the spring of 1756 reflects the size of that community.  With the British capital at Halifax so near to them, unless they had access to ocean-going vessels, the Acadians at Cap-Sable were trapped in a geographic cul de sac when Governor Lawrence ordered the deportation of the Acadians from the Fundy shore.  One of two transports sent to Cap-Sable in the spring of 1756, the Mary, had taken Minas Acadians to Virginia the previous October.  In May 1756, after the Virginia House of Burgesses refused to allow the surviving Acadians to remain in the colony, the refugees boarded four overcrowded transports destined for England.  The Mary, having returned to Nova Scotia to retrieve a second load of exiles, was not one of them.  She was used, instead, to transport to New York 100 of the 172 Cap-Sable Acadians rounded up by New English Colonel Jedediah Preble in April.  After the fall of Louisbourg in July 1758, the British returned to Cap-Sable, rounded up more of the inhabitants in the area, and sent them to Georges Island at Halifax before deporting them to France. 

From Chignecto

Vessel Type Tons Captain Numbers Departure Date Destination Arrival Date Comments
Jolly Phillip schooner 94 Jonathan Waite 129 13 Oct 175519 Georgia 30 Dec 1755 escorted by HMS Syren; arrived with approx.120 exiles
Prince Frederick ship 170 William Trattles 280 13 Oct 1755 Georgia 30 Dec 1755 escorted by HMS Syren; held mostly men who had fought at Fort Beauséjour; arrived with 210 exiles
HMS Syren sloop of war 30 Charles Proby 21 & 120 13 Oct 1755 South Carolina/
Georgia
15 Nov 175527 both escort & transport; arrived Charleston with 21 prisoners in irons, Nov 15-19; 9 "dangerous" exiles shipped to England immediately; escorted other transports to GA with 120 exiles aboard, mostly women & children; arrived Tybee Island with 124 exiles, including 4 newborns; crossed Savannah River bar, Nov 27; refused landing at Savannah; moved up to Augusta
Boscowen schooner 95 David Bigham 190 13 Oct 1755 Pennsylvania never arrived? may have been lost at sea
Union ship 196 Jonathan Carthorne 392 13 Oct 1755 Pennsylvania never arrived probably lost at sea
Dolphin sloop 90 William Hancock 121 13 Oct 1755 South Carolina 19 Nov 1755 arrived with 28 men, 27 women, & 66 children, or 121 passengers; so no deaths on the voyage?07
Edward Cornwallis ship 130 Andrew Sinclair 417 13 Oct 1755 South Carolina 19 Nov 1755 arrived with 207 exiles--25 men, 25 women, & 158 children07--a 50% death rate for the voyage!
Endeavour sloop 96 James Nichols 125 13 Oct 1755 South Carolina 19 Nov 1755 arrived with 121 exiles--40 men, 20 women, & 61 children07
HMS Success ship of war ? John Rous ---- 13 Oct 1755 South Carolina ---- probably never went to SC; assisted in embarkation then proceeded to Rivière St.-Jean
Two Brothers brig 161 James Best 132 13 Oct 1755 South Carolina 19 Nov 175527 exiles tried but failed to take over ship on the way to Annapolis Basin; reached SC with 123 passengers07
unknown "goelette" or schooner 30 ? 9 ? South Carolina ? 1 man, 1 woman, 4 boys, 3 girls; evidently a single family, probably from Chignecto

From Minas (Grand-Pré, Rivière-aux-Canards, and other lower communities)

Vessel Type Tons Captain Numbers Departure Date Destination Arrival Date Comments
HMS Warren schooner of war ? Abraham Adams ---- 13 Oct 1755 South Carolina? ---- escort vessel; no passengers; forced to return to Nova Scotia22
Elizabeth sloop 97 Nathaniel Milbury17 242 27 Oct 175520 Maryland 20 Nov 1755 overloaded by 52 persons; arrived Wicomico River with 186 exiles, held aboard until arrival of Gov. Sharpe in Annapolis
Leopard schooner 87 Thomas Church 178 27 Oct 1755 Maryland 24 Nov 1755 overloaded by 4 persons; arrived Annapolis with 174 exiles, held aboard until arrival of Gov. Sharpe
HMS Nightingale ship of war ? Dudley Diggs ---- 27 Oct 1755 Maryland ---- escort vessel; no passengers; separated from others ships by storm; landed at NY instead
Hannah sloop 70  Richard Adams 140 27 Oct 1755 Pennsylvania 19 Nov 1755 departed from Pointe-des-Boudrot; arrived Delaware River with 137 exiles, kept aboard ship under armed guard by Gov. Morris; many died of disease; not disembarked until 5 Mar 1756
Swan sloop 80 Jonathan Loviette13 168 27 Oct 1755 Pennsylvania 19 Nov 1755 departed from Pointe-des-Boudrot; arrived Delaware River with 161 exiles, kept aboard ship under armed guard by Gov. Morris; many died of disease; not disembarked until 5 Mar 1756
HMS Carolina ship of war ? ? ---- 27 Oct 1755 Virginia 13 Nov 1755? escort vessel; no passengers
Endeavour (Encherée)16 sloop 83 John Stone 166 27 Oct 1755 Virginia 30 Nov 1755 departed from Pointe-des-Boudrot; driven by storm to Boston, Nov 5; some passengers removed to ease overcrowding; stores replenished my MA authorities12
HMS Halifax snow ? John Taggart ---- 27 Oct 1755? Virginia 13 Nov 1755? escort vessel; no passengers?
Industry sloop 86 George Goodwin 177 27 Oct 1755 Virginia 13 Nov 1755 departed from Pointe-des-Boudrot12
Mary sloop or schooner 90 1/2 Andrew Dunning 182 27 Oct 1755 Virginia 13 Nov 1755 departed from Pointe-des-Boudrot; first of 2 missions for this ship12
Prosperous sloop 75 Daniel Bragdon15 152 27 Oct 1755 Virginia 26 Dec 1755? departed from Pointe-des-Boudrot; driven by storm to NC, where it refitted before proceeding to VA, where it landed at Yorktown12
Sarah and Molly14 sloop 70 James Purrington 154 27 Oct 1755 Virginia 13 Nov 1755 departed from Pointe-des-Boudrot; driven by storm to Boston, Nov 5; 11 some exiles removed at Boston to relieve overcrowding; stores replenished my MA authorities12
unknown sloop ? John? Worster 173 30 Nov 1755 Connecticut 22 Jan 1756  
Swallow brig 102 William Hayes 236 13 Dec 1755 Massachusetts 30 Jan 1756 departed from Pointe-des-Boudrot; arrived Boston
Dove sloop 87 Samuel Forbes 114 13 Dec 1755 Connecticut 30 Jan 1756 departed from Pointe-des-Boudrot
Racehorse schooner ? John Banks 120 20 Dec 1755 Massachusetts 26 Dec 1755 departed from Pointe-des-Boudrot; arrived Boston
Ranger schooner 57 Nathan Monroe 112 20 Dec 1755 Virginia 20 Jan 1756 overloaded by 81 persons; turned away

From Pigiguit

Vessel Type Tons Captain Numbers Departure Date Destination Arrival Date Comments
Dolphin sloop 87 Zebediah Forman 230 27 Oct 175520 Maryland 30 Nov 1755 embarked at north end of Pigiguit, junction of Avon & St.-Croix rivers; 56 over capacity; driven by gale to Boston Nov 5; 47 exiles removed at Boston to relieve overcrowding; stores replenished by MA authorities; arrived Annapolis with 180; exiles held aboard until arrival of Gov. Sharpe
Ranger sloop 90 Francis Piercy 263 27 Oct 1755 Maryland 30 Nov 1755 embarked at north end of Pigiguit, junction of Avon & St.-Croix rivers; 81 over capacity; driven by gale to Boston, Nov 5; 25 exiles removed to relieve overcrowding; stores replenished by MA authorities; arrived Annapolis; exiles held aboard until arrival of Gov. Sharpe
Seaflower sloop 81 Samuel Harris 206 27 Oct 1755 Massachusetts 15 Nov 1755 18 over capacity
Three Friends sloop 69 Thomas Curtis or Carlile 156 27 Oct 1755 Pennsylvania 21 Nov 1755 embarked at north end of Pigiguit, junction of Avon & St.-Croix rivers; 19 over capacity; driven by gale to Boston, Nov 5; kept aboard ship under armed guard by Gov. Morris; many died of disease; not disembarked until 5 Mar 1756
Neptune schooner 90 Jonathan Davis, replaced by William Ford18 206 27 Oct 1755 Virginia 30 Nov 1755 27 over capacity; driven by gale to Boston, Nov 5; 29 exiles removed at Boston to relieve overcrowding; stores replenished by MA authorities

From Annapolis Royal

Vessel Type Tons Captain Numbers Departure Date Destination Arrival Date Comments
HMS Mermaid ship of war ? Wash. Shirley ---- 13 Oct 1755 Massachusetts 17 Nov 1755 escort vessel; no passengers; arrived Boston
HMS York ship of war 80 Silvanus Cobb ---- 13 Oct 1755 Massachusetts 17 Nov 1755 escort vessel; no passengers; arrived Boston
HMS Hornet ship of war ? _____ Salt ---- 28 Oct 1755 Massachusetts 17 Nov 1755 escort vessel; no passengers; arrived Boston then proceeded to Spithead
Two Sisters snow 140 T. Ingram? approx. 250 13 Oct 175521 Connecticut or Rhode Island ---- never reached CN; may have gone to RI instead or sunk
Helena ship 166 Samuel Livingston 323 27 Oct 175521 Massachusetts 19 Nov 1755? embarked with 52 men, 52 women, 108 boys, 111 girls; arrived Boston
Edward snow 139 Ephrem Cooke 278 8 Dec 1755 Connecticut 22 May 1756 embarked from Goat Island, 5 AM, 41 men, 42 women, 86 boys, 109 girls; blown off course to Antigua; over 100 died from malaria; arrived New London with 180 passengers26
Elizabeth ship 166 Ebenezer Rockwell 280 8 Dec 1755 Connecticut 21 Jan 1756 embarked from Goat Island, 5 AM; 42 men, 40 women, 95 boys, 103 girls; arrived New London with 277
HMS Baltimore sloop of war ? T. Owen ---- 8 Dec 1755 New York and South Carolina ? escort vessel; no passengers; departed Goat Island with 2 ships, 3 snows, 1 brig
Experiment brig 136 Benjamin Stoddard 250 8 Dec 1755 New York 6 May 175624 blown off course to Antigua; arrived with 40 men, 45 women, 56 boys, 59 girls, total 200
Pembroke snow 139 Milton ____ 232 8 Dec 1755 North Carolina never arrived embarked from Goat Island, 5 AM, 33 men, 37 women, 70 boys, 92 girls; seized by Acadians off coast of New York; taken to St. Mary's Bay, Nova Scotia, and then to Rivière St.-Jean, 8 Feb 1756
Hobson ship 177 Edward Whitewood 342 8 Dec 1755 South Carolina 15 Jan 1756 embarked with 42 men, 45 women, 120 boys, 134 girls23

From Halifax

Vessel Type Tons Captain Numbers Departure Date Destination Arrival Date Comments
Providence sloop ? Samuel Barron 50 15 Nov 1755 North Carolina 13 Jan 1756 inhabitants from Mirliguèche moved to Georges Island in Sep; probably taken to Edenton28
Eagle sloop ? _____ McKown 4 or more 1 Apr 1756 Massachusetts 29 May 1756 carried the LEBLANC family, "stragglers"

From Cap-Sable

Vessel Type Tons Captain Numbers Departure Date Destination Arrival Date Comments
Mary sloop or schooner 90 1/2 Andrew Dunning approx. 100 ? North Carolina/New York 28 Apr 1756 second mission for this vessel; Acadians from Pobomcoup destined for North Carolina get no farther than New York; 94 exiles arrived at Manhattan & were parcelled out to 5 counties in May.25 
Vulture sloop ? Jonathan Scaife 72 ? Massachusetts 10 May 1756 departed from Port La Tour for North Carolina but went to Boston instead

1758

Dr. Landry writes:  "After the fall of Louisbourg in July of 1758, it was decided that the Acadians of Île Royale (now Cape Breton), Île St.-Jean (Prince Edward Island) [be transported] to France and the transports were assembled in November, 1758.  However, soon after their departure, the transports were delayed in the Gut of Canso until November 25, 1758 when they finally set sail for France. ... Between September 8, 1758 and November 5, 1758 it was believed that 2,200 Acadians were embarked on 16 ships destined for France."  Lockerby, Deportation of the PEI Acadians, 30-32, offers a more detailed account of the initial voyage of the island fugitives:  15 transports--Briton, Duke William (the second one), John and Samuel, Mathias, Neptune, Parnassus, Patience, Restoration, Richard and Mary, Ruby, Supply, Tamerlane, Three Sisters, Violet, and Yarmouth--under escort of H.M.S. Hind, left the harbor at Port-La-Joye for Louisbourg via the Gut of Canso on 4 November 1758.  They entered the Gut the following day, were hit by a storm, and two of the transports--Tamerlane and Parnassus--were driven ashore.  The Tamerlane was salvaged and repaired, but the Parnassus was lost.  Luckily, all of the passengers from the two vessels were rescued by boats from the Hind and the other transports.  A third transport, the Richard and Mary, struck rocks off the coast of Île Madame on November 13.  Again, all of the passengers were saved, though the ship was lost.  The Hind and Briton, carrying French soldiers, sailed on to Louisbourg, and the remaining transports took shelter in Chédabouctou Bay after their harrying passage through the Gut of Canso.  After repairs and regrouping, the 10 remaining transports departed Chédabouctou on November 25, all bound for ports in England, where they planned to take on fresh water and provisions before moving on to St.-Malo. 

According to Parkman, France & England, 2:1249-50, in late summer 1758, after the fall of Louisbourg, Andrew, Lord Rollo, in command of Britain's 35th Regiment of Foot and two battalions of the 60th Regiment of Foot, "received the submission of Isle St.-Jean, and tried to remove the inhabitants,--with small success; for out of more than four thousand he could catch but seven hundred."  If this was so, how, then, were the British able to deport so many Acadians from Île St.-Jean a few months later?  Parkman's account is clearing mistaken.  Dr. Carl A. Brasseaux,  a careful historian of Le Grand Dérangement, says in his Scattered to the Wind, 29:  "It is indeed a popular misconception that all of the Acadians were deported from the region in 1755.  Only 6,000-7,000 of Nova Scotia's 12,000-18,000 resident Acadians were removed from their homeland during the Grand Dérangement [1755-56].  Those who escaped deportation became fugitives.  Hundreds made their way to Prince Edward Island (then called Ile St-Jean), a French possession which had been established earlier in the eighteenth century by Acadians no longer wishing to remain under British rule; by 1758, there were between 3,400 and 5,000 Acadians residing there.  Following the fall of Louisbourg on neighboring Cape Breton Island in 1758, Prince Edward Island was occupied by British forces who deported to France two-thirds of the Acadian population."  Italics added.  

According to figures compiled by Louis-Xavier Perez based on documents found at the Archives de la Marine, Brest, France, and found on the website <perso.orange.fr/froux/St_malo_arrivees/index_arrivee.htm>, 1,672 Acadians sailed aboard 10 of the ships that reached St.-Malo from Île Royale and Île St.-Jean in late 1758 and early 1759.  These vessels, accoring to he website, were the Antelope, Duke William (the first so named, also called Le Duc Guillaume), Queen of Spain, Tamerlane, Supply, and the so-called "Five Ships," Yarmouth, Patience, Mathias, Restoration, and John and Samuel.  Of these 1,672 passengers, 584, or 35%, died at sea, and 228 died soon after reaching St.-Malo, which reveals how terrible were the conditions aboard the transports.  Add the deaths at sea to the deaths at St.-Malo soon after arrival, and you have a total death rate on these ships of ... 48.5%.  This does not count the 400+ Acadians aboard the Violet and 360 or so aboard the Duke William (the second of the names)--nearly 800 Acadians--who perished in a North Atlantic storm in mid-December off the southwest coast of England.  So, if a final count could be made, well over half of the Acadians deported to St.-Malo in 1758-59 perished in the operation.  For balanced accounts of the 1758-59 deportations, see Delaney, "Chronology of the Deportations," <acadian-home.org>; & Lockerby, Deportation of the PEI Acadians.

Keep in mind that not all of the British transports from the Maritime islands made it to St.-Malo, their intended destination.  Due to storms and other mishaps encountered during the crossing, island Acadians landed also at Brest, Cherbourg, La Rochelle, Le Havre, Morlaix, and Boulogne-sur-Mer.  As planned, some, if not all, of the British transports landed at English ports before going on to France.  One ship, the Ruby, was driven by the mid-December storm to the Portuguese Azores, foundered on one of the islands there, and lost 190 of the 310 Acadians aboard, a death toll of 61.3%.  Evidently more of the Acadians died in the Azores.  A Portuguese ship took only 87 survivors to England, and an English vessel took them on to Le Havre.  After reaching France, some of these wayward Acadians remained in the ports where they had landed, while others moved on to St.-Malo to join relatives already there.  A careful perusal of the first two volumes of Albert Robichaux, Jr.'s Acadians in St.-Malo reveals a number of Acadian families who did not reach St.-Malo until the early 1760s.  However, most, if not all of these, late arrivals were not Maritime exiles but repatriated Acadians from various English ports who had been sent from Minas to Virginia in 1755, deported to England in the spring of 1756, held in various ports there for seven years, and repatriated to France in May 1763.  

Vessel Type Tons Master Numbers Departure Date Actual Destination Arrival Date Comments
Antelope ? ? ? 86 Sep? 1758 St.-Malo 1 Nov 1758 1 died at sea, 78 disembarked, 7 died after arrival01
Britannia ? ? ? 89 Sep? 1758 Brest 26 Oct 1758 8 died at sea, 1 died in hospital, & 7 died without notation09
Le Duc Guillaume [Duke William] ? ? ? 346 Sep? 1758 St.-Malo 1 Nov 1758 148 passengers died at sea, 283 left on aboard, 37 died in hospitals02
Queen of Spain ? ? ? 108 Sep? 1758 St.-Malo 17 Nov 1758 58 died at sea03
Duke of Cumberland ? ? ? 327 4 Sep 1758 La Rochelle ? from Louisbourg
Richmond ? ? ? 284 10 Sep 1758 La Rochelle ? from Louisbourg
Britannia ? ? ? 312 10 Sep 1758 La Rochelle ? from Louisbourg
Mary ? ? ? 560 27 Sep 1758 St.-Malo 30 Nov 1758? from Louisbourg with Acadians from Île St.-Jean; arrived Spithead, England, 31 Oct 1758, "in great distress," half of the passengers having died at sea
H.M.S. Hind ? ? ? ? 4 Nov 1758 St.-Malo 14 Nov 1758 escort vessel from Port-La-Joye to Louisbourg
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Cherbourg 30 Nov 1758 3 ships full of Acadians from both Île St.-Jean & Île Royale, perhaps one of them carrying survivors of the Mary
Ruby ? 380 William Kelly 310 Nov 1758? Pico Island, Azores never arrived carrying Acadians from Île St.-Jean; sank off the island of Pico in the Portuguese Azores; 190 lives lost, only 120 saved; 87 survivors sent to England aboard Portuguese ship Santa Catarina, which reached Portsmouth 4 Feb 1759; survivors left for France on Bird 10 Feb & arrived Le Havre, 15 Feb10
Neptune ? 234 John Beaton 179 Nov 1758? Boulogne-sur-Mer 26 Dec 1758 carrying Acadians from Île St.-Jean to St.-Malo, arrived Portsmouth, England, c23 Dec 1758, in great distress; went on to Boulogne-sur-Mer
Duke William ? 400 William Nicholls 364 25 Nov 1758 St.-Malo never arrived lost at sea 13 or 16 Dec 1758; captain, crew, French priest, & 4 Acadians survived, but most of the Acadians--360--perished02
John and Samuel ? 239 Willaim Dobson [206 av.] 25 Nov 1758 St.-Malo 23 Jan 1759 one of the "Five Ships" that contained a total of 1,033 Acadians06
Mathias ? 193 Thomas Dobbins [206 av.] 25 Nov 1758 St.-Malo 23 Jan 1759 one of the "Five Ships" that contained a total of 1,033 Acadians06
Nautiles ? ? ? ? 25 Nov 1758 St.-Malo ?  
Narcissus/Parnassus ? 425 William Johnson 0 never left -- -- wrecked in storm, Gut of Canso, 6 Nov 175811
Patience ? 183 Daniel Stephens [206 av.] 25 Nov 1758 St.-Malo 23 Jan 1759 one of the "Five Ships" that contained a total of 1.033 Acadians06
Restoration ? 177 Stephenson Haxton [206 av.] 25 Nov 1758 St.-Malo 23 Jan 1759 one of the "Five Ships" that contained a total of 1,033 Acadians06
Supply ? 189 William Wallace 163 25 Nov 1758 St.-Malo 9 Mar 1759 arrived Bideford, England, 20 Dec 1758; a few Acadians went on to Bristol, but most (140) went on to St.-Malo; 25 died at sea05 
Tamerlane ? 215 Charles Suttle 56 25 Nov 1758 St.-Malo 16 Jan 1759 6 died at sea04
Violet ? 315 Benajmin Suggittt 02 400 25 Nov 1758 St.-Malo never arrived lost at sea after storm, 12 Dec 1758; all aboard perished, including captain & crew02
Yarmouth ? 375 Samuel Henry [206 av.] 25 Nov 1758 St.-Malo 23 Jan 1759 one of the "Five Ships" that contained a total of 1,033 Acadians06

NOTES

01.  Passenger figures are from <perso.orange.fr/froux/St_malo_arrivees/index_arrivee.htm>.

02.  According to <perso.orange.fr/froux/St_malo_arrivees/index_arrivee.htm>, & Robichaux, Acadians in St.-Malo, a ship named Le Duc Guillaume, French for The Duke William, reached St.-Malo on 1 Nov 1758.  Upon its arrival, Le Duc Guillaume had 283 left on aboard; 148 passengers had died at sea, and 37 died in hospitals soon after arrival, for a death toll of 53.4%.  

Evidently there were two ships in the 1758-59 deportation named Duke William.  The second ship, which did not leave Chédaboutou Bay until 25 Nov 1758, weeks after the other Duke William reached St.-Malo, was the one lost at sea.  Dr. Landry says that as the Duke William, under Captain Nicholls, was sinking, the captain & his crew, along with the Acadians' priest, saved themselves, but most of the Acadians perished.  However, 4 Acadians managed to board a small ship's boat before the Duke William sank &, in 2 days, arrived safely at Falmouth.  The priest, meanwhile, along with the captain & some of the crew, made their way to Penzance in a lifeboat.  The rest of the crew sailed to Land's End aboard the ship's cutter & soon joined the others at Penzance.  See the website Acadian Roots, which contains Captain Nicholls's "Narrative of the Voyage and Loss of the Duke William, Transport ...," & Lucie LeBlanc Consentino's website <acadian-home.org>, which, under the titles "Acadians Die at Sea/Acadians Lost at Sea," contains an extract of a letter from Captain Nicholls sent from Pensanze[sic] & published  in the Pennsylvania Gazette on 19 Apr 1759, probably an earlier version of his "Narrative."  The captain's "Narrative" reveals the name of the Île St.-Jean priest who abandoned his Acadian charges aboard the Duke William--Fr. Pierre GERARD, a Frenchman.  Acadian genealogist Stephen A. White documents many families who perished aboard the Duke William.  See, for example, White, DGFA-1, 513, 519-20, DGFA-1 English, 111, which, citing Captain Nicholls's accounts, relates the fate of Noël DOIRON of Pointe-Prime, Île St.-Jean, & his entire family, who, White concludes, "perished when the ship [Duke William] sank in the sea."  DOIRON probably was the aged Acadian patriarch--"a hundred and ten years old," Captain Nicholls averred, but in truth "only" age 74--who, after all efforts had failed to save the vessel & no other ship would come to their rescue, insisted that the captain & his crew take to the boats & save themselves, knowing full well that the ship, with all its passengers, was doomed.  The numbers aboard the sunken Duke William--"upwards of three hundred French prisoners on board," "near four hundred souls," including officers & crew, &, precisely "three hundred and sixty souls" lost at sea--are from Captain Nicholls's Journal. 

Also in both of Captain Nicholls's accounts is the name of the captain of the Violet, which also sank in the North Atlantic in Dec 1758, a few days before the Duke William went down & within sight of the latter ship's passengers & crew.  Captain Nicholls says the Violet went down "with near four hundred souls."  No one, not even the captain & crew, survived the sinking of the Violet.  Delaney says that "almost 300 lives" were lost aboard that ship.  See <acadian-home.org>. 

Captain Nicholls's accounts are clear--his ship, the Duke William (which, remember, was the second of the name), sank 4 days after the Violet went down on Dec 12.  Delaney, Lockerby, White, DGFA-1, & other sources, followed here, insist the Duke William sank the following day on Dec 13. 

03.  <perso.orange.fr/froux/St_malo_arrivees/index_arrivee.htm>, says that this ship had 105 aboard, 66 died at sea, & 9 died in hospitals soon after arrival, for a total death toll of 71.4%.

04.  Passenger figures are from <perso.orange.fr/froux/St_malo_arrivees/index_arrivee.htm>.  Although the figures given here mention no passengers who died "aprés l'arrivée," note that Étienne Blanchard, age 29, "single," died at the residence of the widow Launay "at Bassablons," near St.-Malo, "until his death" on 10 Apr 1759, 2 1/2 months after the Tamerlane's arrival.  See Robichaux, Acadians in St.-Malo, 65.  One suspects that he died from the rigors of the crossing.  For Étienne's place on the ship's passenger list, see <perso.orange.fr/froux/St_malo_arrivees/Tamerlan.htm>, "Family" No. 12. 

05.  <perso.orange.fr/froux/St_malo_arrivees/index_arrivee.htm>, says that this ship had 167 aboard, 24 died at sea, & 19 died in hospitals soon after arrival, for a total death toll of 25.7%.

06.  According to <perso.orange.fr/froux/St_malo_arrivees/index_arrivee.htm>, followed here, the "Five Ships"--Yarmouth, Patience, Mathias, Restoration, & John Samuel --had 1,033 aboard, 339 died at sea, & 156 died in hospitals soon after arrival, for a death toll of 495, or 48%.  Delaney, "Chronology of the Deportations," <acadian-home.org>, says five ships with 692 Acadians prisoners from Île St.-Jean left for Louisbourg on Aug 31 & reached the citadel on Sep 4.  Delaney says that on Nov 25, from Chédabouctou Bay, which is on the northeastern coast of NS, the Duke William, Violet, Yarmouth, Neptune, John and Samuel, Ruby, & "at least one other ship with deportees from Ile-Saint-Jean," departed for France, & that the John and Samuel, Mathias, Patience, Restoration, & Yarmouth "with from 665 to 690 deportees on board from Ile-Saint-Jean," arrived at St.-Servan, near St.-Malo, on 23 Jan 1759. 

07.  Figures from Milling, Exile Without End, 47.  The Endeavour from Chignecto should not be confused with the Endeavour from Minas, which was driven by storm into Boston before continuing on to VA.

09.  See <perso.orange.fr/froux/St_malo_arrivees/index_arrivee.htm>.

10.  See Delaney, "Chronology of the Deportations," <acadian-home.org>; Lockerby, Deportation of the PEI Acadians, 41-43

In <acadian-home.org>, under the titles "Acadians Die at Sea/Acadians Lost at Sea," contains an article from the Pennsylvania Gazette, dated 29 Mar 1759, detailing the fate of the Ruby, under Master William Kelly:  "The same Day Capt. Wright arrived here from Fyal, and brought Advice, that the Ruby Transport, William Kelly, Master, bound to St. Maloes, with 310 of the Inhabitants of the Island of St. John on board, sprung a Leak in a Gale of Wind, and being in great Distress, the Captain made the best of his Way for the Western Islands, and thought to have got to Fyal; but the Wind shifting, they were obliged to stand for the Island of Pico, where the Ship struck on the Rocks, and soon went to Pieces, when 200 of the French perished. They had no Advice at Fyal of Commodore Keppel putting into Madeira, nor of his receiving any Damage at Sea."  

11.  See Captain Nicholls's accounts, cited above, which also calls the ship Parnassus Lockerby, Deportation of the PEI Acadians, 21, 30, also calls it Parnassus

12.  According to Millard, "The Acadians in Virginia," 257-58, 5 of the 7 transports sent to VA were allowed to remain:  1 was sent up to Richmond, 2 were disembarked at Hampton, & 2 at Norfolk.  Yet Gov. Dinwiddie complained of having to accommodate "1,140 neutrals."  See Millard, 248; Book Five. 

The Acadians remained in the colony for only 6 months, until they were deported to England aboard 4 hired vessels during the second week of May 1756.  These vessels included the Fanny Bovey, which reached Falmouth with 204 Acadians on Jun 18; the Virginia Packet, which reached Bristol with 289 Acadians on Jun 19; the Bobby Goodridge, which reached Portsmouth with 296 Acadians on Jun 23; & the Industry, which reached Liverpool with 243 Acadians on Jun 26--1,032 Acadians in all, compared to the 1,149 who arrived there on 7 transports from Nov 1755-Jan 1756.  The Industry likely was the same vessel that had transported 177 deportees from Minas to VA.  See Delaney, "Chronology of the Deportations," <acadian-home.org>.  Faragher, A Great & Noble Scheme, 382 gives different, higher numbers, as well as different destinations, for the Acadians going to England:  299 to Bristol, 250 to Falmouth, 340 to Southampton, & 336 to Liverpool, 1,225 in all.  This higher number implies that not only did few, if any Acadians, die in VA, but a substantial number of them were born there. 

13.  "Winslow's Journal 2," p. 178, gives one Hazlum as the captain of this vessel.  See also "Winslow's Journal 2," 172, which spells the name Haslam.  Evidently the original master was Ephraim Jones, who, on Oct 16, informed Lt. Col. Winslow that "As I am Under a poor State of Health, I desire your Honr to Put my Mate in as Master of the Sloop Swan, for I think he is a trusty Man."  Was this Jonathan Loviette?  Master Jones does not say.  See "Winslow's Journal 2," 174. 

14.  "Winslow's Journal 2," 178, calls this ship the Sally & Molly.  Millard, "The Acadians in Virginia," p. 242, calls it the Molly & Sarah Delaney, "Chronology of the Deportations," <acadian-home.org>, calls it both the Sarah and Molly & the Sally and Molly.  Dr. Landry, followed here, calls it the Sarah and Molly

15.  "Winslow's Journal 2," 178, spells his surname Bradgton. 

Delaney, "Chronology of the Deportations," <acadian-home.org>, says "The Pennsylvania Gazette (5 February 1756) announces that a vessel (the Properous), carrying Acadians, that was supposedly lost and had to put in at North Carolina to refit, was landed at Yorktown" on Dec 26. 

16.  "Winslow's Journal 2," 178, calls this ship the Encheere.  She should not be confused with the Endeavor from Chignecto. 

17.  "Winslow's Journal 1," p. 224, dated 9 Aug 1755, shows "the Sloop Elizabeth Nathl Milbery," about to depart Chignecto for Boston with discharged New Englanders from Winslow's battalion aboard.  "Winslow's Journal 2," p. 93, dated Sep 4, shows "the Sloop Elizabeth Nathl Milburry," with orders from Apthorp & Hancock dated Aug 21, arriving at Grand-Pré, so, in the weeks before the deportation she was a busy ship indeed.  "Winslow's Journal 2," 178, lists an unnamed ship captained by one Milbury carrying 186 Acadians to MD.  Was this the Elizabeth with a different count?  See also Book Five. 

18.  See "Winslow's Journal 2," 172-73. 

19.  This was the date they left Chignecto on their way to the rendezvous in the Annapolis Basin, which they reached the following evening & where they had to wait several weeks for the transports from Minas & Pigiguit to join them before sailing down the coast.  They did not actually put to sea until Oct 27.  See Book Five. 

20.  This is the date they left the Annapolis Basin for the voyage down the Atlantic coast.  They had left the Minas Basin a week before, on Oct 21.  See Book Five. 

21.  Dr. Landry says the Two Sisters left Annapolis on Oct 13, bound for CN or RI, but gives no arrival date.  Dr. Landry, as well as Delaney, "Chronology of the Deportations," <acadian-home.org>, say the Helena left Annapolis Royal for Boston on Oct 27.  Faragher, A Great & Noble Scheme, 363, says 7 transports left Annapolis Basin on Dec 8, so he evidently includes either the Two Sisters &, more likely, the Helena with the 6 other transports that departed that day.  See also Book Five. 

22.  Cpt. Adams & HMS Warren left with the 22 transports from Annapolis on Oct 27, its destination perhaps SC with the transports from Chignecto, but it was caught in the gale that struck the fleet, got as far as "Grand Menan" & "sprung a leake," which, after the repair, compelled him to return to NS.  He "Harboured" first at Georges Island, Halifax, & then returned to Annapolis on Dec 1, in time to assist with the embarkation there a week later.  See "Winslow's Journal 2," 186-87; Book Five.

23.  Dr. Landry says this ship began its voyage at Halifax.  Why?   

24.  Dr. Landry says the ship reached NY on 30 May 1756, but Delaney, "Chronology of the Deportations," <acadian-home.org>, says May 3.  Brasseaux, "Scattered to the Wind," 22, on the other hand, says May 6.  

25.  Delaney, "Chronology of the Deportations," <acadian-home.org>, says, under date 11 May 1756:  "The 72 Acadians of Pubnico [Pobomcoup] deported from Halifax on the Mary and destined for North Carolina[sic]," and who arrived at Boston on May 10, "refuse to leave Boston aboard the Leopard; on May 27 they will receive permission to stay and are scattered in the Massachusetts colony."  For a list of them, dated 6 May 1756, see Jehn, Acadian Exiles in the Colonies, 25. 

26.  Delaney, "Chronology of the Deportations," <acadian-home.org>, citing the Pennsylvania Gazette of 10 Jun 1756, says the Edward reached CN on May 29 following its fatal venture to Antigua. 

27.  Faragher, A Great & Noble Scheme, 383, says this vessel arrived in SC on Nov 15.  Delaney, "Chronology of the Deportations," <acadian-home.org>, says the Syren reached Charleston harbor with 4 transports between Nov 15-19. 

Dr. Landry says the Two Brothers reached Charleston harbor on Nov 11, but Delaney, "Chronology," says it arrived between Nov 15-19 with 3 other transports. 

28.  Delaney, "Chronology of the Deportations," <acadian-home.org>, without documentation, says the Providence left Halifax on Dec 30.   LeBlanc, R.-G., "Acadians in Halifax & on Georges Island," 6, citing a primary source (n17), says the Providence sailed from Halifax on Nov 15 & reached NC on 13 Jan 1756.  See Book Five. 

.

A note on Lucie LeBlanc Consentino's Facebook blog, dated 7 Sep 2012, reads:  "Regarding lists of Acadians who were on the Duke Wiliam[sic], the Violet and the Ruby (all ships that went down at sea while deporting the Acadians from Isle St-Jean and Isle Royale), Stephen White says he is still working on those lists and will not publish them until he has completed his work. He said that the fact the Cherbourg registers came online this year has helped him but admittedly it is an arduous task and even when published it will likely not ever be a totally complete list. The register for Pointe Prime would have helped but it went down with the Acadians. ;("

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