BOOK FOUR:  The French Maritimes

 

BOOK ONE:        French Acadia

BOOK TWO:        British Nova Scotia

BOOK THREE:     Families, Migration, and the Acadian "Begats"

BOOK FIVE:         The Great Upheaval

BOOK SIX:          The Acadian Immigrants of Louisiana

BOOK SEVEN:     French Louisiana

BOOK EIGHT:      A New Acadia

BOOK NINE:        The Bayou State

BOOK TEN:          The Louisiana Acadian "Begats"

BOOK ELEVEN:  The Non-Acadian "Cajun" Families of South Louisiana

BOOK TWELVE:  Acadians in Gray

 

Dry-cod fishermen from northern France set up their "flakes" on the shore near Cape Breton, mid-1500s. ...

Île Royale and Île St.-Jean, 1713-1730s

The treaties signed at Utrecht in 1713 did not grant all of French Acadia to the victorious British.  France continued to claim two large islands in the Maritimes region.  Cape Breton, the Unimake of the Mi'kmaq, lay east of peninsula Nova Scotia across the narrow Strait of Canso.  Like the Atlantic and Gulf shores of the peninsula, Cape Breton remained on the periphery of Acadian life.  What the Mi'kmaq called Epekwitk, "land cradled by the waves," the French called Île St.-Jean, today's Prince Edward Island Its French name derived from old accounts dating back to Cartier.  Though not as geographically close as Cape Breton Island to peninsula Acadia, the south shore of Île St.-Jean could be reached after only a day's boat ride from the north shore of the Chignecto isthmus.  The French renamed Cape Breton Island Île Royale, which also was the name of their new Maritimes colony.  Île St.-Jean, at the southern end of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, would serve as the western territory of the new colony.  The French created a colonial administration for Île Royale at a fishing port on the Atlantic side of Cape Breton Island--Havre-à-l'Anglois, or English Harbor, which they renamed Louisbourg.  But, because of the treaty's failure to establish clear-cut boundaries for the Maritimes region, the new French colony existed at first where there was only a claim of territory.  This changed in September 1720, when French diplomats, "with the Regent's full support, insisted that Canso Island was a part of Île Royale, and the British accepted that any islands lying north of the mainland (i.e., peninsular Nova Scotia) and in the Gulf of St. Lawrence were French possessions."245  

The new Maritimes colony was intended to play an important role in French imperial plans for North America.  First would be the resettlement of Frenchmen in French-controlled territory, particularly the Acadians of British Nova Scotia, who would create an agricultural base on Île St.-Jean, where soil and climate were more favorable to agriculture than on Île Royale.  For those Acadians who could not be lured to the Maritimes, the islands would nonetheless represent "a French presence on the Acadian doorstep" which could do much to hold Acadian allegiance to France, "especially through their ecclesiastical ties and the effective control of the Indians who lived among them by the government at Louisburg."   The islands also would serve as a base from which to protect the lucrative cod fisheries in the region, which Cape Breton had served for a century and a half.  Cape Breton also would guard the approaches to the Gulf of St. Lawrence, the gateway to Canada, and would serve to check the British presence in peninsula Nova Scotia, especially the British base at Canso.  Beginning in 1720, at great expense, the French constructed fortifications around Louisbourg based on Field Marshall, the marquis de Vauban's most elaborate configurations.  By the early 1740s, Louisbourg had become one of the most formidable fortresses in North America.252

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The long history of European presence on Cape Breton Island provided few clues as to its importance for either of the imperial powers before 1713.  Yet, for two centuries, the big island had played a role in the European exploitation of the New World.  Andrew Hill Clark describes it as "a place long and well known to those who used its shores for a fishery and to whom its resources of timber, coal, and gypsum were familiar.  Indeed," Clark continues, "Cape Breton may have been known to post-Columbian Europeans as long as any other part of the continent."  The Vikings may have ventured there hundreds of years before Cabot sailed along its eastern coast in 1497 and may even have landed there.  Not long after Cabot's voyage, in deference to his sponsors, the point of land along which he had sailed was referred to by cartographers and later explorers as the English cape--Cape Breton.  Fagundes may have wintered there with his fellow Portuguese in 1520.  Verrazzano, sailing for France, passed that way in 1524.  Cartier sailed north of the cape on his first voyage in 1534.  And Richard Hore of London may have visited the cape two years later.  According to Marc Lecarbot, Cartier and his superior, Jean-François de la Rocque, sieur de Robeval, had fortified themselves on Cape Breton Island during the early 1540s.  Clark notes that "the little cape ... that was to be attached to the whole island, probably goes back in cartographic record even beyond the certainty of the Maggiolo map of 1527."  By 1600, it was well known that the cape was part of a large island, not of the continent itself.253 

The first "settlers" on Cape Breton were the dry-cod fishermen, who found the island's Atlantic coast ideal for their labors.  They came as early as the mid-1550s, established their seasonal settlements, and returned for centuries to what Andrew Hill Clark describes as a "splendid array of harbors and coves."  By 1600 and into the seventeenth century, many of these fishery sites were named, if not settled.  The fishermen "chose sheltered inlets with gravel beaches and a good supply of wood for their flakes.  As the names on the earlier maps of Cape Breton show, each nationality tended to use specific harbours":  Havre d'Achpé, now Aspy; Niganiche, now Ingonish, and Port-d'Orléans, were favored by the Portuguese and then the French; Baie-Ste.-Anne, originally Grand Cibou, today's Englishtown, was popular with the French, who named it for the patron saint of fishing; Grand and Petit Bras d'Or, or Arm of Gold; Baie-des-Espagnols, or Spanish Bay, now Sydney, was first mentioned as a fishing station in a 1597 edition of Richard Hakluyt's Principal Navigations; there was Baie-de-l'Indiane, l'Indienne, or Lingan, now Indian Bay; Anse-de-la-Glace, now Glace or Frozen Bay; Mordienne, now Port Morien or Cow Bay; Baie-de-Miré, now Mira Bay; Île Scatarie; Main-à-Dieu Passage; Cap-Breton, for which the entire island was named; La Balaine or Baleine, also called Havre la Baleine and Port-aux-Baleines, perhaps originally a whaling center; Havre-à-l'Anglois, also Havre-aux-Anglais, or English Harbor, now Louisbourg; Petit and Grand Lorembec, also spelled Laurembec, now the Lorraines; Baie-de-Gabarus; Havre Fourché, now Fourchu; Grand and Petit Framboise; St.-Esprit; Pointe Micheau; L'Ardoise, named for its nearby slate quarries; Petit-Dégrat; Nerichac, now Arichat; Rivière-des-Habitants; and Île Madame, separated from Cape Breton Island by Petite Passage de Fronsac, today's Lennox Passage.  West of Île Madame ran the Grand Passage de Fronsac, also called the Strait or Gut of Canso, a deep, narrow channel separating Île Royale from peninsula Nova Scotia and leading to St. George's Bay and the Gulf of St. Lawrence.  During the early eighteenth century, the French found gypsum deposits on the island side of the Gut at Plaster Cove, today's Port Hastings.  The island's magnificent western shore, facing St. George's Bay and the Gulf of St. Lawrence, was virtually uninhabited except for Chéticamp, far up the coast.  The cod ran there in the spring but in nothing like the quantities found on the offshore banks along the Atlantic side of the island.  There, on the Atlantic, the fishermen found deposits of coal imbedded in the seaside bluffs from Baie-des-Espagnols around to Mordienne--"evidence of what was the best resource of mineral fuel on the whole eastern seaboard of North America."  During the seventeenth century, fishing vessels with excess hold capacity often were summoned "to dig and carry off a few hundredweight, or tons, for New France, New England, and the West Indies, or even Europe."  They also made note of the island's timber resources.  Gypsum deposits were discovered in the highlands overlooking Lac Bras d'Or, the large interior saltwater bay whose narrow inlet lay just up the coast from Baie-des-Espagnols.  Bras d'Or also could be approached from its southern end via an inlet that led to a narrow peninsula joining the two halves of the big island.254  

The first attempt to settle the island permanently came in the late 1620s, during another war between France and England.  In September 1621, King James I of England had awarded French Acadia, soon to be called "Nova Scotia," to fellow Scotsman Sir William Alexander the elder.  Alexander, in turn, awarded Cape Breton Island to court favorite Sir John Gordon of Lochinvar, who renamed the island New Galloway.  Lochinvar produced a pamphlet, dated 1625, encouraging his fellow Scotsmen to invest in his new settlement, but the Scotsman's death soon afterwards ended the Cape Breton venture.  In the summer of 1629, while on his way to construct a Scots settlement at Port-Royal, Nova Scotia, Sir William Alexander the younger directed his associate, James Stewart of Killeith, Lord Ochiltree, "to set up a fort and settlement" on Cape Breton Island.  Ochiltree attacked a Basque fishing vessel at La Baleine and used its guns to protect his new fort.  But Ochiltree and his 60 Scots did not remain long on New Galloway.  They harassed French fishermen in the area, extorting a ten-percent tax on their catches.  On September 18, perhaps while the new post was still under construction, Captain Charles Daniel of Dieppe, on his way to succor Champlain at Québec and aware that Ochiltree had harassed French fishermen after a treaty of peace had been signed in Europe, attacked La Baleine, captured Ochiltree and his men, and destroyed Fort Rosemar.  Using material from the Scots fort, and likely the labor of the Scotsmen themselves, Daniel constructed a settlement of his own, up the coast at Baie Ste.-Anne, near the inlet to the Bras d'Or Lakes.  Before winter set in, he deported the Scotsmen as prisoners to England and France.  He also left a small garrison at Fort Ste.-Anne, making it "the first permanent European settlement on the island--the first time that Europeans had stayed for more than the fishing season."  Father Barthélémy Vimont was a member of the garrison and the precursor of a short-lived Jesuit mission to serve the local Mi'kmaq--the first Jesuit mission in North America.  First the mission and then Daniel's post at Ste.-Anne were abandoned by 1641.  During the 1630s, however, Cardinal Richelieu's Company of New France, either under the aegis of Isaac de Razilly, the new governor of Acadia, or under a different grant, built Fort St.-Pierre at the head of an inlet that led to the narrow peninsula south of Lac Bras d'Or.  This placed a new French post on the other side of the island from Daniel's Ste.-Anne.  In the early 1640s, Louis Tuffet commanded Fort St.-Pierre.  Evidently the site, with its inlet on the Atlantic, was ideal for ship building.  In the spring of 1644, master ship's carpenter Robert Cormier of La Rochelle, having signed an indenture for three years' service with Tuffet, arrived at Fort St.-Pierre aboard Le Petit St.-Pierre with his wife and two sons.  In 1647, Company associate Guilles Guignard was in charge of the fort.  Earlier that year, the new French king, Louis XIV, had named Charles de Menou, sieur d'Aulnay, a former associate of the now-dead Razilly, as governor-general of Acadia.  Taking advantage of his new title and privileges, d'Aulnay seized Fort St.-Pierre from Guignard and added it to his own extensive holdings.255 

In 1650 or 1651, during the chaos following d'Aulnay's sudden death at Port-Royal, Nicolas Denys, another former associate of Isaac de Razilly, took control of Fort St.-Pierre.  According to Andrew Hill Clark, it was Denys who transformed the place into the most important settlement on the island, though its population was always small.  In 1651, agents claiming to represent d'Aulnay's widow disputed Denys's claim to the fort, but he acquired a "good title" in 1653 and remained there.  That same year, Nicolas's older brother, Simon Denys de La Trinité, rebuilt Charles Daniel's post at Ste.-Anne.  As he revealed in his memoirs many years later, Nicolas "cleared nearly one hundred acres near his fortified post [at St.-Pierre] ... and built a 'road' on which to drag small vessels across the isthmian portage" to the head of Lac Bras d'Or.  "It was a strategic location for trade with the Indians, for this portage was used by most of the peripatetic groups of Micmac who came and went between the Acadian mainland and the interior of the island.  Denys accurately observed that the interior lake was surrounded by mountains (some of them, he noted, contained gypsum)" and a "mixed forest of spruce, fir, hemlock, pine, and larch with birch, maple, and beech which, in somewhat changing specific proportions, has dominated the island ever since."  Denys also explored extensively the big island's outer coast, all of which he believed lay within his large concession.  At Havre-à-l'Anglois, "he noted that the fishermen of La Rochelle had come in old times to winter in order to be fishing as early in the spring as possible--for it was France's early market that paid most handsomely."  He inspected the hill of coal at Baie-des-Espagnols and found more useful trees there:  maple, ash, and oak.  He explored the harbor at Ste.-Anne, "with its all-but-inclosing bar and the cliff of gypsum at its foot."  Up the coast, he visited Niganiche, rounded Cape North, stopped at Le Chadye, present-day Chéticamp, on the lonely western shore fronting the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and continued down and around to the Gut of Canso and back to Fort St.-Pierre.256 

After the English seized Acadia in 1654, Denys made a deal with the new overlords and retained control of Fort St.-Pierre and his other holdings in the region.  His luck ran out in the winter of 1668/69, when Fort St.-Pierre burned ... again.  Unable to rebuild, he retreated to Nepisiguit, his outpost on the Baie des Chaleurs.  According to Andrew Hill Clark, after 1669, "we infer, rather than know of, only wintering fishermen temporarily in one or another harbor" on Cape Breton Island.  "The Indians, constantly on the move, fluctuated widely in numbers and generally camped on the shores of Bras d'Or Lake when they did winter there."  In 1677, Denys received from the intendant of New France an order granting him control of the coal and gypsum beds on the island, which others had accessed over the years without paying him a fee, but the aging proprietor's hold on the big island, for all practical purposes, had ended.  "Gargas' census of 1687/88 mentions one man and five engagés as the European population on the island, along with some Indians.  An additional ninety Indians were listed for 'Canceau' and 'Isles St-Pierre,' the latter possibly the Isle Madame area southwest" of Fort St.-Pierre.  In other words, after Denys and his fellows left Fort St.-Pierre, the big island was virtually abandoned, at least by European settlers.  Clark goes on:  "Until the eighteenth century the claims of sovereignty over the island or its parts, formal or informal, were of little significance or effect:  no country appeared to want to make permanent establishments there and the vessels of all the western European nations, and of their North American colonies, visited it frequently.  Indeed, one is reminded of the 'hands off' attitude of European powers, especially Great Britain and France, toward New Zealand a century later."  Cape Breton essentially reverted to "an international haven for drying fish, for a shore-based boat fishery, and for obtaining supplies of wood, coal, or water."257 

Queen Anne's War of 1702-13 changed all that, at least from the French perspective.  As early as 1706, Jacques Raudot, the intendant of New France, envisioned a role for Cape Breton Island in the evolution of French imperial interests in North America.  Seven years earlier, far to the south on the Gulf of Mexico, Canadian naval officer Pierre Le Moyne, sieur d'Iberville, motivated by La Salle's great vision of French domination of the continent, founded the new colony of Louisiana on Biloxi Bay.  Looking to the east, Raudot "urged a French establishment on Cape Breton to serve three main purposes:  as an entrepôt between France, Canada, Plaisance (Placentia, in Newfoundland), and Acadia where cargoes could be transshipped; as a location that would allow a winter fishery (pêche d'automne) as well as a summer one and a base for sealing and whaling; and as a haven for French merchant and naval vessels and a base from which to annoy the English" in the region.   What France lost in the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713 placed Cape Breton at the center of French imperial plans.  Peninsula Acadia was gone, as was Plaisance, on Newfoundland's southeastern coast, then the "only settlement base" for the French offshore fishery.  These losses, coupled with the retention of Canada, Illinois, the pays d'en haut, Louisiana, and the Maritimes, led to the creation of the new colony of Île Royale, with Île St.-Jean as a western component, and the construction of a fortress on Cape Breton Island.258  

French officials, consulting a survey of the island's potential for defense conducted by military engineer Jacques L'Hermitte of Plaisance, considered several sites for a naval fortress on Île Royale, all of them located on the Atlantic coast:  Daniel's and Simon Denys's old post at Ste.-Anne, renamed Port-Dauphin; Nicolas Denys's old post at St.-Pierre, renamed Port-Toulouse; Havre-à-l'Anglois, renamed Louisbourg; and "the most commodious harbor of all," Baie-des-Espagnols.  Raudot had favored the latter location:  "Its spacious harbor was protected by a largely submerged sandbar which blocked much of the entrance; it had excellent, sandy beaches and holding bottoms; there was adequate space and depth of water for any size of fleet; the land around it seemed more attractive (or less unattractive) for agriculture than that near Louisburg; there were both good timber and open-face coal mines nearby; and, of great importance, it was fairly close to the fishery.  Finally, by way of a short portage to Bras d'Or Lake, it had easy access to the interior and by way of St. Peters [Port-Toulouse] a protected avenue of connection with the Canso region and the Acadian (Nova Scotian) mainland."  St.-Pierre/Port-Toulouse also offered many advantages, known since Denys's time there--a potential for agriculture, close proximity to the fishery at Île Madame and Canso, hardwood forests, and a spacious harbor.  However, "a narrow entrance and a bar excluded ships of over 150 tons."  Much attention was given to Port-Dauphin, especially by Île Royale's first governor, Philippe de Pastour de Costebelle, formerly in command at Plaisance, whose headquarters were at Baie Ste.-Anne.  He praised the local soil and vegetation there, and especially the impressive harbor at Port-Dauphin "with a bar leaving a narrow channel which, adequate for peaceful entry, promised facilities for defense."  L'Hermitte also praised the defensibility of the post, as well as its commercial potential, noting that nearby stood deposits of gypsum and coal and also impressive stands of timber.  However, as at other sites around the island, an agricultural base there would have required clearing of the steep uplands.  Moreover, some of the fishermen, who would have established its economic base, complained that it was "too far from the fishing grounds for the use of shallops, and its encircling hills cut off the breezes essential for 'making' of the dried codfish," though the area had been used as a cod-fishing station since 1597.  And then there was Louisbourg, favored by Costabelle's second in command, King's Lieutenant Joseph Mombeton de Brouillan de Saint-Ovide.  Lying so near Cape Breton, Louisbourg "was the closest port to Europe and one of the longest and best known to French sailors in North America.  As a major haven for the fishery and port-of-call for the transatlantic traffic, with a harbor that could handle a hundred ships, year-round access to the open sea, and capability for defense from naval attack, it served well, although as a site for a naval fortress it faced the handicaps of a lack of building stone and lime."  There were other disadvantageous at Louisbourg.  Its foggy coast could pose a problem for navigation, and agriculturally it had nothing to recommend it, though this was the case for the other possible sites as well.260

In 1715, after much deliberation and aided by the opinion of shakers and movers in New France, including governor-general Philippe de Rigaud de Vaudreuil at Québec, the Conseil de la Marine chose Port-Dauphin as the new colonial capital.  This suited Governor Costabelle just fine.  In 1718, however, soon after Costabelle had died following a transatlantic crossing, the head of the Conseil changed his mind and ordered the capital moved to Louisbourg, much closer to the center of the cod-fishing industry.  This no doubt suited Saint-Ovide, who had succeeded Costabelle as governor on 16 September 1717.260a

Construction of fortifications, in stone, not wood, the first appearing in 1717, began in earnest at Louisbourg with the erection of the King's Bastion in 1720.  However, until a town arose behind the fortified walls, the area's population remained insignificant.  Desperate for new settlers, Intendant Raudot had proposed to deny disabled soldiers their pensions in France and force them to emigrate to Cape Breton, but the Conseil de la Marine rejected the idea.  A wellspring of emigrants lay much closer to home.  By October of 1714, Andrew Hill Clark tells us, "all of the settlers at Placentia (except the handful who chose to take the oath of loyalty to Queen Anne and remain) had been transferred and some 180 people were established around Louisburg, or nearby in Baleine or Scatarie Island."  This was, as mandated by the Treaty of Utrecht, the transference of the French fishery of southern Newfoundland to Cape Breton Island. 

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Although most of the immigrants from Plaisance were fishermen/habitants, they were devoted more to fishing than to farming.  The fishery on Île Royale would thrive, but no agricultural base for Louisbourg would come of it.  Most of the heads of these fishing families were natives of France or Newfoundland, and one had sprung from an Englishman!  On Île Royale, these fisherfolk created a kind of créole elite with a typically high rate of endogamy.  Few of them married into families from peninsula Acadia.155 

Jean-François, called François, Bertrand married Ozanne, also called Marie-Anne, Chevros of St.-Martin-de-Ré, on Île de Ré, near La Rochelle, France, in c1650.  During the late 1650s or early 1660s, they emigrated to the French fishery at Plaisance, Newfoundland.  Ozanne gave Jean-François six children, two sons and four daughters, the older ones born in France, the younger ones in Newfoundland:  Anne on Île de Ré in c1651; François, fils at Île de Ré in c1653; Marguerite either place; Marie-Anne either place; Ambroise at Plaisance in c1663; and Renée in c1664.  Jean-François died by c1667, when Ozanne remarried at Plaisance.  Their daughters married into the Rogeon (Royon) dit Le Suisse, Trotel dit Amus, Gilbert (Gillebert), Jouglas, and Balon dit Desfairens families.  Oldest son François, fils married Jeanne Giraudet at Plaisance in c1678 and served as harbor pilot and colonel of militia at the fishery; he also was a chevalier in the Order of St.-Louis.  Jeanne gave the colonel seven children, three sons and four daughters, all born in Newfoundland:  François III; Marguerite; Renée; Marie-Josèphe; Pierre; Jean; and Anne.  François and Jeanne's daughters married into the Dangeac, Le Neuf de La Vallière, Rousseau de Villejoin, and d'Ailleboust d'Argenteuil families--all members of the colonial aristocracy.  Older sons François III and Pierre married into the Lucas and Tompique families.  Youngest son Jean married Marie, daughter of Emmanuel Le Borgne de Bélisle and Cécile Thibodeau, at La Baleine, Île Royale, in April 1717--another connection to the aristocracy of greater Acadia.  Daughter Marie-Renée married into the L'Hermite family.  One of Jean's sons, Jean-Thomas, emigrated to Louisiana.280 

____ Commère married in c1662 a woman whose name has been lost to history.  She gave him five children, a son and four daughters, all born at Plaisance, Newfoundland:  Jeanne; Anne-Marie, born in c1664; Thomas dit La Chapelle in c1667; Marie; and Simone.  ____'s daughters married into the Le Grand, Laussois, Carmel, Borny, and Spar (Haspart) families.  Son Thomas married Charlotte, daughter of Gilles Vincent dit Desmarets and Marguerite Durand, at Plaisance in c1697.  Charlotte gave him 11 children, only the oldest one at Newfoundland, the others on Île Royale:  Marguerite, born in c1698; three sons who died as infants; Antoine; Charlotte; Gillette; Louis at Scatary, Île Royale, in c1722; Servan at Scatary in c1723; Adrien at Port-Orléans in c1724; and Joseph at Port-Orléans in c1725.  On Île Royale, Thomas worked as a fisherman/habitant and in the coasting trade.  Three of his daughters married into the Duval, Le Barbier Duplessis, and Guyon families.  Sons Louis and Servan married into the Grossin and La Forest families.  A French official counted Thomas, Charlotte, and sons Louis and Servan and their families at Baie-des-Espagnols in April 1752.  The official noted that Louis still maintained a presence on his native Île Scatary.  With the family were "four domestics, including a 36 months man," an indication that Thomas dit La Chapelle and his sons were doing well.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.103

Thomas Pitt dit Tompique, born at Ringwood, England, in c1644, emigrated to Newfoundland and married Anne Raymond of Meschers-sur-Gironde, Saintonge, France, at Plaisance in c1665.  She gave him fives children, four sons and a daughter, all born at Plaisance:  Pierre dit Petry dit Pisk dit le Chevalier de l'Isle-Longue in c1670; Marie in c1672; Gaspard; Jean-Pierre; and Thomas, fils, born in c1685.  Thomas, père and Anne died at Plaisance by 1708.  Daughter Marie married into the Charpentier and Carrerot families.  Gaspard and Jean-Pierre probably died in childhood.  Oldest son Pierre dit Petry became a successful fisherman/habitant at Plaisance and Petit-Plaisance, but he did not marry.  Youngest son Thomas, fils married Marie, daughter of Mathieu Ostendeau and Anne Rogeon, at Plaisance in February 1708, and emigrated to Île Royale after 1714 and settled at La Baleine, near Louisbourg.  Marie gave him at least eight children, the first two born at Plaisance, the others at La Baleine:  Françoise was born in c1712; Pierre in c1714; Catherine in January 1717; André in April 1719; Marie-Josèphe in June 1720; Étienne in August 1722; Thomas-Pierre in January 1727; and Pierre-François in June 1729.  Daughters Françoise and Catherine married into the Bertrand and Voisin families.  Pierre married Marie-Anne, daughter of Jean Bertrand and Marie Le Borgne de Bélisle, at La Baleine in October 1736.  André married first to Cécile, daughter of Bernard Daigre and Angélique Richard, at Grand-Pré in British Nova Scotia in January 1744, and remarried to Anne, daughter of Jean Benoit and Marie-Josèphe Thériot, also peninsula Acadians, at La Baleine in April 1752.  Étienne married Marguerite-Jeanne, daughter of Jean Tesse and Marie-Josèphe Bodart, probably at La Baleine in February 1752.  Thomas-Pierre married Anne Bénard in c1772 probably at Cayenne, French Guyane, where he died in October 1772, age 45.  Pierre-François survivied childhood but did not marry.  A French official counted the extended family--Thomas, fils's widow Marie; André, still a widower; Étienne and his bride; Thomas-Pierre; Pierre-François; and two of Marie's daughter Françoise's orphaned children--at La Baleine in April 1752.  The following August, the same French official counted Françoise Comeau, wife of François Renaud and widow of ____ Tompic, at Rivière-des-Blonds, on the southern coast of Île St.-Jean.  With the family was Marie Tompic, age 15, so her father and mother had been married in the late 1730s.  One wonders which Tompic this may have been, and if he was a descendant of Thomas Pitt dit Tompique.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.150

Abraham Pichot or Pichaud, master locksmith and gunsmith, born in c1640, came to Plaisance, Newfoundland, by c1669, when he married Madeleine, daughter of Jacques Aubert and Anne Rabellaud of La Rochelle, at the French fishery.  Abraham also worked as a fisherman/merchant and died at Plaisance in c1691.  Madeleine died there in December 1713, on the eve of the fishery's retrocession to Britain.  Madeleine gave Abraham at least eight children, five sons and three daughters, all born at Plaisance:  Isaac in c1670; Anne in c1672; Jean-Pierre in c1673; Jean in c1674; Marie-Madeleine; Jean-François; René dit Renaud, in c1680; and Jeanne.  All but one of their five sons married, but the name of oldest son Isaac's wife, who he married at La Rochelle in c1698, has been lost to history.  Younger sons Jean-Pierre, Jean-François, and René dit Renaud married into the de Gonillon, Melanson, Chevalier, and Toulon families.  Jean-François was the only son who did not move on to Île Royale after 1714; he married at Grand-Pré in British Nova Scotia soon after the retrocession, settled near his Melanson in-laws, and died at Minas in c1726 or 1727.  Jean-Pierre, meanwhile, settled at La Baleine and Lorembec on Île Royale; and René dit Renaud settled at nearby St.-Esprit before moving down the coast to Petit-Dégrat, off Île Madame.  They both worked as fishermen/habitants.  Abraham and Madeleine's two older daughters, Anne and Marie-Madeleine, married into the Dihars dit Estevin and Lamoureaux dit Rochefort families at Plaisance and also moved on to Île Royale.  Marie-Madeleine died on the island in 1718-19.  Anne died at Port-Orléans, on the Atlantic coast north of Louisbourg, in c1733.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.73

Pierre Le Grand, born probably in France, married Jeanne Commère of Plaisance, Newfoundland, probably at the fishery in c1681.  She gave him two children there:  Pierre-César-Alexandre, born in c1682; and Marie.  Pierre died probably at Plaisance by August 1697, when Jeanne remarried there.  She died there in October 1711.  Daughter Marie married into the Boitier dit Bérichon family in September 1706, place unrecorded, and died three years later, place unrecorded.  Pierre-César-Alexandre went to Île Royale in late 1714 and, the following year, was granted a concession at the fishery on Île Scatary, off the Atlantic coast.  He married Madeleine, daughter of Étienne Dihars dit Estevin and Anne Pichot and widow of Gilles Laussois, on the island in c1720; Madeleine also was a native of Newfoundland.  She gave him at least seven children, all born on the island:  Georges in c1726; Marie-Barbe-Élie in c1728; Jeanne in c1729; Marie in c1730; Guy-Alexandre in c1731; Louis in c1733; and Louise in c1735.  Daughters Marie-Barbe-Élie and Jeanne married into the Mirande and Sabot families.  A French official counted Pierre, Madeleine, and their unmarried children "on the Great Harbour of the Isle de Scatary" in April 1752, when Pierre-César-Alexandre was age 70.  He owned two boats and employed a domestic servant.  His concession included "grounds on which to make drying sheds for the fish of six boats."  Daughter Jeanne was counted with her family a few days later at nearby Anse-Darembourg, daughter Marie-Barbe-Élie with her family at Lorembec a few days after that.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.136

Jean Dubordieu, born at Marennes, Saintonge, France, in c1658, a fisherman/habitant, married Marie Boucher probably at Plaisance in c1683.  She gave him five children, all born at Plaisance:  Jeanne in c1685; Jean; two more sons who died young; and a second daughter who died young.  Daughter Jeanne married into the Ricord and Rolland dit Larivière families in Newfound, and into the Chênet family at Port-Toulouse, Île Royale.  She died at Louisbourg in August 1741, in her mid-50s.  Jean and Marie also moved to Île Royale probably in 1714.  Jean, père died at Louisbourg in June 1736, age 78.  Marie died at Lorembec in February 1745, age unrecorded.  Meanwhile, son Jean, fils married Françoise, daughter of Étienne DesRoches and Gabrielle Le Manquet of Plaisance, probably at Lorembec in c1717.  Françoise gave him at least nine children there:  Perrine, born in c1727; Félix in c1728; François in c1729; Simon-Louis in c1732; Julienne in c1734; Marie in c1735; Françoise in c1738; Jean III in c1741; and Guillaume in c1745.  Jean, fils died probably at Lorembec in the late 1740s, age unrecorded.  In April 1752, a French official counted Françoise, still unmarried, and four of her children--sons Félix, François, and Simon, in their early 20s, and daughter Marie, age 17, none of them  married--at Lorembec, where they lived and worked on a fishing concession their mother did not yet own.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.162

Gilles Vincent dit Desmarets, not kin to the Vincents of peninsula Acadia, married Marguerite Durand in Newfoundland in c1683 and settled at Plaisance and St.-Pierre.  Marguerite gave him nine children, six sons and three daughters, all born in Newfoundland:  Charlotte at Plaisance in c1684; Adrien, birth place and birth date unrecorded; Barbe at Plaisance, date unrecorded; Jean probably at Plaisance; Michel probably at Plaisance; Bernard at Plaisance; Bernardine probably at Plaisance; Gilles, fils at Plaisance in c1694; and Eustache at Plaisance.  Gilles took his family to the fishery at Île Scatary, off Newfoundland, by 1716, and died at Port-Orléans, up the coast, in c1722.  Three of his sons married, two of them, Bernard and Gilles, fils, into the Dihars and Maisonnat families.  The name of youngest son Eustache's wife has been lost to history.  Two of Gilles's and Marguerite's daughters married into the Commère dit La Chapelle and Le Manquet dit Benjamin families and remained on Île Royale.  One of Gilles's granddaughters, Marie Vincent dit Desmarets, married Thomas Poirée, a French fisherman, and settled at Anse-Darembourg, on the north shore of Île Scatary, where a French official counted them in April 1752.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.99

Jean Borny married Marie Commère, a native of Plaisance, Newfoundland, probably at Plaisance in c1687.  He likely worked as a fisherman/habitant there.  Marie gave him 11 children, five son and six daughters, most, if not all, of them born in Newfoundland:  Jean; Marie; Joseph at St.-Pierre; Anne; Jeanne at Plaisance in c1695; Marie at Plaisance in c1698; Basile there in c1702; Thérèse at Grand-Banc in c1705; Agnès; Gabriel; and Charles.  After 1714, they settled at Port-Orléans, on the upper Atlantic coast of Île Royale.  Four of their sons--Joseph, Basile, Gabriel, and Charles--married into the Malvillain, Pichot, Le Bon, and Vincent dit Desmarets families.  They settled at Port-Orléans, Île Scatary, Petit-Bras-d'Or, and Baie-de-l'Indienne on the island and also worked as fishermen.  Five of Jean and Marie's daughters--Anne, Jeanne, Marie, Thérèse, and Agnès--married into the Durand, Sabot, Le Berteau dit Lyonnais, Anquetil dit La Brutière, Le Caudé dit La Fontaine, Allain, and Philippot families.  Joseph's older daughter Michelle married into the Philibert family and settled at Anse-Darembourg, on the north shore of Île Scatary, where a French official counted Michelle, her husband, three of their children, and four of her unmarried siblings--Joseph, fils; Anne; Nicolas, called Colas; and Thomas--in April 1752.  None of Jean's descendants emigrated to Louisiana.101

Étienne Dihars dit Estevin, born at St.-Jean-de-Luz, in the Basque country of southwestern France, in c1660, married Anne, daughter of Abraham Pichot and Madeleine Aubert of Plaisance, Newfoundland, probably at Plaisance in c1689, and worked as a fisherman/habitant there.  Anne gave him eight children, three sons and five daughters, all of them born at Plaisance:  Catherine in c1691; Jeanne in June 1692; Madeleine in c1694; Marguerite in c1698; Georges; Étienne, fils in c1704; Marie-Anne; and Alexandre.  Étienne, père died in either Newfoundland or Île Royale between 1711 and 1716.  His widow settled at Port-Orléans.  Two of her three sons married there, into the Coupiau dit Desaleur and Commère dit La Chapelle families.  Son Georges moved on to Petit-Bras-d'Or, down the coast, where he, too, worked as a fisherman/habitant.  Four of Étienne and Anne's daughters married into the Lartigue, Laussois, Le Grand, Vincent dit Desmarets, and Gonsalin families on Île Royale.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.95

Jean Ozelet or Osselet, born at La Tremblade, near Rochefort, France, in c1664, emigrated to Newfoundland probably in the 1680s and became a fisherman/habitant there.  He married Madeleine, daughter of Louis Beaufet and Marthe Orion, at Plaisance in c1692.  They had eight children.  Between 1694 and 1711, Jean and his family lived at Petit-Grève, Plaisance, Petit-Plaisance, and Grand-Grève, Newfoundland.  In 1715, French officials counted them at Louisbourg.  They were living at Petit-Dégrat, off Île Madame, by 1719 and were still living there in 1726.  Four of Jean and Madeleine's daughters married into the de Lafargue, Boulanger dit Saint-Nicolas, Grénard dit Bélair, and Villalon families on Île Royale.  Oldest son Jean, fils left the Maritimes in the 1730s and settled at Cobeguit in British Nova Scotia.  He married Jeanne, daughter of François Moyse and Marie Brun, in c1736, place unrecorded, and was the only one of Jean and Marie's three sons to create a family of his own.  Jean, fils's only son Jean-Baptiste emigrated to Louisiana from France.281 

Jean Lamoureux dit Rochefort, of Rochefort, France, married Marie-Madeleine, daughter of Abraham Pichot and Madeleine Aubert, at Plaisance, Newfoundland, in c1693, where he worked as fisherman/habitant and served as a major of the Plaisance militia.  They also lived at Grand-Grève, near Plaisance.  Marie-Madeleine gave Rochefort at least five children, a son and four daughters, all born at Plaisance except the youngest:  Madeleine was born in c1694; Marie-Anne in c1698; Marie-Jeanne's birth year is unrecorded; Jean-Baptiste was born in c1704; and a daughter, born probably on Île Royale in c1715, died as an infant.  Jean dit Rochefort became a merchant at Louisbourg.  He and his family also settled at Baie-de-l'Indienne, up the coast from Louisbourg, before moving to Île St.-Jean.  There they lived at Pointe-de-l'Est and Havre-St.-Pierre on the island's north shore.  Son Jean-Baptiste married Marie-Claire, daughter of Jean Pothier and Marie-Madeleine Chaisson, at St.-Pierre-du-Nord, the church for Havre-St.-Pierre, in July 1740, and died there in May 1758, on the eve of the island's Grand Dérangement.  Three of his sisters married into the Morin dit Langevin, Dutraque, and Baudouin Le Cluzeau families at Plaisance or on Île Royale, so the family endured its own dérangement.  At least three of Jean dit Rochefort's descendants, all children of son Jean-Baptiste, emigrated to Louisiana from France.97

Pierre-Louis Courthiau, born at Bayonne, France, in c1672, emigrated to Newfoundland, where, at Grand-Grave, Grande-Plaisance, he worked as a fisherman/habitant.  He married Catherine, daughter of Jean Chevros dit Colloque and Jeanne Aubert, at Plaisance, in c1693 and served the fishery as subdélégué des officiers de l'Amirauté, or subdelegate to the Admiralty court.  Catherine gave him five children, all born at Plaisance:  a son born in c1698 who probably died an infant; Marie-Anne, birth year unrecorded; another son who died an infant; Jean-Baptiste, born in c1702; and Pierre-Louis in c1705.  After the family moved to Île Royale, daughter Marie-Anne married Marc-Antoine de La Forest of Rochefort, a widower, at Port-Dauphin in c1718.  Like her father, Marie-Anne's husband was a French official, even more highly placed; he had served as commissaire-ordonnateur of Plaisance in the early 1710s, and, after moving to Île Royale, was named écrevain, or secretary, ordinaire de la Marine et baillif of Port-Toulouse.  Marie-Anne's brother Jean-Baptiste married Marie-Geneviève, called Geneviève, Marc-Antoine de La Forest's daughter by his first wife, at Port-Orléans, on the upper Atlantic coast, in c1734.  When a French official counted Jean-Baptiste and Geneviève at Port-Dauphin in March 1752, they had no children in their household, only Geneviève's 17-year-old half-sister Catherine La Forest.  Marie-Anne and Jean-Baptiste's younger brother Pierre-Louis died at Louisbourg in March 1733, only 28 years old and still a bachelor.  No member of this familiy emigrated to Louisiana.89

Guillaume Coupiau dit Desaleur married Françoise Vriel of Granville, Normandy, in c1696, probably at Plaisance, where he worked in the fisheries there and at nearby St.-Pierre.  Françoise gave him at least nine children, including five sons and three daughters who survived childhood:  Geneviève, birth year unrecorded; Guillaume, fils, born at Plaisance in c1697; Jean at Plaisance; Denis at St.-Pierre; Augustin-Servan at Plaisance; Marie at St.-Pierre in c1705; Louis probably at St.-Pierre; Anne; and a child who died as an infant.  Guillaume died on Île Royale by October 1719, when his wife remarried at Port-Orléans.  All five of Guillaume's sons married on Île Royale, into the Hébert, Melanson, Des Roches, and Dingle families.  Three of their daughters married into the Glamard, Dihars dit Estevin, and Gassot families.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.96

Dominique Viarreau dit Duclos, born at Béarn, France, in c1675, married Anne Irlandoise in c1697, probably at Plaisance, where he served as a surgeon.  She gave him no children.  In 1714, Dominique joined other fisherman/habitants at Newfoundland in their movement to the new French colony of Île Royale.  He remarried to Marie, daughter of André Simon dit Boucher and Marie Martin and widow of Jean-Baptiste Dubois dit Dumont, at Port-Toulouse, on the island, in c1715.  They moved to Île St.-Jean in 1720, probably under the aegis of the Compagnie de l'Île St.-Jean.  Dominique served as a master surgeon at Havre-St.-Pierre, on the north coast of the island, for the rest of his days.  Marie gave him three children, all born in the French Maritimes:  Marie on Cape Breton Island in c1716; Jacques-Dominique either on Île Royale or at Havre-St.-Pierre in c1720; and Anne at Port-La-Joye, Île St.-Jean, in June 1725.  All three of their children married on the island, Marie to Michel dit Miguel de Loyal at St.-Pierre-du-Nord, the church for Havre-St.-Pierre in c1730; and Anne to Charles-François Laborde at St.-Pierre-du-Nord in October 1742.  Jacques-Dominique married Marie, daughter of Jean-Baptiste Vécot and Marie Chiasson, at St.-Pierre-du-Nord in October 1742.  She gave him at least four children, all born on the island:  Marie-Françoise in c1751; Marie-Josèphe in c1752; Anne-Charlotte in c1754; and Angélique in c1756.  In August 1752, a French official counted Marie Simon dit Boucher, now a widow, and her three children with their families at Havre-St.-Pierre.  Daughter Marie was a widow also.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.247

Étienne Des Roches, a native of Ploubalay, near St.-Malo, France, married Gabrielle Le Manquet of Plaisance probably at the fishery in c1703.  He was in his early 50s and she in her early 20s at the time of the wedding.  He worked as a fisherman/habitant.  On Île Royale, they settled at La Baleine and Lorembec, near Louisbourg.  Gabrielle gave Étienne nine children:  Françoise, born at Plaisance in c1704; Étienne, fils in c1709; Perrine in c1712; Marguerite in c1713; Louise at La Baleine in February 1714; Jean in May 1716; Marie-Anne in July 1718; Antoine in April 1721; and Guillaume in October 1724.  Their six daughters married into the Dubordieu, Dupont, Coupiau dit Desaleur, Bannet, Yvon, Herpin, and Simon dit Boucher families.  Their four sons married into the Simon dit Boucher, Gosselin, Coupiau dit Desaleur, Valet, and Sollé families.  In April 1752, a French official counted Gabrielle, now a widow; son Antoine; son Guillaume, still a bachelor; son Étienne, fils's widow; daughters Françoise, Perrine, and Marguerite; and their respective families, at Lorembec.  The DesRoches sisters, by then, also were widows.  Each of the families was actively engaged in the local fishery.  However, Guillaume and his siblings evidently were having difficulties.  The French official noted that Guillaume "had made use of the homestead of one named Adam Perré," his and his mother's neighbor, "having no dwelling place of his own, that on which he built his house belonging to several brothers and sisters who refused to assist him to improve it, telling him that he could work on it himself if he chose.  He very humbly supplicated the authorities to give him a written permit to work on said homestead so that if, after he had improved the property, the heirs desired to enter upon it they should be obliged to make good to him what expense he had been at for the improvements.  They lost the title deed during the war; a copy is with the clerk of the Conseil Superieur."  One wonders what Gabrielle though of all this.  Guillaume married the following February.  One wonders if he secured his permit.  None of Étienne's descendants emigrated to Louisiana.282 

Gabriel-Louis, son of Gabriel Rousseau, sieur de la Gorre et de Villejoin, gentlehomme servant son altesse royale Gaston de France, and Dame Marie Baudron, was born at St.-Honoré, Blois, France, in c1683.  Gabriel-Louis inherited his father's title, sieur de Villejoin, and served as an officer in the troupes de la marine at Fort-Louis, Plaisance.  Gabriel-Louis married Marie-Josèphe, daughter of Sr. François Bertrand, colonel of militia and a member of the Order of St.-Louis, and Jeanne Giraudet, at Plaisance in April 1708.  Their wedding must have been a big affair; Newfoundland governor Pastour de Costebelle and dozens of other distinguished guests witnessed the ceremony.  Marie-Josèphe gave Sr. Gabriel-Louis six children, at least two sons and three daughters, including two sons who married daughters of fellow French aristocrats and who also were their cousins.  Two of Gabriel-Louis's daughters married into the Le Coutre de Bourville and Tarride du Haget families at Louisbourg on Île Royale.  Two of his sons married.  Gabrie-Louis served not only at Plaisance, Newfoundland, but also at the French citadel of Louisbourg and at Port-La-Joye on Île St.-Jean, where died in September 1718, in his mid-30s.  Gabriel-Louis and Marie-Josèphe's descendants served or settled at Louisbourg and on Île St.-Jean.  Needless to say, members of this family were not "typical" Fundy Acadians.  Gabriel-Louis's older son Gabriel de Villejoin, fils married Anne-Angélique, daughter of Louis-Joseph de Gannes de Falaise and Marguerite Le Neuf de La Vallière, at Louisbourg in January 1733, and remarried to Barbe, daughter of Michel Le Neuf de La Vallière and Renée Bertrand and widow of Louis Delort, at Louisbourg in December 1753.  Gabriel, fils, like his maternal grandfather, became a chevalier of the Order of St. Louis.  He died at St.-Jean-d'Angély, Aunis, France, in November 1781, age 72, after serving the King as a brigadier.  Gabriel-Louis's younger son Michel d'Orfontaine married Angélique, another daughter of Michel Le Neuf de Vallière and Renée Bertrand, at Port-La-Joye, Île St.-Jean, in May 1757, on the eve of the islands' Grand Dérangement.  Three of Gabriel-Louis's descendants emigrated to Louisiana, from Haiti, formerly French-Domingue, via Cuba.481

Jacques Daccarette married Marie de Castaignal perhaps at Hendaye, bishopric of Bayonne, in the Basque country of southwestern France, in c1675.  She gave him five children, all born at Hendaye:  Joannis or Jean; Michel dit Miguel; Jacques, fils; Marie; and Marie-Anne.  Jacques took his family to Newfoundland and was counted there in 1704.  Oldest son Joannis became a prominent fisherman/habitant and merchant at Plaisance and an investor in privateers during Queen Anne's War.  He married Marie-Anne, daughter of Pierre Gilbert and Marguerite Bertrand and widow of Jean-Louis de Gonillon, at the fishery in September 1708.  Marie-Anne gave him three children, all born at Plaisance:  Renée in c1709; Jean; and Marie-Anne.  Joannis moved his family to Île Royale in 1714 and became an influential fisherman/habitant at Louisbourg, La Baleine, and Niganiche.  Of his three children, only daughter Renée married, into the d'Ailleboust de Saint-Vilmé family on Île Royale.  Meanwhile, Joannis's sisters Marie and Marie-Anne married into the de Morcoche and Milly dit La Croix families, the older one in France, the younger one on Île Royale.  During Queen Anne's War, in 1709, their younger brother Michel dit Miguel saw action as a corsaire aboard La Marie.  In 1712, he served as captain of the 15-ton charroi Le Trompeur.  After 1714, Miguel joined older brother Joannis in the fishery on Île Royale, where, along with other fishermen/habitants from Newfoundland, they occupied "a considerable position at Louisbourg."  From 1721-22, Miguel and partner François Baucher dit Saint-Martin, formerly of Plaisance, now of Petit-Dégrat, "succeeded in breaking," or at least challenging, "the fishing monopoly held by the Comte de Saint-Pierre on Île St.-Jean and the neighbouring islands."  Between 1720 and 1740, he "was involved in the sale of at least seventeen vessels of between thirty and fifty tons, to buyers on both sides of the Atlantic."  In the mid-1720s, he was operating his fishing establishments with 34 chaloupes and shipping North Atlantic cod as far as the West Indies.  "He was one of Île Royale's largest fishing entrepreneurs," his biographer asserts, "and this trade provided the basis for numerous other ventures."  He served as a marguillier, or church warden, at Louisbourg.  Miguel married twice, first to Jeanne, daughter of Jean-Louis de Gonillon and Marie-Anne Gilbert, his stepsister, probably in Newfoundland in c1712.  She gave him one child, Catherine, who married into the Lagoanère family on Île Royale.  Miguel remarried to Jeanne's sister Catherine, widow of Claude Dupleix dit Sylvain, in October 1725; the birth of a child out of wedlock compelled them to secure a papal dispensation in order to marry in the church.  Catherine gave him 10 more children, nine daughters and a son, five of whom died young:  Marie-Charlotte was born in March 1724, a year and a half before her parents' marriage; Marie-Jeanne in June 1726; Marie-Anne in October 1727; Marie-Madeleine in September 1728; Michel, fils in October 1730; Renée in December 1731; an unnamed infant in January 1733; Marie in June 1734; Marie-Josèphe in August 1736; and another Marie-Anne in June 1739.  Only three of their nine daughters married, into the Le Neuf de Beaubassin, Denys de Bonaventure, Poitiers de Pommeroy, and Le Neuf de Boisneuf families--all members of greater Acadia's colonial elite.  With the outbreak of King George's War in 1744, failed investments, ever-growing debt, "and the general decline of the sedentary fisheries in the period 1739-45" left Miguel "in financial difficulties."  He died during the siege of Louisbourg in July 1745, probably in his late 50s.  His family was among the 2,000 residents of Louisbourg and the surrounding area deported to France that summer.  Five years later, after the retrocession of the colony to France, Miguel's family returned to Louisbourg.  Son Michel, fils inherited his father's fishery concessions, including the one at La Baleine, where a French official counted him in April 1752.  The official called him Le Sr. Dagueret and said he "carried on the fishery here with six boats and thirty fishermen"; Michel, fils was only 21 at the time!  He married Marguerite, daughter of Jean Laborde, treasurer of the marine and royal notary, and Louise-Marguerite Dupuis, a Canadian, not an Acadian, at Louisbourg in January 1753.  Marguerite gave him at least seven children, four born at Louisbourg and three in Bordeaux.  They included Louis-Philippe, born  in c1754; Marie-Marguerite in c1755; Françoise in c1757; and Catherine in c1758.  During the Seven Years' War, Michel, fils, now a merchant as well as a fisherman/habitant, engaged in privateering as his father had done half a century earlier.  During the second siege of Louisbourg in 1758, he commanded the militia company of merchants, who, according to his biographer, "performed with distinction and energy."  Afer the fall of the fortress, he took his family to Bordeaux, where he engaged in commerce and privateering.  In March 1763, at war's end, royal officials accused him of helping his father-in-law mismanage goverment funds at Louisbourg.  They ordered his arrest and imprisonment in the Bastille at Paris, but released him in February 1764 after charges against him were dropped.  Meanwhile, his home in Bordeaux burned to the ground, destroying his papers and other valuable possessions.  Hoping to re-establish his fortune a third time, he ventured to Paris in 1767 but died on the way.  He was only 37 years old.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.154

Noël Dauphin married Marie-Françoise, daughter of Nicolas Blondel and ____ of St.-Pierre, Newfoundland, in c1706.  They evidently returned to France:  their son François was born at St.-Pair, bishopric of Coutances, France, in c1707.  They may have returned to Newfoundland.  If so, they did not remain there:  Noël died at Port-Orléans, Île Royale, by c1715, when Marie-Françoise remarried probably at Port-Orléans.  François worked there as a fisherman and married Perrine, daughter of Joseph Mordant dit Lanoy and Marie Hébert of Petit-Bras-d'Or, at Port-Orléans, in c1739.  She gave him at least two sons:  François, fils in c1740; and Claude-Pierre in c1750.  A French official counted them at Baie-de-l'Indienne, near Petit-Bras-d'Or, in April 1752.  With them were three hired fishermen.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.117

Jean Maillet dit Passepartout married Marie-Madeleine, daughter of François Dufaux and Anne Carmel, at Plaisance in c1707.  Marie-Madeleine gave Jean at least four children, the oldest born in Newfoundland:  Marie-Angélique in 1708; as son in c1711; Jean-Baptiste, called Jean, in c1714; and an unnamed infant, born probably on Île Royale before c1719, the year Jean, père died there.  Marie-Madeleine promptly remarried.  Daughter Marie-Angélique married into the Drouillet (Drullet) and Mahau families at Louisbourg.  Son Jean-Baptise became a fisherman, settled at Petit-Dégrat off Île Madame and married Claire, daughter of Acadians François Langlois and Madeleine Comeau of Annapolis Royale and Île Madame and widow of Joannis D'Etcheverry dit Miquemak and Jean Pâté, at Port-Toulouse in c1743.  Claire gave Jean at least five children:  Jean-Marie, born in c1740; Jean-Pierre in c1744; François in c1746; Marie in c1749; and fifth child in c1752.  A French official counted them at Petit-Dégrat in February 1752 and called Jean-Baptiste Jean Majet.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana..71

Julien Durand, perhaps a Canadian, married Anne, daughter of Jean Borny and Marie Commère, in Newfoundland in c1708.  They settled on Île Scatary, off Île Royale's Atlantic coast.  Anne gave Julien at least seven children, four sons and three daughters, the older ones born in Newfoundland:  Jean was born in c1709; Julien, fils at Plaisance in c1710; Servan's birth place and birth date are unrecorded; Madeleine was born on Île Scatary in c1715; two daughers were born probably on Île Scatary in c1716 and c1717 but died as infants; and Nicolas's birth place and birth date also was unrecorded.  Julien, père died probably on Île Scatary before October 1746.  His two older sons married into the Boissel and Vincent dit Desmarets families, Jean at Québec in October 1746, where he remained, and Julien, fils probably on Île Royale in c1747.  Daughter Madeleine married into the De Malvillain family and, like brother Julien, fils, remained on Île Royale.  She and husband Jean-Nicolas settled at Anse-de-Bellefeuille, on the north shore of Île Scatary, where a French official counted them in April 1752.  The official noted that Jean-Nicolas owned three boats, employed another fisherman, and had three fishery partners whose name he did not give.  Julien, fils and wife Madeleine Vincent dit Desmarets, a native of Niganiche, settled at Petit-Bras-d'Or, where, by April 1752, Julien, fils also owned three boats and employed 10 other fishermen.  The same French official, during his survey of Île Scatary, noted that one of the fishermen there was "settled at the farther end of the great harbour, between the grounds of Pierre Le Grand and one Philipot.  It was granted before the war to the late Jean Durand, whose heirs have never yet presented themselves to take possession of the land.  Monsieur Prévost," the colony's commissaire-ordonnateur, "has given it to him on condition that if the heirs of the deceased present themselves he will give them possesson."  One suspects that the French official was referring to Julien, père, who may have died during King George's War, and not son Jean, who died at Québec in March 1772.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.98

Antoine, son of Jean Perré and Marie Paris, born at St.-Plancher, bishopric of Coutances, France, in c1680, married Marie-Anne, daughter of Charles Pons or Ponce and Marie Du Bourg of St.-Sauveur, bishopric of Beauvais, France, at Plaisance, Newfoundland, in November 1706.  Marie-Anne gave him at least five children, the oldest born at Plaisance, the youngest on Île Royale:  Marie-Anne in c1708, Jean c1710, Louise in c1711, Jeanne at La Baleine in October 1715, and Antoine in c1724.  The family followed other fishing folk from Newfoundland to Île Royale in 1714.  Antoine died probably at La Baleine in May 1727, in his late 40s.  Oldest daughter Marie-Anne married Charles, son of Jacques de Saint-Étienne de La Tour and Anne Melanson, a grandson of Acadian governor Charles La Tour, at Louisbourg in September 1727.  Daughters Louise and Jeanne married into the Joüet, Benoit, and Henry families.  Older son Jean worked in the island's fishery and married Marguerite, daughter of Joseph Guyon and Marguerite Dugas and widow of Pierre Bonin dit La Chaume, at St.-Esprit, down the coast from Louisbourg, in January 1735.  They remained at St.-Esprit, where a French official counted them in February 1752.  Sr. Jean, as he was called, owned two boats and employed three fishermen to help him during the coming season.  Meanwhile, Antoine's brother René, born at Grandville, France, in c1684, married Louise, daughter of Jean Boucher and Anne Pinochon of La Rochelle, France, at Plaisance in December 1709.  Louise gave René at least five children, the two older ones born at Plaisance, the younger ones at La Baleine:  an unnamed infant; Adam in c1714; Thomas at La Baleine in January 1716; and two more unnamed infants born in the late 1710s and the early 1720s.  René died probably at La Baleine between 1724 and 1726, in his late 30s.  Son Adam married Anne-Hyacinthe, called Jacinthe, daughter of Jean-Baptiste Grandin and Anne-Hyacinthe Dupuis, at Port-Orléans in c1749.  They settled at Lorembec, near La Baleine.  A French official counted them there in April 1752.  With them were two of their sons--Thomas le jeune, age 18 months; and Pierre, age 1 month.  The official also noted that Adam had employed two fishermen to help him in the fishery, in which he owned two boats, and that his household included two domestic servants.  Younger brother Thomas l'aîné married Toussainte dite Sainte, daughter of Julien Houët and Gillette Dagorel, at La Baleine in April 1752, a few days after the census there.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.56

Joannis or Jean de Lafargue, born at St.-Jean-de-Luz, in the Basque country of southwestern France, in c1672, married Marie-Anne, oldest daughter of Jean Ozelet and Madeleine Beaufet of Newfoundland, at Plaisance in January 1713.  On Île Royale, they settled with her wife's family at Petit-Dégras, off Île Madame.  Marie-Anne gave Joannis at least six children:  Marie-Anne was born in c1719; Marie-Jeanne in c1725; Jean, fils in c1730; Cécile in 1732; Charlotte in c1736; and Jeanne in c1738.  The two oldest daughters married Saux brothers and settled at Petit-Dégrat, near their parents, where a French official counted them in February 1752.  Jean, père was age 70 at the time, and wife Marie-Anne was 58.  No member of this family emigated to Louisiana.54

Marc-Antoine de La Forest, born probably at Rochefort, France, in c1668, married in c1700 to a woman whose name has been lost to history.  She gave him five children, all born at Rochefort, only two of whom survived long enough to be given names.  The fate of oldest child Marc-Étienne has been lost to history.  Third child Marie-Geneviève, called Geneviève, born at Rochefort in c1709, accompanied her father to the French fishery at Plaisance, where he served as commissaire-ordonnateur, or chief financial and judicial officer, in the early 1710s.  On Île Royale, Marc-Antoine served as écrevain, or secretary, ordinaire de la Marine et baillif of Port-Toulouse.  In 1718, he remarried to Marie-Anne, daughter of Pierre-Louis Courthiau and Catherine Chevros dit Colloque of Plaisance and Port-Dauphin.  She gave him 10 more children, three sons and seven daughters, all born probably at Port-Dauphin:  Marc-Antoine, fils in c1720; Marie-Anne in December 1722; Marguerite in December 1723; Pierre-Louis in March 1726; Marie-Louise in April 1728; Marie-Josèphe in March 1731; an unnamed daughter in April 1733; Jeanne in May 1734; Marie-Catherine in May 1735; and Philippe in December 1736.  Marc-Antoine, père died likely at Port-Dauphin in June 1738, age 70.  Two of his three sons married into the Lafargue, Rondeau, and Saint-Michel Dunézat families.  Only two of his many daughters married, into the Commère and Gauthier families.  No member of this aristocratic family emigrated to Louisiana.90

Louis dit La Croix, son of François Saux, du Sceau, or Sault and Marie Aubert, born at Oléron, bishopric of Saintes, France, in c1680, married Angélique, daughter of Louis Dupuis dit Parisien and Barbe Dubeau of Québec, at Plaisance in November 1710.  (Angélique's family was not kin to the Dupuiss of peninsula Acadia.)  She gave him at least five children, the older ones born in Newfoundland:  Françoise in c1708; Marguerite in c1710; Étienne in c1711; Marie-Jeanne in c1714; and Louis, fils, at Petit-Degrat, Île Royale, in c1726.  They settled at Petit-Dégrat, off Île Madame, in c1722, where Louis likely resumed his life as a fisherman.  Like their father, Étienne and Louis, fils became fishermen.  They married Lafargue sisters and were counted at Petit-Dégrat in February 1752.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.67

Jean Papon or Papou dit Sans-Regret, native of Plaisance, married Isabelle, daughter of Acadians Vincent Longuépée and Madeleine Rimbault of Port-Royal, Minas, and Cobeguit, at Port-Toulouse in c1719.  She gave him at least seven children:  Marie was born in c1722, Charles in c1723, Julien in c1727, Jean, fils in c1730, Françoise in c1731, Louise in c1737, and Vincent in c1743.  They settled at Port-Toulouse but son moved to L'Esprit, on the island's Atlantic coast, where Jean likely worked as a fisherman.  Daughter Marie married into the Granne family and settled at St.-Esprit.  Jean, père died before February 1752, when a French official counted Isabelle, now a widow, with unmarried sons Charles, Julien, Jean, fils, and François at St.-Esprit.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.31

Pierre Le Berteau dit Lyonnais, born likely at Lyon, France, married in c1697, probably in Newfoundland, to a woman whose name has been lost to history.  She gave him at least three children, all born in Newfoundland:  twin daughters in c1706 who evidently died in childhood; and Antoine dit Lyonnais at Port-aux-Basques in c1702.  Pierre dit Lyonnais remarried to Renée Carmel, widow of Joannis Deriboyen dit Valentin, probably at Newfoundland sometime after 1705.  She gave him another son, Pierre, born at Plaisance in c1705.  Atypically, the family remained in Newfoundland after 1714.  Older son Antoine married twice, first to Anne Sabot in c1727, and then to Marie-Josèphe, daughter of Yves Glamard and Geneviève Coupiau dit Desaleur, in c1740.  His wives gave him at least seven children, all born in Newfoundland:  Antoine, fils in c1728; Pierre le jeune in c1733; Joseph in c1741; Françoise in c1745; Jean-Baptiste in c1748; ____ in c1750; and ____ in c1751.  In c1751, Antoine took his family to French-controlled Île Royale and settled at Petit-Bras-d'Or, where a French official counted them in April 1752.  The census taker noted that Antoine was "settler for one year past at Bras d'Or," and was "native of Port aux Basques, where he managed the affairs of the English."  The official also noted that Antoine's son Pierre le jeune, age 19, was "still at Boston with the English."  Son Antoine, fils married into the Lejeune family.  Meanwhile, Antoine's younger half-brother Pierre, fils married Jeanne, daughter of Jean Borny and Marie Commère and widow of Jean Sabot, at Port-aux-Basques in c1739.  Their son Pierre III was born in Newfoundland in c1740.  Pierre, fils took his blended family to Île Royale in c1745 and settled at Anse-Darembourg, on the north shore of Île Scatary, where a French official counted them in April 1752.  Jean, fils died at nearby Lorembec in January 1753, age 48.  Older half-brother Antoine, père died before August 1761, in his late 50s, place unrecorded.  No member of this family seems to have emigrated to Louisiana.102

.

Colonial officials could see that in order to create an agricultural base for Louisbourg and the rest of Île Royale it was essential to lure farmers into the province.  In 1714, King's Lieutenant Saint-Ovide sent two trusted French officers to British Nova Scotia to solicit farmers for Île Royale.  Louis Denys de La Ronde, age 39 and a native of Québec, was a grand nephew of Nicolas Denys.  Jacques d'Espiet de Pensens had served as aide-major at Port-Royal from 1705-08 and was considered a favorite of the Acadians.  Accompanying the two officers was Denys de La Ronde's first cousin, Lieutenant Michel Le Neuf de La Vallière, fils, native of Trois-Rivières and youngest son of the former governor of French Acadia.  Michel, fils, age 37, was a distinguished officer in his own right with deep roots in French Acadia.  Despite their collective persuasiveness, however, their efforts garnered little success.259

Still, a need to escape British authority in Nova Scotia, as well as a desire for new opportunities, overcame the hesitation Fundy habitants may have had about moving to the new colony.  It was, after all, French, and their priests, especially Récollet missionaries Justinien Durand and Félix Pain, encouraged by French authorities, urged them to go.  But there were compelling reasons not to resettle on Cape Breton Island.  In September 1713, Father Pain shared with the governor of Île Royale reasons why Acadians would be reluctant to go there:  "'It would be to expose us manifestly (they say) to die of hunger, burthened as we are with large families, to quit the dwelling places and clearances from which we derive our usual subsistence, without any other resource, to take rough, new lands, from which the standing wood must be removed....  One-fourth of our population consists of aged persons, unfit for the labor of breaking up new lands, and who, with great exertion, are able to cultivate the cleared ground which supplies subsistence for them and their families.'"  The following winter and spring, in fulfillment of the Utrecht provision which allowed Acadians to resettle in French territory within a year of the treaty's signing, and responding to the blandishments of Louis Denys de La Ronde, Acadian heads of family received permission from British authorities to go to Île Royale and inspect potential settlement sites.  Among them were Michel Caissie and his brother-in-law, Joseph Mirande, a fisherman, both of Chignecto, who spent the winter of 1713-14 at Baie-de-Miré, perhaps to check out the fishing there; Michel Haché dit Gallant and one of his sons left Chignecto on 2 January 1714 and returned to the big island on May 18; Martin Aucoin and his unnamed brother from Minas departed on 23 May 1714 and "went around the island by the north and left again on June 3rd'"; Jean-Baptiste Corporon, his wife Marie Pinet, and their three children, Rose Henry, wife of Noël Pinet, and a child, and Catherine Hébert, widow of Philippe Pinet, with her four children, all from Minas, traveled aboard Bernard Marres dit La Sonde's sailing vessel in late June (La Sonde, a surgeon as well as a fisherman, was married to a Petitpas and lived at Musquodoboit on the Atlantic coast); Jean Comeau l'aîné of Annapolis Royal went in mid-June; Charles Doucet, Jean-François Flan, and Nicolas Petitpas of Annapolis Royal in late June; Guillaume, Denis, and Bernard Gaudet of Annapolis Royal, with their wives and children, all "in a charroi," in late June; François Coste of Annapolis Royal and Jacques LeBlanc of Minas, "with their sailing vessel, a crew of two men, and six passengers," in late June; Jean Doucet, Pierre Forest, and Germain Landry of Minas, accompanied by Father Antoine Gaulin, in late June; François Amireau dit Tourangeau and Jean Pitre, fils, his wife, and their children, all from Cap-Sable, in late June; Sr. Joseph Guyon (brother-in-law of Governor Antoine Laumet dit La Mothe de Cadillac, of Louisiana), Joseph's wife Marguerite Dugas, and their two children, and Jean-Baptiste Rodrigue dit de Fonds, a Portuguese pilot and merchant who married a daughter of Alexandre Le Borgne de Bélisle, and the Rodrigue children, going "'from Acadia but coming by way of Canada,'" went in late June; François Tillard went "with a boat" in late June; and Charles Arseneau, François Arseneau, and Abraham Gaudet of Chignecto in July.  In August, Saint-Ovide sent the ship Marie-Joseph, and probably other vessels, to Nova Scotia to transport Acadian families whose leaders had liked what they had seen on the big island.  This was followed up by a letter from Île Royale's deputy King's representative, Jacques L'Hermite, to prospective Acadian settlers, dated August 25, granting permission "'to settle on Île Royale at the good pleasure of the King.'"  The passengers aboard Saint-Ovide's vessels and those who received permission to settle in the colony included Charles Arseneau, Michel Caissie, Abraham Gaudet, and Joseph Mirande of Chignecto; Jean Doucet, Joseph Dugas, Pierre, both père and fils, and René Forest, Abraham, Germain, Pierre à René, and Pierre, fils Landry, Jacques and Jean LeBlanc, Pierre Richard, Germain Thériot, and Jean Thibodeau of Minas; François Amireau dit Tourangeau, Jean Bastarache, brothers Clément and Pierre Benoit, Abraham Bourg, Charles dit Charlot Boudrot, Pierre Broussard, Pierre Chouteau dit Manceau or Manseau, Alexandre and Joseph Comeau, François Coste, Laurent Doucet, François Girouard, Jean and Michel Hébert, Pierre Lalande dit Bonappétit, Charles dit Charlot, Claude, and François Landry, Jacques Levron, Louis dit St.-Louis Mazerolle, Étienne Pellerin, Pierre Richard, François Testard dit Paris, and Jean Vernier dit Gourville of the Annapolis valley; Bernard Marres dit La Sonde of Musquodoboit; and Sr. Joseph Guyon and Jean-Baptiste Rodrigue dit de Fonds from Canada. 

As Father Pain's letter anticipated, most of the Acadian migrants, having second thoughts, returned to Nova Scotia.  Joseph Dugas of Minas, for example, having lived on the big island since 1714, "obtained permission from Major Alexander Crosby," acting for Lieutenant-Governor John Doucett, "to return to Acadia in his schooner La Sainte-Anne" in 1723.  Charles dit Charlot Landry of Annapolis Royal, who had been granted permission to take his family to Île Royale in 1714, was back at Annapolis in 1720, when he was chosen as one of the six delegates from that settlement to stand before the Nova Scotia Council.  Seven years later, he ran afoul of British authorities in a dispute over an oath of allegiance, was thrown into the Fort Anne dungeon, and died soon after, only 39 years of age.  His cousin, François Landry, also returned to Nova Scotia, in his case Minas, where he and his wife raised a large family.242

But peninsula Acadians did choose to remain on Île Royale.  Although the rocky island could never become a farmer's paradise like the settlements along the Fundy shore, agriculture--that is, clearing of the uplands--was feasible in some places for limited grain cultivation and especially for the production of livestock.  Huge stands of timber waited to be exploited.  And Acadians on Île Royale, as some had done in Nova Scotia, could turn to the sea for their living, working as fishermen, navigators, coasters, and ship builders.  Especially enticing was Port-Toulouse, luring maritime-minded Acadians to the flourishing coastal trade there, as well as to the fishery at nearby Île Madame.242a 

An appealing characteristic of the new colony may have been a dearth of seigneurial grants à la Louisiana, in contrast to Canada and Nova Scotia, where the habitants still endured the grasping hands of these socioeconomic parasites.  But a seigneurie did exist on Île Royale.  Louis-Simon Le Poupet de La Boularderie, a native of Paris, served first under Costabelle at Plaisance during the late 1690s before moving on to Port-Royal, where he became a captain.  There, in November 1702, he married a daughter of Acadians Pierre Melanson, fils and Marguerite Mius d'Entremont and was wounded in action during a siege of the Acadian capital in August 1707.  La Boularderie survived his serious wound, took his family to France but returned to North America in 1712, when he ferried Intendant Michel Bégon de La Picadière back to Canada.  The following year, Bégon coaxed La Boularderie to take supplies and reinforcements from Québec to Île Royale, the captain's first visit to the new colony.  In 1715, it was La Boularderie who relieved the starving garrison at Port-Toulouse.  "This earned him the favour of the admiral of France, the Comte de Toulouse, who had ordered the relief action and to whom La Boularderie subsequently proposed the establishing of an agricultural settlement on Île Royale at Île de Verderonne (Boularderie Island) and the adjacent eastern shore of La Petite Brador (St Andrew's Channel).  He also asked for the right to establish a fishery at Port d'Orléans, the harbour of the bay of Niganiche [today's Ingonish], a cod-drying station some 30 miles north of Île de Verderonne.  The fishery would provide return cargoes for ships provisioning Île Verderonne, which would in time supply Louisbourg.  La Boularderie would undertake the necessary transport of fishermen and colonists provided that a naval ship, the Paon, were put at his disposal for two years."  La Boularderie's biographer goes on:  "The Comte de Toulouse lent his support to the project, and La Boularderie received his concession along La Petite Brador as the seigneury of Boularderie by a brevet of 15 Feb. 1719.  He was granted priority right to beaches sufficient for drying the catch of 100 fishermen at Port d'Orléans and was made commandant there and in his seigneury."242b

In 1716, commandant Louis Denys de La Ronde conducted a census at Port-Toulouse.  Settlers' names included Étienne Comeau; Jean-Baptiste Corporon, age 39; François Coste, age 45; Joseph Dugas; Étienne Hébert; the Widow Landry; Antoine, Jacques, and René LeBlanc; Nicolas Petitpas; Jean Pitre, age 36; the Widow Richard; and Étienne Rivet, age 33--all peninsula Acadians who had chosen to resettle on the island, and among the first families of Île Royale.  But the census must have been a sloppy one.  Philippe, son of Jean Doiron of Chignecto, married Marie-Josèphe, daughter of Claude Guédry dit Grivois of Mirliguèche, at Port-Toulouse in c1715, so one wonders why their names were not in Denys de La Ronde's census.  The same holds true for Pierre dit Pierrot Simon dit Boucher of Annapolis Royal, whose son Michel was born at Port-Toulouse in c1715.  Canadian Pierre Boucher dit Desroches, who married an Hébert at Minas in February 1714, took his bride to Port-Toulouse by c1715, when their first child, Marguerite, was born there, and moved on to Petit-Dégrat, off Île Madame, by c1720, so Pierre dit Desroches likely was a fisherman.  Jean Martin and Madeleine Babin's daughter Marie-Josèphe married Jean Bourhis at Port-Toulouse in c1715; Jean and his family had emigrated from Pigiguit.  Louis Marchand dit Poitiers and his Acadian wife Marie Godin dit Châtillon moved from Annapolis Royal to Port-Toulouse by c1716, when their fourth child was born there.  François Coste, native of Martigues near Marseille and husband of one of Barnabé Martin's daughters, was a carpenter who became "[a] very capable navigator" and was an especially welcomed addition to the settlement.  In 1717, he "managed during a storm to enter a vessel into Port-Toulouse, while Pierre Morpain, the colony's port captain, could not do so."  The following year, Coste "received the commission of coastal pilot."  Other Acadians, or Frenchmen with Acadian spouses, also settled early on Île Royale.  François Testard dit Paris and his Acadian wife Marie Doiron moved from Annapolis Royal to Louisbourg by 1715.  Pierre Bertaud dit Montaury came to Île Royale by 1717 but moved on to Île St.-Jean.  Brothers Charles dit Charlot and Michel dit Miquetau Boudrot, both navigators and boat builders, moved from Annapolis Royal to Port-Toulouse by 1717, when Charlot's fifth child was born there.  Philippe Pinet and his family moved to Port-Toulouse by 1717.  Marie, daughter of Emmanuel, oldest son of former Acadian governor Alexandre Le Borgne de Bélisle, and Cécile, daughter of Pierre Thibodeau, married Jean, son of François Bertrand of Île de Ré, France, and Plaisance, Newfoundland, at Havre la Baleine up the coast from Louisbourg in April 1717.  Louis, son of François Moyse dit Latreille of Annapolis Royal, married a daughter of Claude Petitpas at Port-Toulouse in c1718.  In that same year, François Coste's oldest daughter Marie-Catherine married Frenchman Pierre Bois at Port-Toulouse.  Cécile, youngest daughter of Vincent Longuépée of Minas, married Pierre Bénard of St.-Malo at Port-Toulouse in c1718, and her older sister Isabelle married Jean Papon dit Sans Regret there in c1719.  Abraham Dugas came to Port-Toulouse by 1719.  During the following decades, more families drifted from British Nova Scotia to the big island.  Their names included Arseneau, Belliveau, Broussard, Girouard, Guédry, Langlois, Préjean, Samson, and Vigneau, who arrived by 1722; Bouget, Breau, Daigre, Darembourg, Fougère, and Mirande by 1724; Bourg and Pouget by 1726; Lavigne by 1727; Lapierre and Lavergne by 1732; Trahan by 1737; and Le Sauvage by 1738.  Maurice Vigneau's story may have been typical among these island immigrants.  Along with other Port-Royal fishermen, he was compelled by colonial authorities in late 1717 to take an unqualified oath to the British king in order to fish in Acadian waters.  A few years later, between 1719 and 1722, he took his family to Port-Toulouse, where he was addressed by French authorities as Sr. Maurice Vigneau and where he was no longer subject to the British oath.  His fellow Acadians settled on the island not only at Port-Toulouse, but also at St.-Esprit up the Atlantic coast, L'Ardoise down the coast from St.-Esprit, La Briquerie near Port-Toulouse, and at Île-de-la-Ste.-Famille at the southern end of Lac Bras d'Or, where Abbé Maillard's Mi'kmaq congregated and where Claude Petitpas, fils, married to a Mi'kmaq, served as interpreter.  Peninsula Acadians also settled at Havre la Baleine, Lorembec and Petit-Lorembec near Louisbourg; Île Madame, including the islet of Petit-Dégrat; Baie-de-L'Indienne above Louisbourg; Port-d'Orléans, a fishing center far up the coast near Niganiche; and at Louisbourg itself, whose administrative, military, and construction personnel, after 1720, made up more than half of the island's population.246

Mathieu de Goutin, former French official at Port-Royal who had married into a prominent Acadian family, had been sent to France with his wife and many children after the fall of the Acadian capital in October 1710.  Appointed as King's scrivener for Île Royale in January 1714, he returned with his family to greater Acadia, but he did not serve long in his new office; he died on Île Royale the following Christmas Day, only in his early 50s.  His widow, Jeanne Thibodeau, settled at Louisbourg with her minor children, living for a time on government handouts, and died there in April 1741, in her late 60s.  Many of her sons, including Joseph de Ville, who was only nine years old at the time of his father's death, became army officers.  Oldest son François-Marie, like his father, served also as a colonial administrator, first on Île Royale and then on Île St.-Jean.246a 

The scion of an even more illustrious Acadian family also moved to Île Royale during the earliest days of the new colony.  Charles de Saint-Étienne de La Tour, fils, son of the famous Acadian pioneer, was a hero in his own right, having been severely wounded during the New English attack on Port-Royal in October 1710.  In 1714 Charles, fils, then in his late 40s and an ensign in the colonial troupes de la marine, turned his back on his family's seigneurial holdings in British Nova Scotia and took up a post on Île Royale, where he "served as official government interpreter to the Indians there."  In 1728, he received the Cross of St.-Louis "for his services" and soon afterwards became a captain in the troupes de la marine at Louisbourg.  He died at Louisbourg in August 1731, age 68, having done justice to his name and the reputation of his family.  The year after his death, Charles, fils's widow, Jeanne-Angélique, called Angélique, Loreau of Paris, whom he had married in c1700, "received a pension of 300 livres in recognition of" her husband's "service to his country."  Charles, fils's nephew, Charles le jeune, son of fils's older brother Jacques, also settled on Île Royale and died at Louisbourg after September 1746, in his late 40s, during King George's War.263

French troupes de la marine of lesser rank who had served at Port-Royal and other French garrisons escaped British control on the peninsula by moving to Louisbourg.  In December 1732, when he was reported as "not in condition to serve, nor to earn his living, because of a wound to his thigh he received in the King's service," Jacques Bonnevie dit Beaumont of Paris, former corporal in the King's service at Port-Royal, whose wife was a granddaughter of Philippe Mius d'Entremont, sieur de Pobomcoup, was placed on half-pay at age 72 by French authorities at Louisbourg.  The old corporal died at Hôpital de Louisbourg the following April.  His daughters, however, remained in the Maritimes, settling on Île St.-Jean.263a

An especially ambitious attempt to establish a settlement on Île Royale occurred on Île Madame and its outlying islands during the early 1720s.  On 20 May 1719, François-Madeleine-Fortuné Ruette d'Auteuil and his associates, MM. Duforillon and Jourdan, received a grant of the island and its environs.  His land lying so close to British Nova Scotia, the following January Ruette d'Auteuil submitted to the Regent in France "a 'Secret Memorial ... regarding the boundaries of Acadia.'"  In August 1622, Ruette d'Auteuil, "accompanied by sixty-six colonists and fishermen," some of them perhaps Acadians, came to Île Madame.  "Considering the English establishment at Canso, and the general absence of fish at the place where he was counting on setting up his own operation," an historian concludes, "M. Ruette d'Auteuil's project was destined to fail utterly."184

Louisbourg, up the coast, was sustained by supply vessels from France, Canada, and Île St.-Jean, but these came too irregularly to supplement an agricultural base that never developed on the island.  As a result, illicit trade with merchants from New England, and with Acadian farmers from Nova Scotia, provided the citadel's basic needs as well as a few luxuries.  Most of the Acadian goods came in by French vessels which picked up livestock and other commodities at Tatamagouche or Baie-Verte, along the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore.  A smaller network likely connected Petit-Degrat and Île Madame with the British fishing center at Canso.  One suspects that many Acadians on Île Royale engaged in this illicit trade, and that their family connections back in Nova Scotia were part of the commercial dynamic.  John S. Erskine asserts that "the Acadians [in Nova Scotia] rejoiced in a triple achievement" while trading with the French at Louisbourg: "a patriotic service, good profits, and the pleasure of contraband business."  Except for the "patriotic" part, this sounds very much like their motivation for trading illicitly with New England during the seventeenth century.  Sadly for the Acadians, however, Louisbourg's excellent harbor, with its attendant infrastructure, became a perfect haven for French privateers who were eager to prey on the New English fishing fleet working the nearby cod banks.  Nothing could have angered the British more than this threat to their economy.  Should full-scale war again break out between the imperial rivals, the French citadel would be a likely target for British retaliation, either from London, Boston, Annapolis Royal, or Canso.  And, again, the Acadians would be caught in the middle.261

.

Unlike Cape Breton Island, with its long history of European presence, during the first century of French settlement in the region only bands of Mi'kmaq lived on Epekwitk--Île St.-Jean.  During his circuit of the Gulf of St. Lawrence in 1534, Jacques Cartier sailed along the northwest coast of the island, but he and subsequent French explorers did not establish settlements there.  Beginning in the 1640s, Nicolas Denys received from the Company of New France concessions for fishing and fur trading in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.  Denys established posts at Miscou and Nepisiguit on the Baie des Chaleurs, but he did not establish a post on Île St.-Jean.  In 1663, François Doublet, "a Norman who became involved in trade along the St. Lawrence a few years before, managed to acquire the right to exploit the Îles-de-la-Madeleine and Île Saint-Jean...," near Denys's concessions in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.  "Doublet visited Denys and outlined his plans," Naomi Griffiths tells us.  "The latter accurately predicted failure for these projects within three years."  By the late 1680s, even Denys was gone from the area, and Île St.-Jean continued to be occupied only by the Mi'kmaq.262a 

In 1719, after the French created their new Maritimes colony, the Compagnie de l'Île St.-Jean, headed by a consortium of investors led by Louis-Charles-Hyacinthe Castel, comte de Saint-Pierre, "owner of Île St.-Jean," created a fishing station and settlement at Havre-St.-Pierre, on the north shore of the island facing the Gulf of St. Lawrence.  The comte also was awarded fishing monopolies at Île Miscou and adjacent islands.  The French Court insisted that the company could hold its monopoly only if these island were properly settled.  Here, a century later, was an iteration of French colonial efforts that began in the time of Henry IV, when he granted the sieur de Mons monopolies on fur and fishing in La Cadie and Canada.  After years of effort, these concessions had failed to generate profits for de Mons and his investors and proved inadequate for the creation of lasting settlement.  Not until the early 1630s, after Cardinal Richelieu's Company of the Hundred Associates poured substantial resources into France's northern realm, did settlement begin in earnest in Acadia and at Québec.  Decades later, this time under Louis XIV, the French tried again, this time at the southern edge of New France.  In 1699, under royal aegis, with royal financing, Canadian Pierre Le Moyne, sieur de Iberville, founded a French colony on the Gulf of Mexico--Louisiana--which limped along for a dozen years.  In 1713, the aging Louis XIV, through his Ministry of Marine, awarded a 15-year proprietorship in Louisiana to French financier Antoine Crozat.  By the summer of 1717, Crozat's efforts had failed to turn a profit, and he begged to be released from his charter.  The new King's regent, Philippe II, duc d'Orléans, authorized the creation of another proprietorship, this one to be controlled by his finance minister, John Law, whose Company of the West would hold its charter for 25 years.  The result was the notorious Mississippi Bubble, which burst in September 1720.  The disgraced minister fled to nearby Belgium, never to return to France, and the Regency was compelled to reorganize Law's Company.  It was during the financial frenzy over Law-company stock that the Regent awarded the comte de Saint-Pierre his monopoly in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. 

In early 1720, two company ships filled with 300 fishermen/habitants, most, if not all of them, recruited from France, landed at Havre-St.-Pierre.  Commanding for the comte on the island would be naval Lieutenant-Commander Robert-David Gotteville de Belile, who arrived from Louisbourg later in the year.  The fishermen/habitants settled not only at Havre-St.-Pierre, but also at Port-La-Joye on the south shore of the island, where the lieutenant-commander set up headquarters, and at Tranchmontagne near Pointe de l'Est on the eastern tip of the island.  The ubiquitous Louis Denys de La Ronde and military engineer Gédéon de Catalogne dit La Liberté were tasked with laying out the settlements.  Determined to defend the company's fishery by enforcing its monopoly, Gotteville de Belile "armed a small a small boat and a shallop."  Soon after the comte established the new fishery, a consortium of codfishermen led by Michel dit Miguel Daccarrette of Hendaye, Bayonne, and his partner François Baucher dit Saint-Martin, out of Île Royale, began fishing in company waters.  When Gotteville de Belile seized their boats, Daccarrette and his partners successfully challenged the company's fishing monopoly in the admiralty court at Louisbourg.  On 22 March 1722, the King's council reversed the decision of the admiralty court and granted the comte's company "exclusive fishing rights in the waters enclosed by the islands and within a league of their shores.  The decree also removed all litigation arising from these fishing rights from the jurisdiction of the admiralty at Louisbourg and ruled that all such cases would be heard by the financial commissary of Louisbourg, Jacques-Ange Le Normant de Mézy."  That same month, the Minister of Marine commissioned Robert Poitiers Dubuisson, a native of Staten Island, New York, as subdelegate of the King's commissaire for Île St.-Jean, answering to Le Normant de Mézy.  With the power to hear civil and criminal cases, it was Dubuisson's task to settle disputes between the company and its detractors.  Commandant Gotteville de Belile, suffering poor health, left the island in 1622 and was succeeded by Jean-Maurice-Josué Duboisberthelot de Beaucour, then at Louisbourg, who was commissioned to serve at Port-La-Joye for two years.  An engineer holding the Cross of St.-Louis for decades of distinguished service in Canada, Beaucour "was expected to use his engineering talents to put the colony's three settlements in a state of defensive readiness, and to encourage Acadians to settle there with the island's 300 residents."  After only a year on the island, however, Beaucour was recalled to Louisbourg to resume his duties there.  

By 1724, depite the quality of the area's fishery, the island's potential for agriculture, and the victory at Court, the comte's company, now bankrupt, abandoned its venture on Île St.-Jean.  Few of the company's settlers chose to remain.  The next year, following the revocation of the company's monopoly, Jacques d'Espite de Pensens, the lieutenant of troupes de la marine who had accompanied Louis Denys de La Ronde to British Nova Scotia a decade earlier, was tasked with reasserting the King's interests on Île St.-Jean.  De Pensens, now a captain, was directed to take only 25 or 30 men to the remote outpost, which, a biographer notes, "must have seemed to de Pensens a demotion."  The captain, along with his lieutenant, Alphonse Tonty, left Louisbourg for Île St.-Jean in late June 1726 and set up headquarters at Port-La-Joye, still the "capital" of Île St.-Jean.  Dubuisson stayed on at Port-La-Joye as subdelegate to the King's commissaire.  Not until 1730, however, did the island officially fall under royal control.  Meanwhile, de Pensens and Dubuisson did what they could to coax peninsula Acadians to settle on the island, but few agreed to go there.  As long as there was a chance that French authorities would surrender the island to another grubbing monopoly, independent-minded Acadians preferred to stay away.262

The "First inhabitant of the said island," that is, the first permanent European settler on Île St.-Jean, was not an Acadian but a Frenchman, one of the few who had remained after the company abandoned the island.  Jean-François, called François, son of Mathieu Douville and Marie Marquier of St.-Denis-le-Gratz, diocese of Coutances in Normandy.  Douville, like many Normans of his day, may have worked in the cod fishery on the Grand Bank of Newfoundland and in the Gulf of St. Lawrence before becoming a fisherman/habitant for the Compagnie de l'Île St.-Jean.  Still a bachelor in his mid-30s, he settled on his first claim at Havre-St.-Pierre in 1720.  Fours years later, at age 38, he married Marie-Élisabeth, teenaged daughter of Sr. Gabriel-Louis Rogé or Roger of Ste.-Famille, Île d'Orléans, Canada, and Élisabeth Gautron of La Rochelle, probably at Havre-St.-Pierre.  Marie's father was one of the first merchants at the harbor.  Between 1728 and 1749, she gave François 11 children, all born at the harbor.  In August 1752, a French official found the couple at Nigeagant, near the harbor, in the parish of St.-Pierre-du-Nord.  Living with them were seven of their children, four sons and three daughters, ages 24 to 3.  The census taker addressed François as le sieur and Marie as dame, so the 62-year-old fisherman, navigator, and ploughman, and his 42-year-old wife were upstanding members of the island's middle class.  The census taker noted that François owned two other parcels of land, one at nearby Le Fond des Étangs, which included a flour mill, and another at Pointe-du-Havre-St.-Pierre-du-Nord, granted to him in 1736 by Commandant de Pensens and Commissaire Dubuisson.  François also owned a garden and a beach front for drying cod, which he caught with a fishing bateau and two boats.  The census taker also noted that the family had recently suffered "a fire in which they lost all of their effects and their house was burnt"--the conflagration caused by the accidental explosion of gunpowder that evidently killed two of their sons, Jean-François, age 21, and Louis-Gabriel, age 12!  Oldest son Jacques, age 24, in 1752, would marry Judith, daughter of Jacques Quimine and Marie-Josèphe Chiasson, probably at Havre-St.-Pierre in c1754.  Next door to Sr. François and Dame Marie lived Sr. Louis-Charles, son of Nicolas Talbot and Marguerite Aubry of St.-Georges-de-Bar-le-Duc, Lorraine, born in the parish of St.-Benoist, Paris.  In November 1739, Louis-Charles had married Françoise, one of the Douvilles' older daughters, at Havre-St.-Pierre.  In 1746, Louis-Charles and Françoise were counted at Québec, but they returned to Havre-St.-Pierre.  Between 1740 and 1759, Françoise gave him eight children, most born on the island.  In August 1752, four of them, all sons--Charles-Louis, age 9; Joseph, age 7; Jean-François, age 4; and François, age 7 months--were living with their parents.  Daughter Marie-Henriette, born in c1740, evidently died young, and three of their children were yet to be born:  Charles in c1754, a second Marie-Henriette in c1756; and Marie-Louise in c1759.  The census taker called Sr. Louis a fisherman and noted that he had been "in the country twenty years."  Louis and Françoise owned only a single parcel of land, at Nigeagant, but they raised even more livestock than Françoise's parents, and they owned two boats as well.  François Douville lived to a ripe old age.  He died at Havre-St.-Pierre in January 1757, age 72--nearly two years to the day before his widow and children landed at St.-Malo, France, as exiles from their beloved island.  Members of the family were allowed to return to North America, but not to Île St.-Jean.  They resettled, instead, on the French-controlled islands of St.-Pierre and Miquelon, off the southern coast of Newfoundland.  Marie died on Île St.-Pierre in June 1785, age 75.  One of her grandsons served as a lieutenant in the Continental Navy during the American Revolution.249

Another early settler was François Duguay of Pluvigné, bishopric of Vannes in Brittany, who came to the island soon after Douville.  In c1737, Duguay married Marie, daughter of retired army corporal Jacques Bonnevie dit Beaumont of Paris and Françoise Mius d'Azy of peninsula Acadia, and settled on Rivière-du-Nord-Est, in the interior of the island.  François and Marie were still there in August 1752, with six of their children, four sons and two daughters:  Charles, born in c1738; Jean-Baptiste in c1739; Marguerite in c1742; Olivier in c1746; Jacques-Bernardin in c1748; and Marie-Josèphe in c1751.  The census taker, who called him a Dugay and her a Bonneview, said that François, a ploughman, was age 50, Marie age 48, and that François "has been in the country 36 years."  This would have placed him there as early as c1716, perhaps half a decade too early.249a

As Douville and Duguay could have testified, Île St.-Jean held the promise of agricultural sustainability.  Many of the island's inlets and rivers were lined by red sandstone cliffs.  Farther inland, however, where the cliffs gave way to more gentle shores, the soil generally was rich enough for growing wheat, peas, and fodder once the forests were cleared.  Some of the island's many bays were bordered by extensive coastal marshes, though the tides here were not high enough to justify the time and labor in building and maintaining aboiteaux.  Strangely, whatever agricultural potential the island held was stymied by "recurrent plagues of mice."  Also, an island historian tells us, "Not infrequently there were serious food shortages and even famine.  Sometimes settlers had no choice but to eat the grain that had been reserved for planting the following spring."  The habitants, then, became dependent on what government handouts they could coax from the authorities at Louisbourg.  Luckily for the Acadians, this island, like Île Royale, also was ideal for those who made a living from the sea.  In fact, like the island's original French settlers, some of the Acadian farmers, especially along the island's north shore, owned their own boats, or a share in a boat, and fished when they were not farming or battling pesky voles.  However, a long-standing policy dictated by the King discouraged the habitants on Île St.-Jean from engaging in the cod fishery.  Like on the other big island, the virgin stands of timber on Île St.-Jean gave promise of a lucrative lumber industry.  However, one drawback of this promising resource were occasional forest fires in times of drought that "spread to the farms, destroying not only crops, but homes and farm buildings as well."249b 

Acadian emigration to Île St.-Jean began a few years after their kinsmen moved on to Île Royale and soon after the comte de Saint-Pierre's company sent 300 French settlers to its island fishery.  Michel Haché dit Gallant of Chignecto was one of Île-St.-Jean's "first European settlers" and perhaps the first Acadian to go there.  In early January 1714, Michel and one of his sons were among the peninsula Acadians who had sailed to Île Royale to look at land there.  They may have gone there twice, setting out again the following May 18.  They evidently did not care for what they saw, but they were still determined to leave British Nova Scotia.  Around 1720, Michel and his wife, Anne Cormier, went, instead, to Île St.-Jean, coaxed there, perhaps, by an official of the Compagnie de l'Île St.-Jean.  Michel and Anne built their new home on a red sandstone cliff now called Rocky Point, near the company's headquarters at Port-La-Joye.  When the company abandoned the island a few years later, Michel, Anne, and their hand full of Acadian neighbors chose to remain.  Michel served as harbor master at Port-La-Joye and died after falling through the ice there in April 1737, age 74.  Not until 1727 did a priest come to island--Récollet Father Félix Pain, so familiar to the Acadians--but there were not enough habitants living there for him to remain all year round.  Nevertheless, peninsula families followed the Hachés to the island, some of them via Île Royale.  Acadians bearing the surnames Boudrot, Le Prieur, Poitevin, and Vécot also had come in 1720; Duvivier by 1723.  Abraham Gaudet of Chignecto, who had settled on Île Royale in 1714, moved on to Île St.-Jean and "was among the witnesses at the burial of Pierre Neau at Port-Lajoie" in late August 1723.  Acadians named Oudy and Prétieux came by 1724.  Jean Belliveau of Annapolis Royal, after emigrating to Port-Toulouse, Île Royale, in c1721, moved on to Tracadie, west of Havre-St.-Pierre, in c1728.  Acadians named Arseneau, Bertaud, Bourg, Chênet or Chesnay, Chiasson, and Deveau came to the island by 1728; Vincent dit Clément by 1730; Martin by 1732; Pothier by 1734; Blanchard dit Gentilhomme by 1737; Caissie and Labauve by the 1730s; Doucet and Pinet by 1740; Comeau and Richard by 1741; Martin dit Barnabé and Quimine by 1742; and Langlois by 1743. 

In 1726, when de Pensens and his hand full of troupes de la marine came to the island, there were 18 shallops and a single schooner "engaged in the cod-fishery on the island."  The following year, the commandant reported that "only seven colonists sowed any grain, but that the yield was promising."  A census in 1728 counted 336 persons on the island.  In 1730, the number had fallen to 325!  In that year, de Pensens "reported that he had hired an Acadian who had a boat to tranport goods and livestock from Baie Verte," which lay across Mer Rouge from Port-La-Joye in territory still controlled by France.  Evidently this effort enhance the island's settlement as well as it commerce.  De Pensens reported 572 persons on the island in 1734, the year after he had been named King's lieutenant there.  That same year, 1734, de Pensens counted 39 shallops and a schooner participating in the island's fishery.  Acadians also established a coasting trade between the island and Île Royale.  By then, settlements could be found not only at Havre-St.-Pierre, still the most populous; at Port-La-Joye, still the administrative center; and at Pointe de l'Est--but also on Rivière-du-Nord-Est above Port-La-Joye; at Havre-aux-Sauvages and Tracadie on the north shore west of Havre-St.-Pierre; at Malpèque farther west; and at Trois-Rivières and Havre-à-l'Anguille on the island's remote eastern shore.  Havre-St.-Pierre remained the center of the island's fishery, but fishing also continued at Port-La-Joye and Pointe de l'Est and out of the newer coastal settlements.  Most of the cultivation on the island could be found at Port-La-Joye and on Rivière-du-Nord-Est, but grain fields also could be found at Malpèpue, Tracadie, Havre-aux-Sauvages, and Havre-St.-Pierre.  Despite the growing European population, the Mi'kmaq maintained a presence on the island.  Malpèque served as "a permanent headquarters" for the nation and as an important center of corn production.  A source of "recruitment" for the island's settlement came from a troubling quarter.  In 1735, Île Royale's longtime governor, Joseph Membeton de Brouillon de Saint-Ovide, complained to his superiors that soldiers on Île St.-Jean "thought of themselves as 'galley-slaves' and were convinced that they would spend the rest of their lives on the island."  Desertions to British Nova Scotia "were frequent--as were desertions to the French colonies from the English garrison" in Nova Scotia.  "De Pensens himself," his biographer reveals, "does not seem to have been too fond of living on the island; he was reprimanded several times for spending the winter at Louisbourg."  In 1736, illness forced him to retire from the King's service, and Lieutenant Robert Tarride Duhaget. who had first come to the island in 1728, served as interim commander.  De Pensens died in France in April 1737, and Louis Dupont Duchambon, married to a Mius d'Entremont whose mother was a daughter Charles La Tour, succeeded De Pensens as the island's commander.  According to Duchambon's biographer, his command was "uneventful."  He was joined on the island by a son, Louis Duchambon de Vergor, and a nephew, Joseph Dupont Duvivier, whose mother was a sister of Duchambon's wife.  Like a number of Acadian settlers on the island, young Joseph was a native of Port-Royal.  The new commandant "maintained a farm" on the island "where he raised livestock and in 1741 purchased a bateau for 3,000 livres," which was put to good use in the coming war.  On the eve of that war, in March 1744, after two decades of distinguished service on the island, Commissaire Robert Poitiers Dubuisson died at Port-La-Joye, age 61.  He was replaced as subdelegate to the King's commissaire by another member of the Acadian aristocracy, François-Marie de Goutin, who, like Joseph Dupont Duvivier, was a native of Port-Royal.  Duchambon was promoted to King's lieutenant of the Maritimes colony in April 1744, and nephew Joseph replaced him at Port-La-Joye.  After Duchambon surrendered Louisbourg to the British in June 1745, a detachment of New Englanders attacked Duvivier and his garrison at Port-La-Joye.  With the help of Mi'kmaq and Acadian militia, Duvivier and his troupes de la marine bloodied the Yankees before retreating to Québec.  A British naval force occupied Port-La-Joye, and Commodore Peter Warren, British commander in the region, seriously considered deporting the island's inhabitants, as he had done at Lousbourg.  Luckily for the St.-Jean islanders, Warren lacked the resources to do it.  In July 1746, a French force from Baie Verte ambushed the redcoat garrison at Port-La-Joye, bloodying them severely, and the island fell quiet for the rest of the war.  In 1749, following the erection of Halifax and British threats against Acadian partisans, more peninsula families came to the island bearing the surnames Allain, Bugeaud, Carret, Cellier, Chauvet dit La Gerne, Cyr, Deschamps dit Cloche, Gauthier, Hébert, Landry, LeBlanc, and Olivier.  Beginning in the fall of 1750, Acadians escaping the chaos at Chignecto more than tripled the island's population.  New communities sprang up at Rivière-du-Ouest, Rivière-de-Peugiguit, Rivière-du-Moulin-à-Scie, Rivière-des-Blancs, Anse-à-Dubuisson, Anse-aux-Morts, Petite-Ascension, Anse-au-Comte-St.-Pierre, Anse-au-Matelot, Grande-Anse, Grande-Ascension, Pointe-au-Boulleau, Anse-de-la-Boullotière, Pointe-Prime, Anse-à-Pinnet, Havre-de-la-Fortune, L'Étang-des-Berges, Bédec, La Traverse, Rivière-des-Blonds, Rivière-au-Crapauds, Anse-du-Nord-Ouest, and Anse-au-Sanglier.  Island farmers in these myriad settlements raised cattle, sheep, pigs, chickens, geese, and turkeys for food, employed oxen and horses as beasts of burden, and grew oats and peas as well as wheat, the island's principal crop.  Without meaning to, or even realizing it, these islanders, whether new arrivals or long-time settlers, were contributing to a fracturing of the Acadian culture that would only deepen in the years ahead.243

.

During the brief history of the Maritimes colony, new arrivals--fishermen, sailors, soldiers, farmers, craftsmen of every kind--settled among the fisherfolk from Newfoundland and the itinerant farmers from Nova Scotia.  Most of the newcomers came from France and Canada and settled on Île Royale, while others chose to go to Île St.-Jean.  They were still coming to the islands into the 1740s, up to the eve of a new war with Britain.  Some married into established Acadian families:118 

Pierre Bois, born at St.-Jean-des Champs, Diocese of Coutances, in c1682, came to the French Maritimes in c1712 and worked as a fisherman on Cape Breton Island.  He married Marie-Catherine, oldest daughter of harbor pilot François Coste and Madeleine Martin dit Barnabé and widow of Sébastien Le Roy dit L'Espérance, at Port-Toulouse, Île Royale, in c1718.  She gave him at least nine children:  Judith, born in c1725; Jean in c1730; Cécile in c1731; Pierre, fils and Joseph in c1733; François and Madeleine in c1735; Charlotte in c1738; and Geneviève in c1741.  Pierre took his family to L'Ardoise, up the coast from Port-Toulouse, where he worked as a fisherman.   In February 1752, a French official counted him there with Marie and seven unmarried children.  Pierre was age 70 at the time, and the official noted that he had been in the colony 40 years.  His older sons Jean and Pierre, fils married into the Poujet and Dugas families and settled at Port-Toulouse.  Youngest son François married into the Desaleur family and settled on Île Miquelon after Le Grand Dérangement.  Pierre's daughter Cécile married Pierre, son of Jean Babin and Marguerite Bourg of Ste.-Famille, Pigiguit, in c1760 probably at Restigouche on the Baie des Chaleurs during exile.  None of Pierre's descendants emigrated to Louisiana.186

Jean, fils, son of Jean Bourhis and Marie Demers, born probably at Montréal, became a master carpenter.  He married Marie-Josèphe, 15-year-old daughter of Jean Martin and Madeleine Babin of Grand-Pré and Île Royale, at Port-Toulouse in c1715.  She gave him at least six daughters, all born on Île Royale:  Élisabeth, or Isabelle; Marie-Charlotte; Marie-Anne in c1721; Catherine in c1725; Marie-Jeanne in c1727; Marie-Madeleine in c1730; and Gabrielle in c1732.  Isabelle, Marie-Charlotte, and Marie-Anne married into the Le Chaux, Corporon, and Le Choux famliies.  Jean remarried to Marie-Madeleine, called Madeleine, daughter of Jean-Baptiste Corporon and Marie Pinet of Minas and Île Royale and sister of Jean's daughter Marie-Charlotte's husband Jean-Baptiste Corporon, in August 1734.  Madeleine gave Jean, fils two sons, born on the island:  Jean-Baptiste in c1735, and Jean III in c1743.  Jean, fils died by c1749, when Madeleine remarried.  She settled with her new husband, Jean Le Chaux, Jean, fils's daughter Isabelle's widower, at Lorembec, near Louisbourg, where a French official counted them on their substantial fishing concession in April 1752.  If any of Jean Bourhis, fils's descendants emigrated to Louisiana, none took the family's name there.167

Jean Philippot, born at Lande, bishopric of Coutances, France, in c1702, came to Île Royale as a young fisherman in c1716.  He married Agnès, daughter of Jean Borny and Marie Commère of Newfoundland and Île Royale, in c1724.  She gave him at least six children:  Marie, born in c1727; Basile in c1728; Jean, fils in c1730; Guillaume-Jean and Guy-Adrien in c1732; and Gabriel in c1734.  They settled at the fishery on Île Scatary.  Agnès died in the 1740s, and Jean remarried to Julienne Bassin or Bossin, native of St. Michel des Loups, bishopric of Avranches, France, in the late 1740s, perhaps in France.  She gave him two more children.  Jean's daughter Marie married into the Jourdan or Jourdau family and settled on Île Scatary.  A French official counted Jean and his five sons "on the Great Harbour of the Isle de Scatary" in April 1752 and noted that Jean's "other two [children] are in France with their mother."  Daughter Marie and her husband lived not far from her father.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.138

Georges Berbudeau or Barbudeau, born on Île d'Oléron, bishopric of Saintes, France, came Île Royale as a surgeon in c1716 and married Françoise Vrigneau of Plaisance, Newfoundland, in c1723.  She gave him at least six children:  Marie, born in c1723; Jean-Baptiste in c1725; Anne in c1728; Jeanne in c1731; Pierre in c1732; and Étienne in c1734.  They settled at St.-Esprit, down the coast from Louisbourg, where Georges served as the fishing village's master surgeon.  Daughters Marie and Anne married into the Desroches and Picard families.  A French official counted all three families at St.-Esprit in February 1752.  Evidently soon after the census was taken Georges took his wife and younger children to Île St.-Jean.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.58

Claude dit Léveillé, son of Jacques Bernard and Louse Rabier of Montamisé, Poitiers, France, not kin to the other Bernards of greater Acadia, was a soldier in the company of de Rouville in Canada.  Claude married Angélique, daughter of Louis Coulombe, at Québec in c1713.  Later in the decade, probably after finishing his time in the King's service, he took his family to Port-Dauphin, Île Royale, where he worked as an inn-keeper.  Angélique gave him five children, including a son born in the mid-1720s who did not survive childhood.  Older daughter Marie-Anne, born at Port-Dauphin in c1717, married Frenchman Maurice Lévesque probably at Port-Dauphin in c1740; they settled on land Claude gave to them.  Youngest daughter Anne, also born at Port-Dauphin, married Pierre, fils, son of Pierre Martin and Marguerite Suche, at Port-Dauphin in June 1752; Pierre, fils's father probably was not Acadian.  None of Claude dit Léveillé's descendants emigrated to Louisiana.92

Pierre, son of François Benoist or Benoit, master apothecary, and Marie-Anne Tibierge, was born at St.-Médard-de-Verteuil, Poitier, France, in c1695.  He was not kin to the Benoit dit Labriere family of peninsula Nova Scotia.  Pierre married Anne, daughter of Acadians François Levron and Catherine Savoie, in c1713, place unrecorded, and took her to Île Royale.  She gave him two daughters, born probably at Louisbourg:  Annette in c1718, and Marie-Anne in May 1725.  Neither of them married.  By May 1723, Pierre was serving as a second ensign in the garrison at Louisbourg.  He was promoted to ensign of foot in 1730 and to lieutenant in April 1738.  Meanwhile, in January 1734, Pierre remarried to Marie-Anne, daughter of cannonier Thomas Jacau de Fiedmont and Anne Melanson, at Louisbourg.  Marie-Anne gave Pierre six more children, all born on the island:  Geneviève at Louisbourg in November 1734; Henri in October 1736; Anne at Port-Toulouse in September 1738; Émilie-Jeanne at Louisbourg in November 1739; Pierre-François at Port-Toulouse in c1742; and Jeanne-Gervaise in in August 1744.  Only daughter Geneviève married, into the Dupleix dit Sylvain family at Lousbourg.  In 1748-49, following King George's War and the retrocession of the Maritimes colony to France, Pierre evidently served as interim commandant on Île St.-Jean.  In April 1750, he was promoted to captain and became a chevalier de St.-Louis in February 1760.  None of his descendants emigrated to Louisiana.283 

Jean-Baptiste, called Jean, Radoux married Madeleine, daughter of Robert Henry and Marie-Madeleine Godin of Minas and widow of Benjamin Druce, in c1715, place unrecorded.  They settled at St.-Esprit on Île Royale, where Jean likely worked as a fisherman.  Madeleine gave Jean at least three children:  Jean, fils, born in c1728; Pierre in c1730; and Marguerite in c1734.  When a French official counted the family at St.-Esprit in February 1752, Madeleine was a widow again.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.64

Pierre Jacquemin dit Lorraine, a carpenter, born probably in Lorraine, then a part of France, married Marguerite, daughter of Acadians Philippe Pinet and Catherine Hébert, in c1715, place unrecorded, and remarried to Marguerite, daughter of Acadians Michel Haché dit Gallant and Anne Cormier of Chignecto and Île St.-Jean, probably on that island in c1729.  His first wife gave him at least four children:  Pierre, born in c1721; Marguerite in c1722; Marguerite-Catherine in c1726; and Pierre-François in c1727.  His second wife gave him at least five more children:  Jean, born in c1730; Marie-Louise in c1732; Marianne in c1734; Anne in c1735; and a second Marie-Louise in c1737.  Two of his daughters married into the Doucet and Closquinet families.  Pierre dit Lorraine died on Île St.-Jean in November 1737.  His children were raised by his widow and her second husband, Robert Hango dit Cloisy of Avranche, France, who she married at Port-La-Joye in January 1739.  None of Pierre dit Lorraine's descendants emigrated to Louisiana.07

Jean-Baptiste Villedieu, fils, a carpenter, was born at Grandville, bishopric of Coutances, France, in 1694.  He came to Île Royale by c1717, the year he married Anne Michel, place unrecorded.  She died in c1721, and he remarried to Anne, daughter of Étienne Hébert and Jeanne Comeau of Minas and widow of Pierre Boucher dit DesRoches, at Port-Toulouse in c1721.   Anne gave him at least five children:  Pierre-Martin, born in c1726; Jean-Baptiste, fils in c1731; Bernardine in c1733; Nicolas in c1734; and François in c1738.  Anne died on the island in October 1739, age 42, and Jean-Baptiste remarried--his third marriage--to Catherine-Marie Grosset, widow of Sr. Jean-Charles Cruchon dit Latour-Cruchon, in September 1740.  She gave him four more children:  Laurent, born in c1742; François in c1743; Jean in c1744; and Louis in c1750.  Oldest son Pierre-Martin married Marie-Perrine Cruchon, his stepsister, and settled with his father, stepmother, and siblings and step-siblings at Rivière-de-Miré, up the coast from Louisbourg, where a French official counted them in April 1752.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.120

François Fardel, also called Fardet and Cardet, born at Rieux, bishopric of Vannes, France, in c1697, came to Île Royale in c1717 as a young fisherman.  He married Marie-Marguerite, daughter of Claude Pitre and his second wife Anne Henry, on the island in c1747, when he would have been age 50, and settled at Petit-Degrat, off Île Madame, where he pursued his trade.  Marie gave him at least four children:  Pierre, born in c1748; Marie-Anne in c1750; Marie in c1752; and Angélique in c1756.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.69

Jean-Pierre David dit Saint-Michel, born in St.-Nazaire Parish, Nantes, France, in c1699 or 1700, probably not kin to the Canadian Davids who settled at Minas in British Nova Scotia, became a master blacksmith.  He married Marie-Madeleine, daughter of Jean-Baptiste Monmellian dit Saint-Germain and Hélène Juineau, probably at Québec in c1717.  They settled at Louisbourg, where Jean-Pierre, called Sr. David, worked his trade.  According to Bona Arsenault, between 1718 and 1743, Marie-Madeleine gave the blacksmith 13 children, nine sons and four daughters, most, if not all of them, born at Louisbourg.  Second on Étienne-Michel, called Michel, born at Louisbourg in c1720 and a blacksmith like his father, left Île Royale in the early 1740s and moved to Grand-Pré, British Nova Scotia, where he married and created a family of his own.  Michel and his family emigrated to Louisiana from Maryland.284 

Maurice Lévesque, or Leveque, born at Bouillon, bishopric of Avranches, in c1709, came to Île Royale in c1717 as a young fisherman.  He married Marie-Anne, daughter of Claude Bernard dit Lévielle and Angélique Coulombe of Québec, probably at Port-Dauphin on the island and worked as a fisherman/habitant on land granted to them by his father-in-law, a former soldier and local inn-keeper.  Marie-Anne gave Maurice at least three children, all born at Port-Dauphin:  Marie in c1741; Joseph in c1744; and Jean-Baptiste in c1749.  A French official counted them at Port-Dauphin in February 1752.  With them was Maurice's fishing partner, Mathurin Doulet, age 59, a native of St.-Malo.  None of Maurice's descendants emigrated to Louisiana.91

Pierre Bénard, born at St.-Malo in c1686, married Cécile, 15-year-old daughter of Vincent Longuépée and Madeleine Rimbault of Minas, at Port-Toulouse, Île Royale, in c1718 and worked in the coasting trade.  Cécile gave him at least nine children:  Jean, born in c1722; Anne in c1728, Françoise in c1730; Nicolas in c1734; Geneviève in c1735; Françoise in c1737; Froiselle in c1742; Charles in c1744; and Isaac in c1748.  They settled on Île Madame, where a French official counted them in February 1752.  Oldest son Jean married Catherine Langlois in the early 1750s.  None of Pierre's descendants emigrated to Louisiana.41

Mathieu dit Cadet, son of Pierre de Glain and Catherine Duverger, born at Bayonne, France, in c1694, came to the French Maritimes in c1718, probably as a fisherman.  At age 40, he married Marie, daughter of Acadians Pierre Martin and Anne Godin dit Châtillon and widow of Pierre Bertaud dit Montaury, at St.-Pierre-du-Nord, Île St.-Jean, in February 1734.  She gave him at least one daughter, Marie-Louise, born in c1736.  The family moved down from Havre-St.-Pierre to the east side of Rivière-de-Pegiguit, a tributary of Rivière-du-Nord-Est, and were counted there in August 1752.  None of Mathieu dit Cadet's descendants emigrated to Louisiana.05

Georges Chauvin, born at Bassilly, bishopric of Avranches, France, in 1700, came to Île Royale in 1719 as a young fisherman.  He married Marie, daughter of Joseph Mirande and Marie Gaudet of Chignecto and Baie-de-l'Indienne, on the island in c1728.  They purchased a fishing concession at Lorembec, near Louisbourg, in 1738.  Marie gave him at least six children, all of them born on the island:  Louis in c1729; Joseph in c1732; Gillette in c1736; Pierre in c1739; Julien in c1741; and Georges, fils in c1744.  In April 1752, a French official counted Georges, Marie, and two of their sons--Joseph and Pierre--at Lorembec.  The official noted that Georges employed three other fishermen and a domestic servant and owned his own boat.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.163

François and Joseph, sons of Pierre Durocher and Guyanne Renaud, born in the parish of St.-Christophe-de-Valein, bishopric of Rennes, France, in c1685 and c1687, came to Île St.-Jean in c1719, perhaps as fishermen/habitants for the Compagnie de l'Île St.-Jean.  François married Élisabeth Bruneau, a 27-year-old widow from Sainte, Saintonge, France, at Port-La-Joye in August 1721.  Five years later, they settled at Havre-St.-Pierre on land they had purchased from a fellow colonist for 112 livres.  When a French official counted them at Havre-St.-Pierre in August 1752, they lived alone, so one wonders if they were that rare Acadian couple who had no children.  Brother Joseph married Françoise, daughter of merchant François Giraud and Anne de Lavant, at Port-La-Joye in August 1721.  Françoise was "servante chez le gouverneur" at the time of her marriage.  She gave Joseph at least one child:  François-Joseph, born probably on the island in 1725.  Joseph remarried to Françoise Pivain at Charlebourg, near Québec, in February 1748.  She gave him two more children:  Joseph-Marie, born in c1749; and Geneviève in c1751.  Joseph remarried again--his third marriage--to Marie-Anne Dumont at Kamouraska on the lower St. Lawrence, in June 1752.  She gave him two more children:  Louise-Geneviève, born in c1754; and Marie-Exupère in c1756.  One suspects that Joseph did not return to the French Maritimes.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana, at least none who identified themselves as Acadian.236

Jacques, son of Jean Le Tourneur and Jeanne Marion, born at St.-Jean-des-Champs, bishopric of Coutances, France, in 1682, emigrated to Île Royale in 1720 and worked in the fishery at Havre-la-Baleine, near Louisbourg.  At age 52, Jacques married Catherine Roger, widow of Jean Goupil, probably at La Baleine in February 1734; she was five years older than Jacques, so they had no children of their own.  A French official counted them at La Baleine in April 1752.  With them was "their little grandson," 9-year-old Jean-Philippe Guigoit, son, most likely, of one of Catherine's children by her first marriage.  The official also noted that Jacques employed nine other fishermen and owned two boats.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.152

Jude Rode, born at Avranches, France, in c1692, married Angélique Aller and emigrated to Île Royale in 1720.  They settled at Lorembec, where they were granted a fishing concession in 1733.  She gave him at least two sons:  Louis, born probably in France in c1719; and Louis-Joseph in 1751.  A French official counted them at Lorembec in April 1752, noting that Jude employed three 36-month-men and was "awaiting the arrival of two crews from France."  No member of the family emigrated to Louisiana.169

Pierre-Jérôme Boucher, born in France in c1688, was an army engineer assigned to the fortifications of Louisbourg, Île Royale, in c1721.  He married Madeleine, daughter of former official Mathieu de Goutin and his Acadian Jeanne Thibodeau, at Louisbourg in c1730 and remained at the fortress, where he continued his career.  He was promoted to "reformed" lieutenant in 1737 and to "reformed" captain two years later.  In 1747, he received the Cross of the Order of St.-Louis for his service to France.  Madeleine gave him at least seven children, including two sons, born at the French citadel between 1734 and 1745:  Madeleine-Hélène in c1734 Jeanne in c1736, Anne in c1737, Louise in c1740, Marie in c1742, Pierre in c1743, and Charles-Joseph in c1745.  Pierre-Jérôme died at Louisbourg in July 1753.  One wonders what happened to his widow and children in 1758.  Evidently none of his descendants emigrated to Louisiana.316

Pierre Arbour dit Carrica, native of Bayonne, France, married Susanne Moreau probably in c1721.  They settled at Havre-St.-Pierre on Île St.-Jean, among the first to settle there.  Susanne gave Pierre seven children, three sons and four daughters, on the island:  Michel, born in c1724; Mathurin in c1725; Dominique in c1727; Isabelle in c1730, Suzanne in c1732; Marguerite in c1734; and Marie-Thérèse in c1736.  Some of the family moved to Canada in the 1740s.  Second son Mathurin married Félicité, daughter of André Archambault and Cécile Adhémar, at Pointe-aux-Trembles, near Montréal, in July 1748.  Youngest son Dominique married Angélique, daughter of Pierre Pelletier and Marie-Charlotte Chavigny, at L'Assomption, between Montrél and Québec, in August 1755, on the eve of the Acadian Grand Dérangement.  Pierre dit Carrica's oldest daughter Isabelle married into the Turenne family at Louisbourg, Île Royale, in June 1750.  Youngest daughter Marie-Thérèse married into the Savoie family, place unrecorded, in c1756.  Evidently Pierre's descendants settled in Canada, and none of them--at least none who identifed themselves as Acadian--emigrated to Louisiana.285 

Pierre, a carpenter, son of Jean Bordages or Bourdages, master tailor of St.-Jean in Angoulême, married Marie-Anne, daughter of Guillaume Chevalier, master shoemaker, and Jeanne Ménard of St.-Saveur Parish, La Rochelle, at Port-La-Joye, Île St.-Jean, in August 1721.  Their son Raymond, born on the island in c1728, married Esther, twin daughter of Acadians René LeBlanc, the notary of Grand-Pré, and his second wife Marguerite Thébeau, on Rivière St.-Jean, present-day New Brunswick, in 1756, two years before the British attacked the river settlements.  Between 1756 and 1780, Esther gave Raymond 11 children, seven sons and four daughters.  After taking refuge on the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore, they escaped the British again in 1760 and settled at Bonaventure in Gaspésie, present-day Québec Province.  Raymond died there in c1787.  His many descendants remained at Bonaventure and other communities in Gaspésie.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.285a

Laurent, son of Jean Neveu and Catherine Cayer of Santon, La Rochelle, France, widower of Louise Ros, remarried to Jeanne, daughter of Pierre Robin and Marie-Anne Guaritan of St.-Jean, La Rochelle, at Port-La-Joye, Île St.-Jean, in November 1721.  Laurent and Jeanne settled at Tracadie on the north shore of the island.  One of their descendants may have emigrated to Louisiana from France.286  

Honoré dit Villedieu, son of Pierre dit Desroches Boucher and Hélène Gaudry dit Bourbonnière of St.-Nicolas Parish, Québec, was born probably at Grand-Pré in c1716.  In c1722, he followed his family to Port-Toulouse, Île Royale, and married Marie-Anne, daughter of Bernard Marres dit La Sonde and Judith Petitpas, there in c1743.  Marie-Anne was a native of the port.  In February 1752, a French official counted the couple at Port-Toulouse with three children:  Bélonie, age 8; Marie-Josèphe, age 4; and Jean, age 2.  Evidently no member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.317

Mathurin, fils and André, sons of Mathurin Renaud and Jeanne Raval, were born in the parish of de Mattes, bishopric of Sainte, France, in c1687 and c1692.  The older brother came to the French Maritimes by June 1722, when he married Marie-Anne, daughter of Jean Favreau, master tailor, and Marie LeGrand of St.-Sauveur, La Rochelle, at Port-La-Joye, Île St.-Jean.  Mathurin, fils died at Havre-St.-Pierre, on the north side of the island, in October 1743, in his mid-50s (though his burial record says he was age 65 at the time of his death).  He and his wife may have been that rare Acadian couple who had no children.  Meanwhile, younger brother André came to Île St.-Jean in c1726 and evidently joined his brother at Havre-St.-Pierre.  André married Marie-Jeanne, called Jeanne, daughter of Mathieu Roger and Simone Servant of La Rochelle, at St.-Pierre-du-Nord, the church for Havre-St.-Pierre, in October 1740.  Jeanne gave him five children, all born on the island:  Suzanne-Marie in October 1741; Mathurin le jeune in October 1742; André, fils in October 1744; Anastasie in c1750; and Marie in June 1751.  A French official counted André, who he described as a "poor" ploughman, Jeanne, and their two sons at Havre-St.-Pierre in August 1752.  One wonders what happened to their daughters.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.244

Jacques Arete, born at Port-Toulouse, Île Royale, in c1722, married Rose Alitra, "native of la Cadie" probably in the late 1740s.  One wonders whose Jacques's parents may have been, or who were Rose's parents.  The couple settled on Île Royale, where a French official counted them with 21 Acadian families at Pointe-à-la-Jeunesse, in the center of the island, in late March 1752.  With them were two daughters:  Marie-Rose, born in c1750, and an unnamed infant daughter.  The census taker called Jacques a "ploughman."  One wonders if he originally had worked as a coaster or a fisherman.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.85

Jean Clément, born at Jeffrets, bishopric of Coutances, France, in c1707, was not kin to the Vincent dit Cléments of British Nova Scotia and Île St.-Jean.  Jean came to Île Royale by c1722 probably as a young fisherman.  He married Marie-Josèphe, daughter of Englishman Benjamin Druce of Oxfordshire and Acadian Madeleine Henry dit Robert of Minas, at Port-Toulouse in c1726; Marie-Josèphe was a native of Grand-Pré.  She gave Jean at least 10 childern, all born on the island:   Jean, fils in c1732; Pierre in c1734; Jean in c1741; Marie in c1742; Pierre in c1743; Aimable in c1744; Hilaire in c1746; Louise in c1748; Chapin in c1751; and Claude in c1754.  Two of Jean and Marie-Josèphe's daughters married into the Lirard and LeHardy families from France.  The extended family settled at St.-Esprit, on the Atlantic side of the island, where a French official counted them in February 1752.  Jean was still working as a fisherman. Their son Hilaire, along with two of his children, both born in France, were the only Acadian Clément who emigrated to Louisiana.287  

Pierre, son of Jean Gallon and Marie Basire, born in the parish of St.-Pierre-L'ange, bishopric of Avranches, France, in c1710, came to the French Maritimes in c1722, perhaps with his family or as a young fisherman.  He married Marguerite, daughter of Pierre Bertaud dit Montaury and Marie Martin, at St.-Pierre-du-Nord, Île St.-Jean, in October 1739.  (A clue that Pierre came to greater Acadia with his family is found in the remarriage of Marguerite's older sister Marie-Josèphe to François Gallon, perhaps Pierre's brother, at Louisbourg, Île Royale, in October 1741.)  Marguerite gave Pierre at least six children, all born on Île St.-Jean:  Marie-Françoise, called Françoise, in c1739; Marie-Marguerite in c1741; Henriette in c1742; Félix in c1745; Jean-Baptiste in c1747; and Joseph in c1750.  In August 1752, a French official counted them on the east side of Rivière-de-Peguiguit, a tributary of Rivière-du-Nord-Est, in the interior of the island.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.04

Louis Closquinet dit Dumoulin, a carpenter, born at Verrier, Reims, France, married Marguerite, daughter of Vincent Longuépée and Madeleine Rimbault, at Louisbourg in c1722.  In c1737, they resettled on Rivière-du-Nord-Est in the interior of Île St.-Jean.  They had at least eight children, most, if not all, of them born on that island:  François in c1723; Pierre in c1725; Marie-Madeleine, also called Marie-Marguerite, in c1727; Louis, fils in c1730; Joseph and Jean-Baptiste in c1732; Louise-Geneviève, also called Marie-Louise, in c1735; and Amable in July 1739.  Louis and Marguerite's daughters married into the Girard dit Saint-Crispin and Savary families.  Louis, père and Marguerite were still alive in August 1752, when they were counted with five of their younger children on the west side of Rivière-de-Peugiguit.  At least three of their sons created families of their own:  Pierre married Marie-Josèphe, daughter of Paul Boudrot and Madeleine-Josèphe Doiron, at Port-La-Joye, Île St.-Jean, in January 1751.  Louis, fils, counted with his parents and younger siblings in August 1752, married Anne Jaquemin probably soon after.  Joseph married Françoise, another daughter of Paul Boudrot and Madeleine-Josèphe Doiron, probably on Île St.-Jean in c1756.  Three of Louis dit Dumoulin's descendants, a son, a daughter, and a granddaughter, emigrated to Louisiana from France.288 

Charles, fils, son of Charles Fouquet and Claude Duvivier, born at St.-Jean-de-la-Roise, Avranches, Normandy, in c1702, came to the French Maritimes in c1722 as a young fisherman.  He married Marie-Judith, daughter of Étienne Poitevin dit Parisien and Anne Daigre of Annapolis Royal, at St.-Pierre-du-Nord, the church for Havre-St.-Pierre, Île St.-Jean, in September 1724.  They remained at Havre-St.-Pierre and raised a dozen children there:  Jean-Baptiste, born in c1727; Louis in December 1728; Charles l'aîné in August 1730; Jean-Aubin, called Aubin, in May 1732; Marie-Judith or -Françoise in April 1736; Jean-Martin, called Martin, in November 1738; Anne in July 1741; Élisabeth or Isabelle in c1743; Simon in November 1747; Françoise in c1748; and Charles le jeune in November 1751.  In August 1752, a French official counted Charles, Marie, and nine of their children at Nigeagant, near Havre-St.-Pierre.  Charles's son Jean-Aubin emigrated to Louisiana from France.289 

Gervais Brisset, born at Condé, bishopric of Bayeux, in c1702, came to Île Royale as a fisherman in c1722.  He married Marie-Josèphe, daughter most likely of Sébastien Le Roy dit L'Espérance and Marie-Catherine Coste, in the early or mid-1730s probably on Île Royale.  She gave him at least five daughters:  Marie-Josèphe, born in c1736; Catherine in c1740; Brigitte in c1744; Suzanne in c1746; and Gervaise in c1749.  They settled at L'Ardois, down the coast from Louisbourg, where a French official counted them in February 1752.  None of Gervais's descendants emigrated to Louisiana.33

Jean, fils, son of Jean Beaulieu and Marie-Louise Beaulieu, born at Pluion, bishopric of Nantes, France, in c1720, evidently followed his family to Île Royale in c1722, where he worked as a fisherman.  Jean, fils married Madeleine, daughter of Jean-Baptiste Rodon and Madeleine Henry of Port-Toulouse and widow of Julien Poirier, probably at Port-Toulouse in November 1743.  The settled at St.-Esprit, up the coast from Port-Toulouse.  Madeleine died in August 1749, but not before giving Jean, fils a son, Pierre, born in c1746.  Jean, fils remarried to Marie Hulin, born at Grandville, diocese of Coutances, in c1720 and probably a widow.  When a French official counted them at St.-Esprit in February 1752, they had not only Pierre, age 6, but also Jean III, age 2--remarkable for a woman her age.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.62

Simon, son of Michel Gauthier or Gaultier and Élisabeth Gassot, born at St.-Pierre-Devins, bishopric of Avranches, France, in c1706, probably was not kin to the Gauthiers of British Nova Scotia.  He came to Île Royale as a young fisherman in 1722 and married Françoise, daughter of Jean Dubordieu and Françoise DesRoches of Plaisance, on the island in October 1741.  She gave him no children.  Simon remarried to Jacqueline, also called Catherine, daughter of Jean Dohier or Doight and Françoise Rever of Lancieux, bishopric of St.-Malo, on the island in August 1751.  She gave him a daughter, Jacqueline, born probably at Lorembec, near Louisbourg, in c1754.  A French official counted Simon and his second wife at Lorembec in April 1752.  Living with the family were six hired fishermen.  The official noted that Simon owned two boats and possessed a substantial fishing establishment facing the harbor that he had purchased in 1738.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.158

Joseph La Forest, later La Forestrie and De La Forestrie, born at Angers, France, reached Havre-St.-Pierre on Île St.-Jean in c1722.  He probably was not kin to Marc-Antoine de La Forest, commissioner-paymaster and King's attorney "at the head office of the Admiralty" on Île Royale.  In c1726, Joseph La Forest married Marie, daughter of Guyon Chiasson dit La Vallée and Marie-Madeleine Martin of Chignecto and widow of Jean Pothier.  Marie gave Joseph three sons, all born on the island.  Two of their sons married, but only one of them seems to have fathered a son of his own.  Marie was listed in a census as a widow in 1752.  Three of her De La Forestrie granddaughters emigrated to Louisiana from France.290 

Jean Darembourg, also Rambourg, married Marie-Anne Pichot of Plaisance in c1722 and settled at Petit-Dégrat, off Île Madame.  Marie-Anne gave him at least nine children:  Marguerite, born in c1723; Marie; Félix, born in c1733; Jean-Noël in c1735; Jean-Pierre in c1736; François in c1738; Martin in c1740; Jérôme in c1744; and Isabelle in c1748.  Their older daughters married into the Emanuel and Le Borgne families.  Jean died at Petit-Dégrat in the late 1740s or early 1750s.  Marie-Anne remarried to fisherman Nicolas Hecquart or Écard at nearby Port-Toulouse in c1751 but settled on her deceased husband's grant at Petit-Dégrat.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.51

Pierre Darembourg, born probably in France, married Marie, daughter of Louis Mazerolle and Geneviève Forest of Annapolis Royal, at Port-Toulouse, Île Royale, in c1722, when she was only in her mid-teens.  They settled at Petit-Dégrat, down the coast from Port-Toulouse, before moving on to Havre-St.-Pierre on Île St.-Jean, where Pierre died in May 1742.  Marie gave Pierre had at least five children, most, if not all, of them born at Petit-Dégrat:  Marie-Josèphe in c1727, Geneviève in c1730, Anne in c1734, Jean-Baptiste in c1736, and Jacques in c1739.  Marie-Josèphe and Geneviève married into the Langlois and Villalon families, Marie-Josèphe at Havre-St.-Pierre, Geneviève at Petit-Dégrat.  One wonders if Pierre was kin to Jean Darembourg of Petit-Dégrat, or to Sr. André Darembourg of Plaisance, Newfoundland.  Pierre's son Jean-Baptiste emigrated to Louisiana from France.307 

Charles Charpentier, born in France in c1688, came to the French Maritimes as a fisherman/habitant by c1723, when he married Marie-Josèphe, daughter of Louis Chênet dit La Garenne and Jeanne Martin dit Barnabé, at Port-Toulouse on Île Royale.  She gave him at least five children:  Marie-Josèphe, born in c1724; Suzanne in c1727; Georges in c1730; Louis in c1732; and Joseph in c1737.  They moved on to Île St.-Jean in the 1720s or 1730s.  Charles died at Port-Lajoie, on the south shore of the island, in December 1738, age 50.  Marie-Josèphe promptly remarried to Jean-François Morel of St.-Malo, who gave her no more children.  In August 1752, a French official counted Marie, again a widow, and three of her Charpentier sons--Georges called Joseph, age 22; Louis, age 20; and Joseph, age 15--at Havre-St.-Pierre.  Georges married Anne, daughter of Jean-Jacques Cyr and Marie-Josèphe Hébert of Chignecto, probably at Havre-St.-Pierre in c1755.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.251

Jean-Baptiste dit Duvivier, fils, son of Jean-Baptiste Habel, sieur de Larnos, and Marguerite de La Bellière, born at Granville, bishopric of Coutances, France, in c1702, came to the French Maritimes in c1723 as a young merchant, perhaps under the aegis of the Compagnie de l'Île St.-Jean.  He settled at Havre-St.-Pierre, on the north shore of the island, and may have had a son by a first marriage:  Jean-Hector, born in c1723.  Jean-Baptiste married, or remarried to, Madeleine, daughter of Jean Caissie and his second wife Cécile Hébert of Chignecto, at St.-Pierre-du-Nord, the church for Havre-St.-Pierre, in November 1733.  Madeleine gave him eight children on the island:  Pierre, born in c1736; Marie-Anne in c1738; Théotiste in c1739; Jacques in c1741; Marie-Madeleine in c1744; Henriette in c1747; Jean in c1749; and Michel in c1753.  In August 1752, a French official counted Jean-Baptiste, who he called a Duvivier, Madeleine, and six of their children at Havre-aux-Sauvages, on the coast west of Havre-St.-Pierre.  The official noted that Jean-Baptiste was "extremely poor."  He died probably at Havre-aux-Sauvages in July 1753, in his early 50s, and Madeleine remarried a year later.   No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.232

François Le Breton, born at St.-Léger, bishopric of Coutances, France, in c1704, came to Île Royale in c1723 to work in the fisheries there.  His younger brother Nicolas, born at St.-Léger in c1728, joined him probably in the late 1740s.  Meanwhile, François married Marie, daughter of Joseph Mordant dit Lanoy and Marie Hébert, probably in the late 1730s.  Marie, born at Petit-Bras-d'Or on Île Royale in c1720, gave him at least three children:  François, fils, born in c1740; Charles in c1745; and Isabelle in c1750.  They settled at Baie-de-l'Indienne, where a French official counted them in April 1752.  With the family were three of François's fishing partners, including younger brother Nicolas, still a bachelor.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.116

Georges Bonin, born at St.-Esprit, Île Royale, in c1724, married Marie Diers, born at Niganiche, Île Royale, in c1733, probably during the early 1750s.  They settled at St.-Esprit, where Georges worked in the fishery.  A French official counted them at St.-Esprit in February 1752.  They had a 21-day-old daughter, not yet named.  One wonders if they had anymore children on the island.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.59

Jean, son of Eustache and Jeanne Delaunay, also Delaunois, born at St.-Ca or La Casse, St.-Brieuc, Brittany, in c1702, came to the French Maritimes in c1724 probably as a young fisherman.  He married Marie-Madeleine, daughter of Pierre Arseneau and Anne Boudrot of Chignecto, at St.-Pierre-du-Nord, Île St.-Jean, in May 1735.  Marie-Madeleine's family was from Malpèque, farther west along the island's north shore.  Marie-Madeleine gave Jean at least eight children on the island:  Marie-Josèphe, baptized in October 1742, Eustache, born in February 1738, Susanne-Marie in November 1739, Jean-Jacques in August 1741, Marie-Élisabeth in November 1744, Polycarpe or Paul in September 1746, Jean, fils in November 1749; and Madeleine in c1751.  In August 1752, a French official counted Jean, Marie, and seven of their children at Havre-aux-Sauvages, west of Havre-St.-Pierre.  Jean died there the following November, age 50.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.302

François Josse dit Saint-Brieuc, born at St.-Glain, bishopric of Dole, France, in c1696, came to the French Maritimes by c1724, when he married Marie, daughter of François Langlois and Madeleine Comeau of Port-Royal, at Port-Toulouse.  Marie gave him at least nine children on the island:  François, fils was born in c1726; Pierre in c1729; Joseph in c1730; Mathieu in c1735; Guillaume in c1739; Gabriel in c1741; Amable in c1744; Jean-Marc in c1745; and Jean-Marie in c1746.  He and Marie settled on Île Madame, where he worked as a coaster.  Evidenly François ran afoul of the British at the beginning of King George's War; he was counted at Boston, Massachusetts, in 1745.  Oldest son François, fils married into the Tardiff family of Louisbourg.  They were at Restigouche in 1761 during Le Grand Dérangement and settled at Gabarus, down the coast from Louisbourg, in 1771.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.42

Robert, son of Gilles Heusé or Huezé and Jeanne Rose of Presde, Dole, France, came to the French Maritimes by February 1724, when he married Françoise, daughter of Pierre Gatinant and Marie Girardeau of St.-Nicolas, La Rochelle, France, at Port-La-Joye, Île St.-Jean.  Ignace Heusé, perhaps Robert's son, was born probably on Île St.-Jean in the 1720s.  He worked as a seaman as well as a farmer in the Maritimes before moving to peninsula Nova Scotia.  In March 1748, he stood as godfather at Beaubassin for Joseph Caissie.  Ignace married Marie-Josèphe Renaud in c1752.  They had at least one son, Jacques, born at Rivière-aux-Canards in the Minas Basin in c1753.  Returning to the Maritimes, Ignace remarried to Cécile Bourg, widow of Joseph Longuépée, probably on Île St.-Jean in c1758.  Six of Ignace's descendants emigrated to Louisiana from France.291

Jean Le Breton, born at St.-Malo, France, in c1689, was not kin to the brothers of Île Royale.  Jean came to Île St.-Jean by c1724, when he married Marie, daughter of Claude Bertrand and Catherine Pitre of Port-Royal and widow of Alexandre Comeau.  Marie gave him seven children, all born on the island:  Charles in c1724, Pierre in c1726, Marguerite in c1728, François in c1729, Jean, fils in c1732, Joseph in c1735, and Bonaventure in c1739.  They settled at Havre-St.-Pierre, on the north shore of the island, where a French official counted them in August 1752.  François married Anne, daughter of Jacques Oudy and his second wife Marguerite Saulnier, at St.-Pierre-du-Nord, the church for Havre-St.-Pierre, November 1754.  Charles married Marie, daughter of Pierre dit Pierrot Simon dit Boucher and Marie Pinet of Louisbourg, at St.-Pierre-du-Nord in November 1755.  Sadly, during the island's Grand Dérangement, Jean, Marie, and their entire family perished aboard the British transport Violet on its way to St.-Malo in December 1758.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.237

Jean dit Arnaud, son of Pierre Renaud and Marie-Madeleine Gainné of Rochefort, France, probably not kin to the other Renauds of greater Acadia, came to Île St.-Jean in c1724.  Jean dit Arnaud married Marie-Madeleine, daughter of Jean Pothier and Marie Chiasson of Chignecto, at St.-Pierre-du-Nord in October 1733 and settled at Havre-au-Sauvage, west of Havre-St.-Pierre.  From 1734 to 1758, Marie-Madeleine gave Jean dit Arnaud at least 10 children, all born on the island:  Marie in c1734; Rosalie in c1736; Jean in c1738; Colette in February 1739; Anne in c1743; Véronique in c1747; Saurienne in c1749; Madeleine-Josèphe in c1752; Jacques in c1755; and Marie-Anne in c1758, on the eve of the island's dérangement.  Two of Jean dit Arnaud's daughters, Colette and Véronique, emigrated to Louisiana, from France.292

François Clermont, probably a widower, married, or remarried to, Jeanne, daugher of Pierre Baudry of La Tremblade and Jeanne Meschin of Bas-Poitou, probably in the French Maritimes.  Jeanne was a native of Plaisance, born there in c1707.  Son Pierre was born in c1725, when Jeanne would have been age 18, so the couple may have married in the early 1720s.  A French official counted the widow Clermont at Gabarus Bay, Île Royale, in February 1752.  With her were three children:  François, fils, born in c1719, evidently a stepson; Pierre in c1725; and Jeanne in c1737.  Living with the widow also were three hired fishermen.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.86

____ Nicolas, born at Montanes, bishopric of Coutances, France, in c1707, came to the French Maritimes by c1725 and worked as a fisherman.  He married Marie, 55-year-old daughter of Michel Hébert and Isabelle Pellerin of Minas and widow of Joseph Le Mordant dit Lanoy of Petit-Bras-d'Or, in c1750, well into his middle age; she was, in fact, a dozen years older than he was.  Needless to say, she gave him no children.  They moved to nearly Baie-de-l'Indienne soon after their marriage, and Nicholas became a fishing partner with his stepson-in-law, François Dauphin, married to Marie's daughter Perrine Mordant.  A French official counted them there in April 1752.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.119

Charles, son of Guillaume Yvon and Madeleine Harambour, born at St.-Jean-de-Champs, bishopric of Coutances, in c1697, came to Île Royale as a fisherman in 1726 and was granted a concession at Lorembec in 1733.  He married Louise, daughter of Étienne DesRoches and Gabrielle Le Manquet of Plaisance, at Lorembec in November 1731.  She gave him at least 10 children there:  Charlotte, born in c1732; Étienne in c1734; Louis in c1735; Guillaume in c1736; François in c1737; Charles-François in c1739; Louise in c1740; Jean in c1742; Pierre in c1743; and Julienne in c1745.  Louise died by 1749, when Charles remarried to Mathurine Dohier of Lancieux, bishopric of St.-Malo, at Lorembec.  She gave him five more children:  Charles, fils, born in c1750 but died later in the year; Jeanne, born in December 1751; Françoise in c1754; Marie in c1756; and Victoire in c1758.  A French official counted Charles, Mathurine, and six of his children living next to a former brother-in-law at Lorembec in April 1752.  The official noted that Charles employed three other fishermen and owned three boats, two of which he rented out and the third he used in the fishery.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.159

Jean dit Caniche, son of René Lacroix and Marie Flan, born at St.-Jean-de-Luz, bishopric of Bayonne in the Basque country of southwestern France, in c1712, came to the French Maritimes as a young fisherman in 1726.  He married Cécile, daughter of Jacques Oudy and his first wife Cécile Blou of Chignecto, at St.-Pierre-du-Nord, Île St.-Jean, in May 1732.  She gave him at least six children, all born on the island:  Marie-Josèphe in c1733; Jean-Jacques in c1736; François-Mathieu in c1738; Susanne-Françoise in c1743; Paul in c1746; and Rose in c1750.  In August 1752, a French official counted them at Havre-St.-Pierre on the north shore of the island living near Cécile's family.  The official reported that Jean and Cécile were living with three sons and two daughters, but for some reason he did not name them.  Jean died at Havre-St.-Pierre in December 1754, in his early 40s.  Sadly, four years later, during the island's dérangement, Cécile and her children perished aboard the British transport Violet, which sank in a North Atlantic storm on its way to St.-Malo.  Needless to say, no member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.223

Jacques Lirard, born in the parish of Plérin, bishopric of St.-Brieuc, France, in c1712, came to Île Royale in c1726 as a teenage fisherman.  He married Marie-Catherine, daughter of Jean Clément and Marie Druce, at Port-Toulouse, Île Royale, and settled with her family at St.-Esprit up the coast.  When a French official counted them at St.-Esprit in February 1752, they had a 14-month-old daughter named Marie, so they probably had not been married long.  The census taker also noted that Jacques had hired two French fishermen to help during the coming season.  One wonders if Jacques's daughter Marie emigrated to Louisiana.60

Claude Clergé or Clerget, born at Acre, Diocese of Langres, France, in c1692, came to Île Royale in c1727, where he worked as a coaster.  He married Françoise, daughter of Pierre Lavergne and Anne Bernon and widow of Claude Petitpas, fils and Antoine Lavandier, at Port-Toulouse in c1736.  She gave him at least four children:  Gabriel, born in c1738; Félicité in c1740; Françoise in c1741; and Anne in c1742.  A French official counted them, along with two of Françoise's sons from her previous marriages, at Port-Toulouse in February 1752.  Son Gabriel married into the Boudrot family after Le Grand Dérangement.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.294a

Brothers Michel and Pierre, sons of Jean Grossin and Pérrine Pétain of Carolles, bishopric of Avranches, France, came to Île St.-Jean and settled at Havre-St.-Pierre, on the north shore of the island, in c1727.  Michel, born in c1705, married Marie, daughter of Jean Caissie dit Roger and his second wife Cécile Hébert of Chignecto, probably at Havre-St.-Pierre in c1730.  Marie gave Michel at least 11 children on the island:  Jean, born in September 1732; Marie-Louise, called Louise, in c1734; Marie in c1736; Jacques-Christophe in February 1738; Baptiste-Louis, called Louis, in August 1740; Henriette in September 1742; Michel, fils in c1746; Brigitte in c1748; Françoise in c1749; Marie-Madeleine in c1752; and Robert was baptized, age unrecorded, in November 1755 but died at age 8 months in July 1756.  A French official counted Michel and his family at Étang-St.-Pierre, on the coast west of Havre-St.-Pierre, in August 1752.  Daughter Louise married into the Quimine family in February 1755, and Marie married into the Dugas family in France.  Meanwhile, Michel's younger brother Pierre, born in c1708, married Cécile, another daughter of Jean Caissie dit Roger and his second wife Cécile Hébert, at St.-Pierre-du-Nord, the church for Havre-St.-Pierre, in July 1733.  Cécile gave Pierre at least nine children on the island:  Michel le jeune, born in c1734; Cécile in c1737; Madeleine in c1739; Anne in c1741; Jacques in c1744; Marguerite in c1746; Rosalie in c1750; Marie-Louise in c1754; and Louis in c1756.  Pierre and his family also were counted at Étang-St.-Pierre in August 1752.  Pierre's oldest son Michel le jeune married Marie-Josèphe, daughter of François Chiasson and Anne Doucet, at St.-Pierre-du-Nord in January 1758, on the eve of the island's dérangement.  Michel, père's daughter Marie emigrated to Louisiana from France.295 

Antoine D'Etcheverry, born at Bayone, in the French Basque country of southwestern France, in c1710, came to the French Maritimes probably as a young fisherman in c1727.  He married Marie, daughter of Noël Pinet and Rose Henry, in c1740 probably on Île St.-Jean.  They followed her family to Pointe de l'Est, on the eastern end of the island, where a French official counted them with six of their children in August 1752; he described Antoine as a fisherman/habitant.  Marie gave Antoine at least eight children, all born on the island:  Denis in c1741, Antoine in c1742, François in c1744, Pierre in c1746, Jean in c1748, Marie in c1752, Marie-Modeste in c1755, and Anne-Marie in c1758.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.221

Martin D'Etcheverry, perhaps kin to Antoine, born at Bayonne in c1714, came to the French Maritimes probably as a young fisherman in 1728.  He married Marie-Josèphe, 15-year-old daughter of Jacques Oudy and his second wife Marguerite Saulnier, at St.-Pierre-du-Nord, Île St.-Jean, in November 1735.  She gave him at least six children, all born at Havre-St.-Pierre:  Jacques-Martin in c1738; Marie-Anne in c1739; Cécile in c1741; Pierre in c1744; Madeleine in c1748; and Martin, fils, in c1750.  A French official counted them on the north side of Rivière-St.-Pierre, near the harbor, in August 1752.  Sadly, six years later, during the deportation of the Maritime islanders, the entire family perished aboard the British transport Violet, which sank in a North Atlantic storm on its way to St.-Malo in mid-December 1758.  Needless to say, no member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.225

Jean Tessé, born at Cap Fréhel, Brittany, in c1699, married Marie-Josèphe, 18-year-old daughter of François Bodard, a navigator from Brussels, and Acadian Marie Babin, at Port-Toulouse in c1728.  Jean worked as a coaster on the big island.  They had at least seven children, five sons and two daughters, on Île Royale:  Pierre, born in c1729; Marguerite-Jeanne in c1731; Jean in c1737; Baptiste in c1738; Étienne in c1739; Marie in c1744; and Servan in c1748.  A French official  counted them at Rivière-de-Miré, up the coast from Louisbourg, in April 1752.  A few days later, the same official counted their daughter Marguerite-Jeanne with husband Étienne Tompique, a fisherman who she had married in February at nearby Havre-la-Baleine.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.487

François, fils, son of François Dupont and Julienne Le Mercier, born at Vire, bishopric of Avranches, France, in c1700, came to Île Royale by October 1728, when he married Perrine, daughter of Étienne DesRoches and Gabrielle Le Manquet of Plaisance, Newfoundland, on Île Royale.  Perrine gave François at least four children:  Françoise, born in c1729; François III in c1730; Perrine in c1733; and Jean-Pierre, called Pierre, in c1736.  In 1733, François secured a fishing concession at Lorembec, near Louisbourg.  A French official counted the family there in April 1752; Perrine, by then, was a widow.  The official noted that she employed three fisherman on her husband's fishery fronting the harbor shore.  Son François III married into the Auvray family of St.-Malo probably at Lorembec in November 1754.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.157

François Mallé, born at Bouillon, bishopric of Avranches, France, in c1707, came to Île Royale in 1728 as a young fisherman.  He married Anne-Marie Le Large, born at Grandville, France, in 1707, probably in the 1730s.  She gave him at least three children:  François, fils, born in c1741; Pierre in c1746; and Louis in c1749.  They settled at Lorembec, near Louisbourg, where a French official counted them in April 1752.  The official noted that François owned two boats, hired five other fishermen, and had recently purched land on the harbor shore from a neighbor.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.185

Noël Amyot or Amiot, born at Triveron, Diocese of St.-Malo, France, in c1712, came to Île Royale as a fisherman in c1728.  He married Marguerite, daughter of Pierre Bois and Marie-Catherine Coste of Port-Toulouse probably in the early 1740s.  Marguerite gave him at least four children:  Marguerite, born in c1744; Jean in c1748; Madeleine in c1750; and Pierre in c1751.  They settled at L'Ardois, down the coast from Louisbourg, where a French official counted them in February 1752.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.35

François, son of Bertrand Picard and Anne Bouqin, born at Plébelle, bishopric of St.-Brieuc, France, in c1712, came to Île Royale in c1728.  He married Anne, daughter of Georges Berbudeau and Marie Vrigneau of Gabarus, Île Royale, in November 1742 and settled at nearby St.-Esprit, where he pursued his trade as a fisherman.  Anne gave him at least seven children:  Toussaint, born in c1743; Julien and Julienne in c1744; Pierre in c1745; Suzanne in c1747; Angélique in c1750; and Françoise in c1751.  A French official counted the family at St.-Esprit in February 1752.  With them were four other fishermen hired for the coming season.  The official also noted that Sr. François, as he called him, employed three more fishermen at Louisbourg.  Mathurin Picard of Plébelle, bishopric of St.-Brieuc, France, born there in c1717 and evidently Sr. François's younger brother, married Angélique Romain, place and date unrecorded, and settled at Petit-Dégrat, off Île Madame, where their son Jean-Baptiste was born in c1757, on the eve of the islands' dérangement.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.57

Jean, son of André Bourey, also called Bourg, and Catherine Cornu, not kin to the many Bourgs of peninsula Acadia, was born at Ste.-Marie-de-Rey Parish, La Rochelle, France, in c1705.  Jean married Anne, daughter of René dit Renochon Labauve and Anne Lejeune of Grand-Pré, at St.-Pierre-du-Nord, Île St.-Jean, in October 1728.  Son Michel was born on the island in August 1729, and Pierre in October 1733.  Jean died there in 1733, and Anne remarried five years later.  None of Jean's descendants emigrated to Louisiana.266a

Christophe Delaune, born at Periers, Avranches, Normandy, France, probably not kin to Jean Delaunay of Brittany, came to the French Maritimes in c1729.  He married Marguerite, daughter of Jean Caissie and his second wife Cécile Hébert of Chignecto, on Île St.-Jean in c1738.  They had 10 children, seven sons and three daughters, all born on the island:  Pierre in December 1740; Henriette was baptized in October 1742 but died by 1752; Jean was born in November 1743; Geneviève in c1745; Jacques in c1746; Jean-Baptiste in c1749; Christophe, fils in June 1750; Joseph in February 1753; Marie-Marguerite in May 1755; and Michel in February 1757.  In August 1752, a French official counted Christophe, père, Marguerite, and five of their children at Havre-de-la-Fortune, on Île St.-Jean's east coast.  Christophe, père died on the island by 1758, in his early 50s.  Two of his sons, Jean and Christophe, fils, emigrated to Louisiana from France.296

Jean Doucet dit Lirlandois of Ireland, probably not kin to the descendants of Germain Doucet de La Verdure, married Anne, daughter of Acadians Philippe Pinet and Catherine Hébert, in c1711, place unrecorded.  In February 1713, Michel Bégon de la Picardière, intendant of New France, ordered Sr. de Monseignat, "director of the Crown's farms, to pay Jean Doucet, a man of Irish nationality, and his wife Anne Pinette the fifty livres' bounty granted them by His Majesty in favour of their marriage," so they were in Canada at the time.  Jean and his family were counted at Port-Toulouse in the late 1720s.  In June 1728, Jean bound out one of his daughters to a wealthy Louisbourg widow for three years service.  Jean and Anne had five children, two sons and three daughters.  The older son died young, and the younger son may not have married.  Two of their daughters married into the Joubert and Lucas dit Bergerac families at Louisbourg on Île Royale and at Port-La-Joye, Île St.-Jean, respectively.  Jean remarried to Thérèse, daughter of Jean Dauphin and Jeanne-Ursule Gély of L'Ancienne-Lorette, Canada, and widow of Étienne Boyer, at Cap-St.-Ignace, on the lower St. Lawrence, in April 1729.  Their daughter was born during the family's move from Québec back to Louisbourg during the summer of 1730 and died soon after they reached the French citadel.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.293  

François Gouet, born at Plairier, bishopric of Dol, France, in c1697, married Marie Montange, a native of Plaisance, Newfoundland, likely the young widow of a man named Ouelle and likely François's second wife, probably in the 1720s.  They settled at Petit-Bras-d'Or on Île Royale, where François worked as a fisherman.  In April 1752, a French official counted them there with 10 children:  Jean, born in c1727; Barthélemy in c1729; François, fils in c1731; Jean-François in c1737; Pierre in c1738; Marie in c1740; Georges in c1742; and Fauchon or Franchon in c1748.  With them was Marie's daughter Jeanne Ouelle, age 18, described as the widow of Guillaume Messer, and her 4-year-old son, who the French official did not name.  Also with the household were three hired fishermen.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.100

Simon dit La Valeur, son of Pierre Billard and Marie-Louise Petit, born at St.-Eustache, Paris, in c1709, came to the French Maritimes in c1729 and served in the company of troupes de la marine commanded by Claude-Élisabeth Denys de Bonnaventure, future commandant of Île St.-Jean  Simon became a locksmith.  Perhaps after his military service, he married Marie-Josèphe, daughter of Charles Charpentier and Marie-Josèphe Chênet dit La Garenne, at St.-Pierre-du-Nord in August 1745.  They remained at Havre-St.-Pierre, where they had at least five children:  Marie-Rose, born in c1747; Louise in c1749; Simon in 1751; Françoise in c1754; and Anne in c1757.  A French official counted Simon, Marie-Josèphe, and their three oldest children at Havre-St.-Pierre in August 1752.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.238

René, son of Jean Rassicot and Marguerite Crosnier of St.-Jean-Ursin, bishopric of Coutances, France, reached Île St.-Jean in the late 1720s.  He married Marie, daughter of Michel Haché dit Gallant and Anne Cormier of Chignecto and widow of François Poirier, at Port-La-Joye on the island in October 1729.  Marie gave René six children, five sons and a daughter:  Jean-Baptiste, born in c1730; Louise-Geneviève in c1731; René, fils in October 1733; Dominique in c1735; Henri in c1737; and Louis in c1739.  In August 1752, a French official counted Honoré Bourgeois and his family on the south side of Rivière-du-Nord-Est on the island.  In describing Honoré's land there, the official noted that he had "acquired it from Charles Hache," Marie's younger brother, "as guardian and curator of the children, minor and major, of the late Renné Rassicot," so René was dead by then.  Marie had died on the island in September 1749.  In August 1752, the same French official counted oldest son Jean-Baptiste dit Ratier, still a bachelor, on Rivière-de-Peugiguit, in the center of island; nearby, younger brother Louis lived with a Haché relative.  Jean-Baptiste dit Raiter married Marie-Henriette, daughter of Louis Pothier and Cécile Nuirat, at Havre-St.-Pierre, on the north shore of the island, in January 1754.  René, fils married Marie, daughter of Charles Benoit and Madeleine Thériot of Pigiguit, at Port-La-Joye in October 1757.  Three of Jean-Baptiste dit Ratier's children emigrated to Louisiana from France.294 

Pierre Le Cerf, born at Dinan, bishopric of St.-Malo, in c1715, came to Île Royale in 1730 probably as a young surgeon's apprentice.  He became a master surgeon.  He married Thérèse, daughter of Jean-Baptiste Grandin or Grondin and Anne-Hyacinthe Dupuis, probably in the late 1730s; Thérèse had been born at Baie-de-l'Indienne in c1720; her mother was a Canadian, not an Acadian, Dupuis.  Thérèse gave the surgeon at least four children:  Anne, born in c1740; Pierre in c1742; Clément in c1748; and Marie-Jeanne in c1750.  A French official counted them at Havre-la-Baleine in April 1752; he called the master surgeon Le Sr. Pierre.  Living with the family was a 22-year-old domestic servant.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.153

Mathurin dit Langevin, son of Aleix Le Faucheux and Françoise Jousseau, was born in the Parish of Jenelay, bishopric of Angers, France, in c1702.  He married Geneviève, daughter of Louis Néron of St.-Étienne-d'Arre, and Marie Sauvageau of Grondines, France, in October 1730.  Although Geneviève's parents were from France, she had been born in Canada in c1698.  Soon after their marriage, Mathurin and Geneviève emigrated to Île Royale and settled on a homestead on Baie-de-Miré granted to them in 1734.  Geneviève gave Mathurin at least four children, all born probably at Miré:  Pierre in c1734; Guillaume in c1736; Marie-Louise-Angélique in c1740; and Louise in c1741.  A French oficial counted them there in April 1752.  Only two of their children--Guillaume and Marie-Louise-Angélique--were living with them.  The family was affluent enough to have employed a domestic servant.  The April 1752 census indicates that they were the pioneer settlers of the community.  Son Guillaume married into the Malvillain family of nearby Île Scatary in May 1758, on the eve of the island's Grand Dérangement.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.125

Louis, son of Pierre Beaulieu and Jacquemine Loquin, born at Lantheuil, Calvados, diocese of St.-Malo, France, in c1712, probably was not kin to Jean Beaulieu, fils of Île Royale.  Louis came to the French Maritimes by January 1732, when he married Marguerite, daughter of Jacques Oudy and his second wife Marguerite Saulnier, at St.-Pierre-du-Nord, Île St.-Jean.  They had at least 11 children, all born on the island:  Pierre in c1733; Susanne-Marguerite in c1737; Jean-Louis in c1739; Marie-Jeanne in c1741; Froisine in c1744; Hélène in c1746; Marie-Louise in c1747; Marguerite in c1750; Jacques in c1751; Anne in c1753; and Anastasie in c1756.  In August 1752, a French official counted Louis, Marguerite, and seven of their children at Havre-St.-Pierre, on the north shore of the island.  Louis became a widower in May 1757.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.222

Julien, a fisherman, son of François Bannet and Marie Massé, born at Basilly, bishopric of Avranches, France, in c1712, came to Île Royale by October 1732, when he married Marguerite, daughter of Étienne DesRoches and Gabrielle Le Manquet of Plaisance and Lorembec and widow of Augustin-Servan Coupiau dit Desaleur.  Julien and Marguerite remained at Lorembec, where they were granted a fishing concession in May 1733.  She gave him at least eight children there:  Julien-Toussaint, born in 1733; Marie in c1734; Gabriel in c1735; Pierre-Joseph in c1737; Pierre in c1738; Jean-Pierre in c1739; Jean-François in c1741; and Marguerite in c1743.  In April 1752, a French official counted Marguerite, now a widow, with three of her children at Lorembec.  With them was a hired fisherman.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.160

Sixton Huiker, born in Switzerland in c1710, married Marie-Jeanne Esteruine of Dailleban, Switzerland, and emigrated to the French Maritimes by the 1730s.  They settled at Port-Toulouse, where Marie-Jeanne gave Sixton at least two children:  Pierre, born in c1736; and Angélique in c1743.  By the early 1750s, they had moved up the coast to Gabarus Bay, just south of Louisbourg, where a French official counted them in February 1752 on land owned by a former governor.  None of Sixton's descendants emigrated to Louisiana.87

Pierre-François, called François, Briand or Brillant, born at Paramé, near St.-Malo, France, in c1705, married Renée, 14-year-old daughter of Louis Marchand or Marcheguay dit Poitiers and Marie Godin dit Châtillon, probably at Port-Toulouse in c1730.  Renée gave him at least seven children:  Jeanne, born in c1732; Joseph in c1737; Pierre in c1738; François in c1741; Célestin in c1743; Jean in c1745; and Georges-Cyprien in c1748.  They remained at Port-Toulouse, where François, père died before February 1752.  Only daughter Jeanne married into the Blaquière family of Île St.-Jean.  Sons Joseph, Célestin, Jean, and Georges married into the Savoie, Maréchal, Baudry, Gaudet, and Dugas families and settled on Île Miquelon after Le Grand Dérangement.  Son François settled in the Îles-de-la-Madeleine.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.36

Mathurin Joseph, born at Plangrénoy, bishopric of St.-Brieuc, in c1707, came to Île Royale in c1729.  He married Marie Gourde of Louisbourg in the 1730s and settled on Île Madame, where he worked as a fisherman.  Marie gave him at least three daughters:  Louise was born in c1741; Hélène in c1742; and Cécile in c1750.  A French official counted them on the north shore of Île Madame in February 1752.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.43

Bernard, also called Laurent, son of Pierre-Denis L'Hermite and Marie-Rose Geaudie, was born at St.-Pierre Parish, Coutances, Normandy, in c1715.  He came to Île Royale in c1730, perhaps as a young fisherman.  He married Marie-Renée, daughter of Jean Bertrand and Marie Le Borgne de Bélisle, Maritime aristocrats, on Île Royale in October 1742.  Marie-Renée gave him at least five children:  François, born in c1745; Pierre in c1750; Nicolas in c1752; Anne in c1754; and Marie-Josèphe in c1756.  A French official counted the family at Baie-de-Miré on the Atlantic coast in April 1752.  The official called Bernard Laurent, said he worked as a ploughman, and that he had been in the colony 22 years.  Living next to them was Marie-Renée's widowed mother.  None of Bernard/Laurent's descendants emigrated to Louisiana.123

Pierre, son of Jacques Duval and Renée Massin, born at Poujalle, bishopric of Rennes, Brittany, in c1704, was a navigator and master blacksmith when he came to the French Maritimes in c1730.  He married Marie-Madeleine, 23-year-old daughter of Acadians Michel Haché dit Gallant and Anne Cormier, at Port-La-Joye, Île St.-Jean, in January 1733.  In August 1752, a French official counted them on the south bank of Rivière-du-Nord-Est with six children:  Marie-Josèphe, born in c1735; Anne in c1737; Jean-Pierre in c1742; Marguerite in c1745; Osite in c1747; and Charles in 1752.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.03

Michel dit Miguel de Loyal, born in the parish of Cambe, bishopric of Bayonne, in the Basque country of southwestern France, came to Île St.-Jean by c1730, when he married Marie, oldest daughter of master surgeon Domique Viarreau dit Duclos and his second wife Marie Simon dit Boucher.  Marie gave Miguel at least six children, all born on the island:  Joseph in c1735; Michel, fils in c1738; Marie-Rose in c1740; Jacques in c1743; Charlotte in c1745; and Modeste in c1748.  In August 1752, a French official counted Marie, now a widow, with five of their younger children, at Havre-St.-Pierre.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.248

Louis Aubin dit Le Buffe, born at St.-Michel-des-Loups, Normandy, in c1716, came to the French Maritimes in 1730 as a young fisherman.  He married Anne, daughter of Jacques Quimine and Marie-Josèphe Chiasson of Chignecto, on Île St.-Jean in late 1740s.  She gave him at least four children on the island:  Modeste, born in c1748; Marie-Françoise in c1749; Charles in c1754; and Marguerite in c1756.  A French official counted Louis, Anne, and their two older daughters at Nigeagant, near Havre-St.-Pierre, on the north coast of the island, in August 1752.  The census taker noted that Louis had bought his land from brother Charles dit LeBuffe and had employed three 36-month fishermen to help him work his remaining boat, having lost the other "within the past few days."  Louis and Anne also worked a piece of land at nearby Étang-St.-Pierre, where they grew wheat.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.268

Charles dit Durel, son of Pierre Lacroix and Jeanne Deville, born at St.-Denis-Le-Gast, Coutances, France, in c1705, was not kin to the other Lacroixs of greater Acadia.  He married Judith, daughter of Gabriel Chiasson and Marie Savoie of Chignecto, at St.-Pierre-du-Nord on Île St.-Jean in September 1730.  Judith gave Charles six children, all born at Havre-St.-Pierre:  twins Marguerite and Marie-Élisabeth in September 1731; Anne-Marie or Marie-Anne in January 1734; Marie-Judith, called Judith, in August 1736; Charles, fils in February 1739; and Charlotte-Anne in November 1741.  At least three of their daughters married.  Anne-Marie married Charles dit Pinel, son of Noël Pinet and Rose Henry of Minas, at St.-Pierre-du-Nord in April 1753.  Marguerite, married Joseph, fils, son of Joseph Préjean and Marie-Louise Comeau, probably at St.-Pierre-du-Nord in c1758.   According to Albert J. Robichaux, Jr., daughter Marie-Judith married Jean, son perhaps of fellow Acadians Abraham Daigre and Marie Boudrot, in c1759 perhaps at Cherbourg, France.  Meanwhile, Charles, père died by September 1748, when Judith remarried at Beaubassin.  She and her new husband did not remain there.  In August 1752, a French official counted her, second husband Pierre Le Prieur dit Dubois l'aîné, and her Lacroix dit Durel children, at Havre-de-la-Fortune on the southeast coast of Île St.-Jean.  Charles Lacroix's descendants used his dit, Durel, as their surname.  Two of his daughters, Marguerite and Marie-Anne, emigrated to Louisiana, one from Halifax, the other from France, and his grandson Jean-Baptiste Daigle by his daugher Marie-Judith also emigrated to Louisiana from France.297 

Jean-Baptiste, son of Jean-François Martel and Madeleine Vannier, born at Québec in c1710, married Marie-Josèphe, daughter of Pierre Pouget dit Lapierre and François Moyse, at Port-Toulouse in c1730 and worked as a coaster there.  Marie-Josèphe, a native of Port-Royal but a long-time resident of Port-Toulouse, gave Jean-Baptiste at least five children:  Charles, born in c1734; Joseph in c1736; Jean-Baptiste, fils, called Baptiste, in c1739; Madeleine in c1741; and Épotille in c1744.  A French official counted them at the port in February 1752.  Son Joseph married into the Samson family and settled on Île Miquelon during Le Grand Dérangement.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.37

Louis, Julien, and Herbe Des Roches of Carolle, Avranches, Normandy, probably not kin to the other Des Rochess in the region, came to the French Maritimes in c1730 when they were still in their teens.  (Herbe may have been a cousin, not a brother.)  Louis and Julien settled on Île St.-Jean, and Herbe on Île Royale.  Louis married Marguerite, daughter of Pierre Arseneau and Marie-Anne Boudrot, in c1731 and worked as a fisherman/habitant at Malpèque, on the northwest shore of the island.  Marguerite gave him at least eight children, including three sons, born probably at Malpèque:  Eustache in c1736, Alexandre in c1740; and Joseph in c1743.  Julien, a farmer, married another Arseneau, Marie, daughter of Jacques Arseneau and Marie Poirier, in c1743 probably at Malpèque. They had at least six children, born probably at the isolated settlement:  Julien, fils in c1745, Félix in c1747, Joseph in c1750, Jean in c1754, Basile in c1755, and Mathurin in c1756.  Meanwhile, Herbe married Marie, daughter of surgeon Georges Barbudeau or Berbudeau of Île d'Oléon, France, and Françoise Vrigneau of Plaisance, Newfoundland, probably at Louisbourg, Île Royale, in November 1742.  They settled at St.-Esprit, a fishing village down the coast from Louisbourg, where Herbe worked as a fisherman.  Marie gave him at least five children, all born probably at St.-Esprit:  Marguerite, born in c1743; François in c1744; Hervé in c1745; Jean in c1749; and Pierre in c1752.  In February 1752, a French official counted the family, sans Hervé, still at St.-Esprit.  In the household was a 14-year-old female servant from Louisbourg, as well as three hired fishermen.  Herbe and Marie were living next to her parents, who evidently were dependent on them.  The following August, the same official, now on Île St.-Jean, counted Julien, Louis, and their families at Malpèque.  Julien's son Basile emigrated to Louisiana from Halifax, but no descendant of Louis or Herbe made it to the Spanish colony.298

Marc Villalon or Villalong, born at de Trebeda, bishopric of Dol, France, in c1705, came to Île Royale by the early 1730s, married Marie-Jeanne, daughter of Jean Ozelet and Madeleine Beaufet, and, in c1732, settled at Petit-Dégrat, off Île Madame, where he worked as a fisherman.  Marie-Jeanne gave him at least seven children:  Antoine, born in c1731; Marie-Jeanne in c1732; Cécile in c1734; Marie-Anne in c1736; Marie in c1738; Marguerite in c1742; and Madeleine in c1749.  Son Antoine married into the Darembourg family and remained at Petit-Dégrat, where he, too, worked the fishery.  A French official counted the entire family at Petit-Dégrat in February 1752.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.55

Joseph, son of Yves Tudal and Jeanne Faumouchet, born at St.-Servan, St.-Malo, France, in c1712, came to the French Maritimes in c1731 probably as a young fisherman.  He married Anne, daughter of René dit Renochon Labauve and Anne Lejeune dit Briard and widow of Jean Bourey, at Port-La-Joye, Île St.-Jean, in April 1738.  Anne gave him eight children, all born on the island:  Joseph, fils, in c1739; Marie in c1740; Marie-Josèphe in c1741; Anne in c1743; Pélagie in c1745; Louise in c1747; François in c1750; and Marie-Madeleine in c1753.  In August 1752, a French official counted Joseph, Anne, five of their children, and two children from her first marriage at Havre-aux-Sauvages, on the island's north coast west of Havre-St.-Pierre.  Sadly, in mid-December 1758, the entire family perished aboard the British transport Violet on its way to St.-Malo.  Needless to say, no member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.271

Pierre Dubocq, Duboque, Dubosq, or Duboscq, born at Rouen, France, in c1710, married Suzanne Le Mercier, also of Rouen and eight years his senior.  They came to the French Maritimes in 1732, perhaps soon after their marriage, unless he married her there.  She gave him at least four children, probably all born on Île St.-Jean:  Pierre, fils and Madeleine in c1736; Marie in c1741; and Pierre-Jacques, called Jacques, in c1743.  The acquired land at Havre-St.-Pierre, Île St.-Jean, in 1743.  A French official counted them there in August 1752.  Son Pierre, fils married neighbor Marie-Françoise, daughter of Joseph Jacquet and Élisabeth Boulanger, at St.-Pierre-du-Nord, the church for Havre-St.-Pierre, in January 1758, on the eve of the island's Grand Dérangement.   No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.235

Jean-Nicolas, son of Julien de Malvillain and Jeanne Laussois, born at St.-Malo, France, in c1704, came to Île Royale as a fisherman by c1732, when he married Madeleine, daughter of Julien Durand and Anne Borny of Newfoundland.  They settled on Île Scatary, where Jean-Nicolas worked in the fishery.  Madeleine gave him at least 11 children:  Élisabeth, born in c1733; Jean in c1734; Servan in c1737; Jeanne in c1740; Charles in c1741; Basile in c1742; Jeannette in c1743; Barthélemy in c1744; Adrien in c1737; Madeleine in c1750; and a seventh son.  A French official counted them at Anse-de-Bellefeuille, on the north shore of Île Scatary, in April 1752.  The official noted that Jean-Nicolas owned three boats, employed a 36-month man, and had three fishery partners whose names he did not give.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.148

Sebastia Fond, born at St.-Vincent-de-Piros, bishopric of D'Ax, France, in c1712, came to Île Royale in c1732 to work in the fisheries there.  He married Guillemette, daughter of Jean Sabot and Jeanne Borny of Newfoundland, probably later in the decade.  She gave him at least three children:  Sebastia, fils, born in c1742; Antoine in c1749; and Guillemette in c1751.  A French official counted them with her extended family at Anse-Darembourg, on the north shore of Île Scatary, in April 1752.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.146

Jean Hamon, also called Amont, Hémond, and Emond, son of perhaps Jean Amont and Marguerite Gastineau-Duplessis of Trois-Rivières, Canada, where he may have been born in November 1695, married Acadian Marie Blanchard and settled in the French Maritimes by the early 1730s.  They had at least three sons there:  Pierre, born in c1732; Ignace in c1748; and Joseph in c1752.  Jean and Marie died probably on one of the Maritime islands before 1758.  Son Ignace and his family emigrated to Louisiana from France.299

Émilien dit Sans-Chagrin, son of Dominique Ségoillot and Marie Boulet (one authority says Étiennette Ducharme) of St.-Pierre, Autun, Bourgogne, France, served in the Louisbourg garrison as a senior sergeant in the troupes de la marine beginning in the early 1730s.  Probably after he retired from the King's service, he moved to Île St.-Jean, where he married Élisabeth-Blanche, daughter of François LaVache and Anne-Marie Vincent, at Port-La-Joye in September 1752.  Later that year, a French official counted them at Grande-Anse on the island.  Élisabeth-Blanche gave Émilien dit Sans-Chagrin a son, François-Dominique, born probably at Grande-Anse in July 1753.  The old sergeant remarried to Marguerite, daughter of Jacques Naquin and Anne-Marie Vincent of Cobeguit, at Port-La-Joye in September 1755.  Marguerite gave him at least two daughters: Marie, born probably at Port-La-Joye in c1756, and Marguerite-Josèphe, born at Belle-Île-en-Mer, France, in c1766.  Marguerite-Josèphe was the only member of her family who emigrated to Louisiana from France.300

Jean Maréchal of Carolles, bishopric of Avranches, came to the French Maritimes in c1732, married Marguerite, daughter of Acadians Charles Doiron and Anne Thériot, in c1749 probably on Île Royale and settled at Petit-Dégrat, off Île Madame, where he engaged in the fishery.  A French official counted them at Petit-Dégrat in February 1752.  They still had no children.  One wonders if he was kin to fisherman Guillaume Le Maréchal, also of Carolle, who was counted by the same French official at Anse-Darembourg, on the north shore of Île Scatary, the following April; of Pierre Le Maréchal of Châteauneuf, near St.-Malo, a hired fisherman counted at La Baleine in April.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.68

Guillaume, son of Louis Patry and Mathurine Mahez of St.-Cloud, St.-Malo, France, born at Thiou, France, in c1714, came to Île St.-Jean in c1732 probably as a young fisherman.  He married Françoise, daughter of Gabriel Chiasson and Marie Savoie of Chignecto and widow of Guillaume Gallet, at St.-Pierre-du-Nord in October 1741.  Françoise gave Guillaume four children, all born at Havre-St.-Pierre on the island.  A French official counted the family at Havre-St.-Pierre in August 1752, noting that Guillaume was a fisherman as well as a farmer.  One of his granddaughters emigrated to Louisiana from France.301 

Pierre, son of Nicolas Le Tourneur and Andrée Himay, born at St.-Aubin-des-Préaux, bishopric of Coutances, France, came to Île Royale as a fisherman in c1732.  He married Marie, daughter of Jean Le Prieur and Guillemette Le Voyer of St.-Quentin and St.-Malo and widow of Guillaume Valet, on the island in November 1743.  Marie gave him at least five children:  Geneviève, born in c1744; Perrine in c1750; Julienne in c1752; Pierre in c1754; and Barbe-Geneviève in c1757.  They settled at Lorembec, near Louisbourg, where a French official counted them in April 1752.  With Pierre and Marie were three of their daughters, as well as Marie's three surviving daughters from her first marriage.  Also with the family were 11 hired fisherman.  The official also noted that Pierre owned three and a half boats and subtantial frontage on the local seashore.  He likely was not kin to Jacques Le Tourneur of the Coutances area, a fisherman/habitant at nearby Havre-la-Baleine.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.156

Jean, son of Antoine Le Chaux and Julienne Geffroy, born at Luzerne, bishopric of Avranches, France, in c1710, came to Île Royale by 1733, when he received a fishing concession at Lorembec, near Louisbourg.  He married Élisabeth, or Isabelle, daughter of Jean Bourhis of Montréal and his first wife Marie-Josèphe Martin of Grand-Pré, on Île Royale in January 1741.  Isabelle gave him at least two children:  Marie-Hyacinthe, born in c1744, and Jean, fils in c1749.  Isabelle died by c1750, when Jean remarried to Marie-Madeleine, called Madeleine, daughter of Acadians Jean-Baptitse Corporon and Marie Pinet and widow of Jean Bourhis.  (So Jean Le Chaux's second wife was his first wife's stepmother.)  Madeleine gave him at least four more children, born probably at Lorembec:  André and Madeleine in c1752; Marie-Jeanne in c1755; and Jeanne in c1757.  A French official counted Jean and Madeleine on their fishing concession at Lorembec in April 1752.  The official noted Jean employed 15 fishermen, eight of whom lived with the family, and owned three boats and a smack.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.168

Louis dit Langevin, son of René Valet, Valée, or Vallée and Marie Jouis, born at St.-Pierre, bishopric of Angers, France, in c1705, came to the French Maritimes in c1733 and served as a soldier in la compagnie de Dangeac.  He married Marie-Brigitte, called Brigitte, 21-year-old daughter of Noël Pinet and Rose Henry of Minas and Québec, at Pierre-du-Nord, Île St.-Jean, in October 1740, probably after his military service ended.  Brigitte, though her parents were Acadians, was born in Canada.  She gave Louis at least five children, all born on Île St.-Jean:  Marie-Marguerite in c1741, Rosalie in c1742, Marguerite-Louise in c1743, Rose in c1745, Marie in c1747, and Louis, fils in c1750.  They settled on the west side of Rivière-de-Peugiguit in the interior of the island, where a French official counted them in August 1752.  Louis died by c1756, when Brigitte remarried to Lyonnais weaver Martin Percheron.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana, though a French Valet went with her Daigre husband to the Spanish colony from France in 1785.306 

Robert, fils, son of Robert Hango dit Choisy and Étiennette DesRoches, born in the parish of Carolle, bishopric of Avranches, in c1716, probably not kin to the other Hangos in the region, came to the French Maritimes in c1734.  He married Marguerite, daughter of Acadians Michel Haché dit Gallant and Anne Cormier and widow of Pierre Jacquemin dit Lorraine, at Port-La-Joye, Île St.-Jean, in January 1739.  She gave him at least three children:  Madeleine, born in c1741; Jean-François in c1743; and Michel in c1745.  They settled on the west side of Rivière-de-Peugiguit, in the interior of the island, where a French official counted them in August 1752.  No member of this family emigated to Louisiana.09

Jean Nauguety or Nanquety married Marie Leborgne.  She gave him at least three children:  Thomas, born in c1735; Gabriel in c1736; and Marie in c1738.  Jean died by April 1752, when a French official counted Marie and their three children at Anse-Darembourg, on the north shore of Île Scatary, off Île Royale.  No member of this family emigated to Louisiana.140

Jean Granne, born at Tadé, bishopric of St.-Malo, France, in c1717, came to Île Royale as a fisherman in c1735.  He married Marie, daughter of Jean Papon dit Sans-Regret and Isabelle Longuépée of St.-Esprit in the early 1740s and settled near her parents at St.-Esprit.  Marie gave Jean at least four children at the fishery:  Isabelle, born in c1745; Agathe in c1747; Augustin in c1749; and Geneviève in c1751.  In February 1752, a French official found them still at St.-Esprit, where Jean and his family lived with nine hired fishermen, including 24-year-old brother-in-law Julien Papon.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.32

Jean, son of Gilles de La Choux, born at d'Olive Bourgie, Ploubalay, bishopric of St.-Malo, in c1697, married Marie-Anne, daughter of Jean Bourhis, master carpenter of Montréal, and Marie-Josèphe Martin of Grand-Pré, Nova Scotia, in October 1735.  Marie-Anne gave Jean at least one child, Marie-Josèphe, born in c1748.  They settled at Lorembec, near Louisbourg, where a French official counted them in April 1752.  The official noted that Jean owned a boat and had hired five fishermen to help him in the fishery there.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.166

Julien Jourdau, or Jourdan, fisherman, born at St.-Servan, near St.-Malo, France, in c1717, came to Île Royale in c1736.  In the 1740s, he married Marie, daughter of Jean Philippot and his first wife Agnès Borny, probably on the island; Marie was born there in c1727.  She and Julien settled on Île Scatary, where she gave him at least three children:  Jean, born in c1747; Marie in c1749; and Julien, fils in c1751.  A French official official counted them "on the Great Harbour of the Isle of Scatary" in April 1752, near her father and brothers.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.137

Jean, son of Oliver Hamon and Françoise Pireau, of Reintembault, near Dol, France, probably not kin to Jean Hamon of Île St.-Jean, emigrated to Louisbourg by January 1736, when he married Marie, daughter of Joannis Daguerre and Marie Charlant, at the French citadel.  Jean may have been a soldier stationed in the garrison.  He and Françoise had at least six children at Louisbourg, including three sons.  One wonders if any of their descendants emigrated to Louisiana.303

Louis, son of Jacques Bernard and Marie-Anne Gerberon, born in the parish of Ste.-Foy, bishopric of Chartres, France, in c1700, was not kin to the other Bernards of greater Acadia.  He came to Havre-St.-Pierre, Île St.-Jean, by 1736, when he was appointed maître de grave at the port.  In September of that year, he married Madeleine, daughter of Pierre dit Pierrot Simon dit Boucher and Marie Pinet of Louisbourg, at St.-Pierre-du-Nord.  In 1738, they purchased a piece of land at the harbor for 80 livres.  Louis was appointed notaire royal at Havre-St.-Pierre in c1750.  Madeleine gave him at least nine children, all born at the port:  Louis, fils in c1737; Dominique in c1739; Anne in c1741; Pierre in c1743; Anne-Louise in c1747; Eustache in c1749; Simon in c1751; Marie-Charlotte in c1754; and Modeste in c1757.  A French official counted Louis, addressed as Le Sr., Madeleine, and five of their older children at Havre-St.-Pierre in August 1752.  Sadly, the family perished aboard the British transport Violet on the crossing to St.-Malo in December 1758.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.240

André Paris, born at Brouillant, bishopric of d'Auch, France, in c1712, married Perrine, daughter of Pierre Dupont de la Barre and Perrine-Thérèse Gloro of La Baleine, in January 1737 probably of La Baleine, Île Royale.  Perrine gave him at least eight children, all born at La Baleine:  Marie, born in c1738; Catherine in c1740; André, fils in c1742; Jean-Baptiste in c1744; Françoise in c1749; François in c1751; Anne in c1755; and Pierre in c1757.  A French official counted them there in April 1752.  The official noted that André was in control of a large fishing establishment that included four boats and a number of other fishermen.  Son François married Marie-Madeleine, daughter of Acadians Louis Belliveau and Louise Haché dit Gallant of Île St.-Jean, on Île Miquelon, a French-controlled island off the south coast of Newfoundland, in February 1776, after Le Grand Dérangement.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.151

Jean-Baptiste dit Ladouceur, son of François Massier and Marguerite Lemoine, born at Véraise, bishopric of Saintes, in c1710, was a soldier in the troupes de la marine when he came to the Maritimes colony.   He married Marie, daughter of François Poirier and Marie Haché of Chignecto, at Port-La-Joye, Île St.-Jean, in February 1737.  Marie gave the soldier at least six children, all born on Île St.-Jean:  Louis in c1737, Félicité in c1740, Marguerite in c1741; Jean in c1742; Marie-Louise in c1744; and Jean-François, called François, in c1746.  The family name evolved into Mazière and De La Mazière.  Five members of this family emigrated to Louisiana, from France.304 

Jean-Baptiste, called Baptiste, son of François Daguerre or La Guerre and Marie Hirougara, born at Bilbao in the Basque country of Spain in c1702, came to Île Royale by May 1737, when he married Brigitte, daughter of Jean Trahan and Marie Girouard of Pigiguit, at Louisbourg.  They had at least eight children, four sons and four daughters:  Madeleine, born in c1738; Jean-Baptiste, fils in c1739; Marie-Rose in c1740; Antoine in c1744; Marie in c1746; Charles in c1749; Pierre in c1751; and Isabelle in 1752.  In April 1752, a French official counted the family at Baie-de-L'Indienne, north of Louisbourg.  The census taker, who called Jean-Baptitste "Baptiste La Guerre, ploughman, native of Bilbau in Spain," noted of the family that "in the month of August they will have been three years in the colony."  Evidently after their marriage they had moved to Brigitte's native Pigiguit and then returned to Île Royale with her family in August 1749.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.485

David, son of Joseph Despoués and Jeanne Badec, born at St.-Long Parish, bishopric of Aix, Provence, France, in c1715, came to Île St.-Jean by August 1737, when he married Anne-Geneviève, called Geneviève, 19-year-old daughter of Étienne Poitevin dit Parisien and Anne Daigre of Port-Royal, at St.-Pierre-du-Nord, the church for Havre-St.-Pierre, on the north coast of the island.  Geneviève gave him at least six children, all born on the island:  Marie-Madeleine in c1739; Jean-François in c1741; Charles-François in c1743; Jean in c1746; Appoline in c1747; and Ruffin in c1750.  In August 1752, a French official counted Geneviève, now a widow, and her six children at Havre-St.-Pierre, so David died soon after the birth of son Ruffin.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.267

Jean dit Bergerac, son of Jean Lucas and Marie Pinaut or Penante, born in the parish of Doué, bishopric of Sainte, Saintonge, in c1709, was a soldier of the Île St.-Jean garrison when, at the age of 29, he married Anne-Marie, 16-year-old daughter of Jean Doucet and Anne Pinet of Grand-Pré, at Port-La-Joye in May 1738.  Evidently they were that rare Acadian couple who had no children.  In August 1752, a French official found Jean dit Bergerac on Rivière-de-Peugiguit, upriver from Port-La-Joye, living alone, his wife having left him.  Needless to say, no member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.14

Joseph dit Picard, son of Louis Fricour or Fricourt and Catherine Andigué, born at Aulten, Picardie, France, in c1722, came to Île Royale in c1738 as a younger soldier in the company Jean-Bapiste-Philippe d'Estimauville.  Following his discharge from the King's service, Joseph married Marguerite, daughter of fisherman/habitant Guillaume Le Prieur dit Dubois and Madeleine Poitevin of Port-Royal and Havre-St.-Pierre, at Port-La-Joye, Île St.-Jean, in November 1749.  Marguerite gave the Picard at least four children on the island:  Joseph, fils, born in c1750; Jean-Louis in early 1752; Pierre in c1753; and Marie-Rose in c1755.  A French official counted Joseph, Marguerite, and their two older sons at Havre-St.-Pierre, on the north shore of the island in August 1752.  Sadly, the entire family, along with most of Marguerite's kin, perished aboard the British transport Violet on its way to St.-Malo in December 1758.  Needless to say, no member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.265

Jacques Perrain, born at Plouay, bishopric of St.-Brieuc, France, in c1722, married Marie-Jeanne Duport, born at Plouay in c1724, probably in the late 1730s.  She gave him at least two children:  Julien-François, born in c1740; and Marie-Anne in c1744.  A French official counted them at Lorembec, near Louisbourg, in April 1752.  Jacques was not a fisherman, only a farmer who grew hay and garden vegetables, yet the official referred to him as Sr. Perrain.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.165

Pierre Brisson, born at Nantes in c1700, came to Île Royale as a fisherman and married Anne, daughter of Pierre Bois and Marie-Catherine Coste, in the late 1730s or early 1740s.  Anne gave him at least three children on Île Royale:  Marie, born in c1741; Jean in c1747; and Pierre, fils in c1751.  They settled at L'Ardois, down the coast from Louisbourg, where a French official counted them in February 1752.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.34

Joseph, son of Pierre Jacquet and Jacqueline Brie, was born in the parish of St.-Michel-des-Loups, near Grandville, Normandy, in c1717.  He came to Île St.-Jean by November 1739, when he married Élisabeth, or Isabelle, daughter of Noël Boulanger and Marguerite Moinette, at St.-Pierre-du-Nord, the church for Havre-St.-Pierre.  Élisabeth was a native of the harbor, having been born there in c1722.  She gave her fisherman husband eight children at the harbor:  Georges-Noël, born in February 1741; Marie-Françoise in January 1743; André-Joseph January 1745; Thérèse in c1747; Antoine in c1749; Jacques in December 1751; Simon in April 1754; and Marie-Josèphe in September 1756.  A French official counted Joseph, Élisabeth, and five of their older children at Havre-St.-Pierre in August 1752.  Oldest son George-Noël, who would have been age 11 at the time, was not with the family.  Marie-Françoise married neighbor Pierre, fils, son of Pierre Dubosq and Suzanne Le Mercier, at St.-Pierre-du-Nord in January 1758, on the eve of the islands' dérangement.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.239

Pierre, son of Jean Livois and Louise Basile, born at Drago or Drayé, Normandy, came to the French Maritimes in c1740 probably as a young fisherman.  He married Anne, daughter of Denis Boudrot of Ste.-Famille, Pigiguit, at Port-La-Joye, Île St.-Jean, in May 1751.  Their daughter Marie-Anne was born at Port-La-Joye in March 1752.  The following August, a French official counted Pierre and his daughter at Étang-St.-Pierre, on the north shore of the island, west of Havre-St.-Pierre.  For some reason, he insisted that Pierre was the widower of "the late Marie Daigre."  Pierre remarried to Marie-Madeleine, daughter of Michel Poirier, at St.-Pierre-du-Nord, the church for Étang-St.-Pierre, in January 1753.  Marie-Madeleine gave him three more children, a son and two more daughters, all born on the island:  Marie-Madeleine in c1753; Pierre in c1755; and Judith in c1757.  Two of Pierre and Marie-Madeleine's daughters emigrated to Louisiana, from France.305 

Joannis, also called Jean-Baptiste, son of Bernard Laborde and Isabelle Etcheverry, was born at Bastide, province of Gascogne, bishopric of Bayonne, in the Basque country of southwestern France, in c1719.  He came to the French Maritimes by November 1740, when he married Marie, daughter of Guillaume Le Prieur dit Dubois and Madeleine Poitevin, at St.-Pierre-du-Nord, Île St.-Jean.  They had seven children, all born on the island:  Guillaume in c1741; Charles-François in c1742; Jean in c1745; Jean-Baptiste, fils in c1751; Euphrosine in c1753; Louise in c1755; and Pierre in c1757.  In August 1752, a French official counted Joannis, Marie, and five of their children at Havre-de-la-Fortune, on the eastern shore of the island.  According to Acadian genealogist Bona Arsenault, Joannis "ayant eu la malheur de se noyer en passant la rivière dite du Loup-Marin"--had the misfortune to drown in crossing the river called Loup-Marin, or Seawolf--but Arsenault gives no date of his drowning.  What is known is that Marie and her children, along with her widowed mother, two of her brothers and their families, and four of her younger siblings, perished aboard the British transport Violet on the crossing to St.-Malo in December 1758.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.220

Simon, son Michel Gauthier and Élisabeth Gasset, born at St.-Pierre-Devins, diocese of Avranches, France, in c1702, no kin to the Gauthiers of peninsula Acadia, came to the French Maritimes by February 1741, when, in his late 30s, he married Françoise, daughter of Jean Debordieu, fils and Françoise DesRoches of Plaisance and Lorembec, at Louisbourg.  The couple may have remained childless.  Simon remarried to Jacqueline, daughter of Jean Doyer and Françoise Revers of Lancieux near St.-Malo in August 1751 at Louisbourg.  Jacqueline gave Simon a daughter probably at Louisbourg in c1754.  Although the British deported Simon and his family to La Rochelle, France, in late 1758, and they resettled at St.-Servan near St.-Malo in March 1759, no member of this family emigrated to Louisiana in 1785.318

Louis Dantin dit La Joye, born in Paris in c1702, married Marguerite, 25-year-old daughter of surgeoon Bernard Marres or Mars dit La Sonde of Bordeaux and Judith Petitpas of Port-Royal, probably at Port-Toulouse in c1741.  They remained at Port-Toulouse, where Marguerite's father had held land for many years.  In 1752, a French official counted Louis, Marguerite, and five of their children--Gabriel, born in c1742; Jeanne in c1743; Louis, fils in c1745; Barthélemy in c1748; and Joseph in c1750--at Port-Toulouse.  Between 1752 and 1758, five more children were born to them--Marguerite, Michel, Jean, Anne, and Agathe.  Louis dit La Joye died probably at Port-Toulouse by late 1758, in his late 50s.  Five members of his family emigrated to Louisiana, from France.308

Charles-François, son of François Laborde and Marie-Anne Lefebvre, born in the parish of SS. Pierre and Paul-de-Coulombe, archdiocese of Paris, in 1703, evidently was not kin to Joannis Laborde of the Basque country.  Charles-François came to Île St.-Jean in 1741 and worked as a merchant at Havre-St.-Pierre, on the island's north coast.  In October 1742, he married Anne-Dominique, daughter of master surgeon Dominique Viarrieu dit Duclos of Gascogne, France, and Marie Simon dit Boucher of Port-Royal, at St.-Pierre-du-Nord, the church for the harbor.  Anne gave him at least two children on the island:  Charles-François, fils, called François, born in c1744; and Louis-Nazaire in c1750.  A French official counted them at Havre-St.-Pierre in August 1752.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.234

Mathurin, son of Bertrand Tennier, Thénier, or Thénière and Jeanne Macy, born at Marcé, bishopric of Avranches, France, in 1692, came to the French Maritimes in c1742 probably as a fisherman.  He likely also was a widower.  At age 50, he married--or remarried to--Anne, 64-year-old daughter of Olivier Daigre and Marie Gaudet of Port-Royal and widow of Étienne Poitevin dit Parisien of Havre-St.-Pierre, at St.-Pierre-du-Nord in October 1743.  Anne had given her first husband a dozen children but, needless to say, she gave none to her second husband.  A French official counted the elderly couple, along with one of Anne's granddaughters, at Havre-St.-Pierre in August 1752.  Mathurin died there in March 1757, in his mid-60s.  Anne, along with her oldest daughter Marguerite, a widow, and Marguerite's three sons, perished aboard the British transport Violet on its way to St.-Malo in December 1758.  Needless to say, no member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.227

Étienne-Charles, son of Pierre Philippe dit LaRoche and Catherine Géraud, born in the Parish of St.-Roch, Paris, in c1715, married Marie, daughter of Louis Mazerole dit Saint-Louis and Geneviève Forest and widow of Pierre Darembourg, at Port-La-Joye, Île St.-Jean, in November 1743.  She gave him at least four sons:  Louis-Joseph, born in c1744; Charles in c1745; Joseph in c1747; and Jean-Pierre in c1749.  A French official counted them on Rivière-du-Nord-Est, Île St.-Jean, in August 1752.  With them were two sons from Marie's first marriage.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.488

Charles Philibert, a fisherman, born at Bellière, bishopric of Coutances, France, in c1719, came to Île Royale in the early 1740s.  He married Michelle, daughter of Joseph Borny and Thérèse de Malvillain, and settled near her kinsmen on Île Scatary.  Michelle gave him at least three children:  Jean, born in c1746; Pierre in c1748; and Marie in c1750.  A French official counted them at Anse-Darembourg, on the north shore of Île Scatary, in April 1752.  With them were four of Michelle's unmarried siblings and two "thirty-six months men" helping Charles with the fishery.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.143

Henri, son of Eugène L'Hôtellier or L'Hostellier and Anne Dorothée, born in the parish of Faulquemont, bishopric of Metz, Lorraine, in c1710, came to the French Maritimes by July 1744, when he married Marie-Madeleine, daughter of Jean Pichard and Claudine Devon of the parish of St.-Léger, bishopric of Chartres, France, at St.-Pierre-du-Nord on Île St.-Jean.  Evidently the couple had no children.  Henri died by August 1752, when a French official counted Marie-Madeleine living with her second husband--Acadian Honoré Bourgeois of Chignecto, widower of Marie-Jeanne Richard--on upper Rivière-du-Nord.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.219 

Pierre, son of Michel Varenne and Marie Royer, born at Saupoyen, bishopric of Puy, France, in c1712, came to Île Royale and worked as a ploughman on the Farm of the Fathers of Charity at Rivière-de-Miré.  He married Madeleine-Josèphe, daughter of Acadians Antoine Labauve and Catherine Lejeune, on the island in November 1744.  She gave him three daughters by April 1752, when a French official counted them at Rivière-de-Miré:  Marguerite-Angélique, called Angélique, born in 1746; Marie-Madeleine in c1748; and Marie- or Madeleine-Josèphe, called Josèphe, in c1750.  Jean-Pierre was born later in 1752; Anastasie in c1754; and Jacques in c1757.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.121

Jean Sabot, probably a fisherman, married Jeanne, daughter of Jean Borny and Marie Commère, probably in Newfoundland in c1716, after the British took over the fishery there.  Jeanne gave Jean at least nine children on the British-controled island:  Charles, born in c1717; Jeanne in c1722; Antoine in c1723; Guillemette in c1725; Marie in c1728; Barthélemy in c1727; Michelle in c1728; Alexis in c1732; and Anne in c1736.  Jean may have had a sister named Anne, who married Antoine Le Berteau dit Lyonnais in Newfoundland in c1727, but she died by c1740, when Antoine remarried.  Meanwhile, Jean died by c1739, when wife Jeanne remarried to Pierre Le Berteau dit Lyonnais, fils, Antoine's younger half-brother, at Port-aux-Basques, Newfoundland.  Jeanne's oldest daughter Jeanne Sabot married into the Le Maréchal family in May 1740.  Pierre dit Lyonnais, fils took Jeanne, her Sabot children, and their young son Pierre III to Île Royale in c1745.  Jeanne's son Antoine Sabot married into the Le Grand family, and her daughters Guillemette, Marie, and Michelle Sabot into the Fond, Dubardier, and Grandville families, probably on Île Scatary.  The extended family settled at Anse-Darembourg, on the north shore of Île Scatary, where a French official counted them in April 1752.  Jean dit Lyonnais, fils died at nearby Lorembec the following year, and Jeanne was a widow again.  She evidently did not remarry.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.141

Guillaume, son of Nicolas Le Maréchal and Guillemette L'Hotellier, born at Carolle, bishopric of Avranches, France, in c1712, was a fisherman.  He married Jeanne, daughter of Jean Sabot and Jeanne Borny of Newfoundland, probably in Newfoundland in May 1740.  Jeanne gave him at least six children:  Jeanne, born in c1740; Anne in c1742; Madeleine in c1744; Guillaume, fils in c1745; Jean-Marc in c1749; and Marie in c1750.  In c1745, they followed her mother, stepfather, and siblings to Île Royale and settled with them at Anse-Darembourg, on the north shore of Île Scatary.  A French official counted them there in April 1752 and noted that Guillaume owned a boat.  One wonders if he was kin to fisherman Jean Maréchal, also of Carolle, who was counted by the same official at Petit-Dégrat, off Île Madame, the previous February; or of Pierre Le Maréchal of Châteauneuf, near St.-Malo, a hired fisherman counted at La Baleine in April.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.144

Jacques Cousin, born at St.-Martin-de-Vondé, bishopric of Bayeux, France, in c1726, not kin to the other Cousins in the region, came to Île Royale as a young fisherman probably in the early or mid-1740s.  He married Marie Grossin, widow of ____ Algrain, and settled at Lorembec, near Louisbourg, where she gave him at least five children:  Marie-Hauze in c1747; Pierre in c1749; Simone in c1750; Julien in c1751; and Jacquemine in c1753.  A French official counted Jacques, Marie, and three of their children at Lorembec in April 1752.  He did not own a boat but did employ another fisherman to assist him in the local fishery.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.161

Nicolas Hango, born at Verly, bishopric of Coutances, France, in c1716, probably not kin to Robert Hango, fils of Rivière-de-Peugiguit, Île St.-Jean, came to the island as a fisherman by the early 1740s.  He married Anne, daughter of Guillaume Gallet of Brittany and Françoise Chiasson of Chignecto, soon after his arrival.  Anne's family had come to Île St.-Jean from Chignecto in the 1720s, and Anne was born at Havre-St.-Pierre in c1727.  She and Nicolas settled a league away from the harbor along Rivière-à-Charles, where a French official counted them in August 1752.  With them were four children:  Vincent, age 7; Simon, age 5; Louis, age 32 months; and Marie-Rose, age 10 months.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.241

François, son of Michel Harbour or Arbour and Barbe Morin, born at Pointe-aux-Trembles, near Montréal, in January 1705, married Marie-Jeanne-Thérèse, called Thérèse, daughter of Henri Picoron dit Descôteaux, at St.-Anne-de-la-Pocatière near Kamouraska on the lower St. Lawrence in October 1740.  Perhaps before war broke out again in 1744 they resettled in the French Maritimes.  Four members of this family emigrated to Louisiana from France.310   

The French Maritimes, 1740s-1752

On the Maritimes islands, Acadian life had been relatively peaceful during the first quarter century of settlement there.  Unlike their cousins in British Nova Scotia, Acadians in the French Maritimes did not have to fret over an oath of allegiance that would compel them to fight against their fellow Frenchmen or their Mi'kmaq neighbors.  When another colonial war broke out in the region in September 1718, the closest it came to Île Royale was the Canso area.  After a British force sacked the French fishing center at Chédabouctou, the refugees crossed the channel to Île Madame, and the Maritimes were now home to dozens of more Acadians.  Meanwhile, Acadian families drifted from the Nova Scotia settlements to Île St.-Jean, where they found dykable marshes along some of the inlets and streams, and also peace.  The French paid little attention to the island, concentrating their attention on Louisbourg and the fisheries on Île Royale, but the self-sufficient Acadians would have welcomed such "neglect" and a lack of official scrutiny.  When a larger war came to North America in the spring of 1744, however, the old imperial rivalry between France and Britain finally caught up with the island Acadians, and the idyll on Île St.-Jean soon ended.  After the fall of Louisbourg in June 1745, the French surrendered the rest of Île Royale to the victors, who laid waste to much of the island's Atlantic shore.  The British deported the French officers, troupes de la marine, and most of the population of Louisbourg to France, but some settlers escaped and found refuge in Nova Scotia.  In August, a New English force appeared at Port-La-Joye on Île St.-Jean, ran off the small French garrison under Joseph Dupont Duvivier, burned the settlement, and captured half a dozen Acadian militia who had the temerity to fight back, holding them as hostages.  Commodore Peter Warren, the British lieutenant-governor for St. John Island, as they called it, sent a combined force of warships and redcoats back to Port-La-Joye to shake from the locals their grain and cattle to feed the garrison at Louisbourg.  He made a truce with the island Acadians, who offiered to swear to an oath of allegiance if the British allowed to remain on their lands, but the commodore nonetheless hoped that by the following spring he could gather enough force to round them up and send them on to France.  The deportation scheme, however, did not go beyond the discussion phase.  In July 1746, a force of troupes de la marine and Mi'kmaq, after crossing unobserved from Baie-Verte, surprised the redcoats at Port-La-Joye and killed most of them.  The British fled the island, but not before taking 40 more Acadians hostage.  The following winter, in February 1747, a "group of Acadian insurgents from Île St. Jean" crossed Mer Rouge and assisted the force of French, Canadians, Indians, and fellow Acadians who destroyed a garrison of New Englanders at Grand-Pré.  More French and Indian raids followed in the Maritimes, including one in June 1748 led by Paul Marin de La Malque near Glace Bay on Île Royale to secure a load of coal.  The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, signed in October 1748, ended hostilities in the region and restored the islands to France.16 

The British finally left the Maritime islands in the summer of 1749.  Migration resumed not only from Nova Scotia, but also from France and Canada.  One French family arrived from Newfoundland, where they had remained after 1714.  Some of the new arrivals married into Acadian families: 

Julien, son of Bertrand Compagnon or Compagna and Jeanne Trahan, born at St.-Michel-des-Loups, bishopric of Avranches, Normandy, in 1729, came to the French Maritimes in 1748 probably as a young fisherman.  At age 23, he married Cécile, 38-year-old daughter of Jean-Jacques Nuirat and Marie-Jeanne Bourgeois and widow of Pierre Poirier and Louis Pothier of Chignecto, at Port-La-Joye, Île St.-Jean, in January 1751.  In August 1752, a French official counted Julien, Cécile, five of her children from her previous marriages, and their year-old daughter Marie at Havre-aux-Sauvages, on the north shore of the island west of Havre-St.-Pierre.  Daughter Marie-Rose was born there in c1754.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.270

Louis Grandville, fisherman, born at Calais, France, in c1717, married Michelle, daughter of Jean Sabot and Jeanne Borny of Newfoundland, probably on Île Royale in the late 1740s.  Michelle gave him at least four children:  Louison, born in c1748; Barthélemy in c1749; Jean in c1751; and Guillaume in c1757.  They settled with her extended family at Anse-Darembourg, on the north shore of Île Scatary, where a French official counted them in April 1752.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.147

Jean Dubardier, fisherman, born at Bayonne, France, in c1719, married Marie, daughter of Jean Sabot and Jeanne Borny of Newfoundland, probably on Île Royale in the late 1740s.  Marie gave him at least three children:  Marie-Jeanne, born in c1749; Jean in c1751; and Martin in c1758.  They settled with her extended family at Anse-Darembourg, on the north shore of Île Scatary, where a French official counted them in April 1752.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.145

Michel Ouvray, fils, born at Vire, bishopric of Bayeux, France, in c1727, came to the French Maritimes in 1749 probably as a young fisherman.  He married Élisabeth, daughter of Michel Poirier and Jeanne Bourgeois of Chignecto, probably on Île St.-Jean in c1750.  They settled at Étang-St.-Pierre, on the north coast of the island, where Michel worked as a fisherman/habitant.  A French official counted them there in August 1752 with 10-month-old son Jean-François.  Élisabeth gave him another son on the island, Pierre, born in c1753.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.269

Jacques, son of Jean Le Barbier du Plessis and Françoise Le Rau, born at Granville, bishopric of Coutances, France, in c1708, became a master surgeon.  He married Marie-Françoise, daughter of Nicolas Ferté and Jocelyne Deregazen of St.-Malo and widow of Pierre-François Beaulieu, in September 1749, probably on Île Royale.  In April 1752, a French official counted them at Lorembec, near Louisbourg, with six children from Marie-Françoise's first marriage as well as her mother.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.164

François Bonnier, born in c1728, married Marguerite Lavaudière of Port-Toulouse, Île Royale, probably in the late 1740s.  They settled at St.-Esprit, up the coast from Port-Toulouse, where François worked as a fisherman.  Marguerite gave him at least two children:  Barbe, born in c1749; and Jean in c1752.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.63

Julien Bourneuf, a farmer and carpenter, born at Merdrignac, Brittany, in c1716, married Anne Hommette probably in the late 1730s.  She gave him at least four children, all daughters:  Anne, born in c1740; Jeanne in c1743; Julienne in c1745; and Sophie in c1747.  Julien, perhaps a widower, emigrated to Île Royale in c1749.  With him came not only his daughters, but also his older brother Sébastien, born at Combourg, near St.-Malo, in c1713.  They settled at Baie-de-Miré.  In January 1751, Julien remarried to Jeanne, 26-year-old daughter of Augustin Guédry and Jeanne Hébert of Cobeguit.  She gave him two more children:  François, born in c1752; and Françoise in c1754.  A French official counted them at Miré in April 1752.  With them were Julien's four children from his first marriage, so Jeanne likely was pregnant with son François.  Also counted with the family was Jeanne's 17-year-old brother Joseph Guédry.  In 1754, Julien, along with his brother, followed some of his Guédry in-laws to British Nova Scotia.  After taking an unqualified oath of allegiance to the British king, they followed their kinsmen to Mirliguèche, down the coast from Halifax, where the Guédrys had lived before October 1749.  Julien did not remain in Nova Scotia.  A widower again, he, his children, and older brother Sébastien returned to Île Royale by the summer of 1758, when they, along with hundreds of other islanders, were deported to France.  None of Julien's descendants emigrated to Louisiana.130

Nicolas, fils, son of Nicolas Bouchard and Anne Sylvain, born at St.-Thomas-de-Montmagny, Canada, in c1723, married Marie-Anne, 21-year-old daughter of Acadians François Chiasson and Anne Doucet of Havre-à-l'Anguille, on the east coast of Île St.-Jean, at St.-Thomas-de-Montmagny in October 1746.  Nicolas, fils took his family to Île St.-Jean in c1749 and settled on the south bank of Rivière-du-Nord-Est, in the interior of the island, where a French official counted then in August 1752.  With them were two children:  Nicolas, fils, born in c1748; and Marie in c1750.  Daughter Marie-Geneviève was born in 1752, soon after the census was taken.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.02

Philippe Demarets or Desmarais, born at Amiens, France, in c1697, married Marie-Anne Rondeau of Québec, perhaps in Canada, and took her to the French Maritimes in c1749.  A French official counted them at Port-Dauphin, Île Royale, in March 1752.  They had no children in their household.  One wonders if they ever had any.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.93

Laurent, son of Manuel Soly and Catherine Mangnon, was born at Majorque, bishopric of Andalusia, Spain, in c1719.  He married Jeanne, daughter of Thomas Lécuyer dit Langlois of Hampshire, England, and Marie-Françoise Langlois of Annapolis Royal and Port-Toulouse, on Île Royale in October 1749.  She gave him at least four children:  Antoine-Thomas, born in c1750; Laurent, fils in 1752; Marie-Françoise in c1754; and Rose in c1756.  A French official counted them with their two sons at Rivière-de-Miré in April 1752.  Laurent remarried to Théodose, daughter of Louis-Paul Girouard and Marie Thibodeau of Cobegut, at Restigouche on the Baie des Chaleurs in November 1760 while in exile.  They settled in Canada.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.124

Nicolas Le Borgne, no kin to the aristocratic Le Borgne de Bélisle family of peninsula Acadia, was born at Dieppe, France, in c1716.  He came to Île Royale as a fisherman and married Marie, daughter of Jean Darembourg and Marie-Anne Pichot of Plaisance and Île Royale, probably in the late 1740s.  They settled at Petit-Dégras, off Île Madame, where Marie gave him at least two children:  Michel, born in c1749; and Marie-Anne in c1751.  A French official counted them at Petit-Dégras in February 1752 and noted that Nicolas employed three other fishermen to work his two boats.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.53

François, son of Mathurin Legendre and Marie Morel of Maillard (some sources say St.-Malo), France, came to Île Royale probably in the 1740s, where he worked as a pécheur en chaloupe, or fisherman.  He married Marguerite, daughter of Antoine Labauve and Catherine Lejeune of Grand-Pré, at Louisbourg in April 1750.  Soon after their marriage, they moved to Havre-Saint-Pierre on Île St.-Jean, where a French official counted them with 18-month-old daughter Henriette in August 1752.   Marguerite gave François at least two more children on the island:  Jean-François, born in c1754; and Anastasie-Angélique in c1757.  Five members of this family emigrated to Louisiana from France.309

Thomas Poirée or Poiré, a fisherman, born at Messy-de-Roy, bishopric of Coutances, France, in c1719, married Marie, granddaughter of Gilles Vincent dit Desmarets of Newfoundland and Île Scatary, probably on Île Scatary in the late 1740s.  She gave him at least three children on the island:  Marie, born in c1750; Thomas, fils in c1753; and Marguerite in c1758.  A French official counted the family at Anse-Darembourg, on the north shore of Île Scatary, in April 1752.  The official noted that Thomas had hired "four thirty-six months men" to help him with the fishery.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.142

Jean Guillaume, born at Leytoure, bishopric of d'Aich, France, in c1720, married Marie Boila probably in the early 1740s.  Their daughter Catherine was born in c1746.  Jean took his family to Île Royale in 1749, after "the surrender of the place by the English."  They settled at Rivière-de-Miré, on the island's Atlantic coast, where a French official counted them in April 1752.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.122

Louis Gascot, fisherman, born at Vire, bishopric of Avranches, France, in c1702, married Jeanne Desroches, born at St. Qua, bishopric of St.-Breuc, France, in 1722.  They emigrated to Île Royale probably in the late 1740s and settled at La Baleine, where a French official counted them in April 1752.  With them was their 9-month-old daughter Marie.  The official noted that Louis employed nine other fishermen; owned six boats, including a barque; and held 90 toises, or 575 feet, of frontage on the seashore.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.149

Jean-Baptiste, fils, son of Jean-Baptiste Périal and Anne-Antoinette Pernet of Franch Comté, was born in the parish of La Chapelle, bishopric of Besaçon, in c1728.  He came to the French Maritimes in 1749 as a young corporal in the company of Claude-Élisabeth Denys de Bonaventure and followed his commander to Port-La-Joye, Île St.-Jean.  The corporal married Rosalie, daughter of Jean-Baptiste Comeau and Anne-Marie Thibodeau of Minas and widow of Michel Caissie dit Roger of Chignecto, at Port-La-Joye in June 1752.  A French official counted Jean-Baptiste and Rosalie there the following August.  Living with them was a son from Rosalie's first marriage and a Caissie orphan.  Rosalie gave Jean-Baptiste at least three children, all daughters, born probably on the island:  Anne-Marie in c1753; Marie-Madeleine in c1755; and Rosalie in c1756.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.197

François Chalot, a farmer, was born at Caen, France, in c1703.  Probably in the late 1720s, he married Marie Tanère, born at Granville, France, in c1710.  Their son Jean was born in France in c1730.  François took his family to Île Royale in c1749 and settled at Baie-de-Miré, where he, Marie, and Jean worked on a concession owned by the colony's treasurer.  A French official counted them there in April 1752 and noted that the family employed a 27-year-old domestic servant.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.133

Robert Mancel, born at Lucerne, bishopric of Avranches, France, in c1720, married Jeanne Goupil or Goupy, born at Lucerne in c1720.  He took her to Île St.-Jean in c1749.  She gave him at least five children:  Blaise in c1749; Jeanne-Suzanne, called Suzanne, in 1750; Anne in c1753; Charles in c1755; and Alexis in c1768.  A French official counted Robert, Jeanne, and their two older children at Havre-St.-Pierre, on the north shore of the island, in August 1752.  Robert was working there as a fisherman/habitant and owned two boats and a share in a bateau.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.250 

Charles Jousseaume, a merchant/fisherman, born at St.-Martin-de-Villeneuve, bishopric of La Rochelle, France, in c1722, came to Havre-St.-Pierre, Île St.-Jean, in 1749 and married Marie-Madeleine, called Madeleine, 16-year-old daughter of Paul Bugeaud and Marguerite Doucet of Minas, at St.-Pierre-du-Nord in July 1752.  A month after their wedding, a French official counted them at Havre-St.-Pierre and noted that Sr. Charles, as he called him, owned no land yet, but he owned two fishing boats, held an interest in a bateau with neighbor Robert Mancel, and was "purveyor for seven boats."  Following the census, Madeleine gave Charles four children on the island:  Louise-Claire, born in c1754; Charlotte in 1755; and Anne-Modeste and Suzanne in c1758.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.264

Louis Juneau or Jonisseaux, a merchant, born in Canada in c1722, married Marie-Thérèse Dauphin, a fellow Canadian, born at Québec in 1715, probably in the late 1740s.  They moved to Île St.-Jean in 1749 and settled at Port-La-Joye, where a French official counted them in August 1752.  With them was their 2-year-old son Louis-Marie.  The official noted that Louis and Marie-Thérèse owned two parcels of land, at Port-La-Joye and at Anse-aux-Sauvages, on the north shore of the island.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.196

André Templé, a Norman sailor, born at Menibeaux, Avranches, in c1728, settled at Port-Toulouse, Île Royale, in c1749.  Two years later, he married Marie, daughter of Pierre Deveau and Marie Caissie of Chignecto, probably at Port-Toulouse.  They had at least four children, two sons and two daughters, all born at Port-Toulouse.  André remarried to Marguerite, daughter of probably François LeBlanc of Minas and widow of Charles Breau, in France, and she gave him 13 more children, including 11 more sons.  André and his family emigrated to Louisiana from France.311 

Pierre Courtiau, a farmer, born at Monmorency, bishopric of Dax, France, in c1721, not kin to the aristocratic Courthiaus of Plaisance, Newfoundland, married Marie Cortien, born at La Rochelle in c1714.  They emigrated to Île Royale in c1750 and settled at Baie-de-Miré.  A French official counted them there in April 1752 working on a concession owned by the colony's treasurer, the Sieur de la Borde.  With Pierre and Marie was a 21-year-old male servant and their 2-month-old son, not yet named.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.131

Mathurin Douin, a farmer, born in St.-Nicolas Parish, Nantes, France, in c1705, married Marie-Catherine Courté, born at Daste, Italy, in c1715.  She gave him at least three children:  Mathieu, born in c1747; Christine in c1750; and Louis-Mathurin in late 1751 or early 1752.  They emigrated to Île Royale in c1750 and settled at Baie-de-Miré.  A French official counted them there in April 1752.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.134

Pierre Le Gros, a carpenter, born at Paris in c1718, married Servanne Laman or Lanoue of Petit-Bras-d'Or, Île Royale, and settled with her at nearby Baie-de-l'Indienne.  When a French official counted them there in April 1752, they were living with 2-year-old daughter Marguerite.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.115

Julien Fouré or Fourré, born at Carbé, bishopric of St.-Malo, in c1719, married Marie-Anne Ducharme of Québec perhaps in Canada and settled at Port-Dauphin, Île Royale, where he worked as a fisherman.  A French official counted them at Port-Dauphin in March 1752 with their 2-year-old son Julien, fils.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.94

Pierre-Mathurin dit Saint-Crispin, son of Pierre Girard and Jeanne Deveau, born at St.-Colomban, diocese of Nantes, in c1725, served in the company of troupes de la marine commanded by Claude-Élisabeth Denys de Bonaventure during the 1740s.  Pierre-Mathurin went to Île St.-Jean with his old company commander in the summer of 1749.  After completing his service, he married Marie, 24-year-old daughter of Louis Closquinet and Marguerite Longuépée, at Port-La-Joye in September 1751.  When a French official counted them (he called her Marie-Marguerite) on the east side of Riviève-de-Peugiguit, in the island's interior, in August 1752, they still had no children.  If any of the soldier's descendants emigrated to Louisiana, none took the family's name there.06

Joseph Gracia, a farmer, born at Lerocque, bishopric of Biscaye, France, in c1718, married Marie Depontigue, born at Dourescan, bishopric of Bayonne, France, in 1720.  They emigrated to Île Royale in c1750 and settled at Baie-de-Miré, where a French official counted them in April 1752.  They had no children at the time.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.127

Luc Le Chené, a farmer, born at Bordeaux, France, in c1718, married Laurence Seigneux, born at Dinan, France, in c1716.  They emigrated to Île Royale in c1750 and settled at Baie-de-Miré, where a French official counted them in April 1752.  They had no children.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.128

Ignace Tallement, a farmer, was born in Prague, then part of the Holy Roman Empire, in c1726.  He married _____ Espercy, born in Bordeaux, France, in c1730, probably in the late 1740s.  They emigrated to Île Royale in c1750 and settled at Baie-de-Miré, where a French official counted them in April 1752.  With them were two daughters:  Marie, born in c1749; and Marie-Catherine, born in c1751.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.129

François Gouret, a farmer, was born at Provézieu, bishopric of Grenoble, France, in c1730.  Probably in the late 1740s, he married Toinette Eviard, born in the same parish in c1729.  They emigrated to Île Royale in August 1750 and settled at Baie-de-Miré to work on a concession owned by the colony's treasurer.  Their daughter Thérèse was born probably at Miré soon after their arrival.  The French official who counted them there in April 1752 noted that François was "not fit to enter the militia," and that he had employed a 50-year-old fisherman as a domestic servant.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.132

François Cirier, Siriés, or Serrier, a farmer, born at d'Albourg, bishopric of Cahors, France, in c1714, married Anne Edon or Hudon, born at la Franche, bishopric of Grenoble, France.  They emigrated to "l'Acadie" probably in the late 1740s before moving on to Île St.-Jean in 1750.  A French official counted them at Port-La-Joye in August 1752.  With them was daughter Rose, born in 1751.  Anne gave him two more children:  Anne-Marie, born probably on the island in c1754; and François, fils in c1756.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.194

Joseph Benet or Benay, a farmer, born at d'Albiac, bishopric of Cahors, France, in c1722, married Jeanne, called Jennie, Diollet or Douillet, born at Cognac, bishopric of Cahors, in c1717, probably in the late 1740.  She gave him at least four children:  Paul, born in c1747; Antoine in c1751; Rosalie, or Rose, in c1752; and Dorothée in c1754.  They came to Île St.-Jean in 1750 and settled at Port-La-Joye, where a French official counted them with Paul and Rose in August 1752.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.195

Pierre Duport, born in the parish of Sonneville, Abbeville, France, in c1720, married Jeanne, daughter of Jean Métayer and Jeanne Rousseau of Abbeville.  Jeanne, born in c1728, gave Pierre at least two children:  Pierre, fils, born in c1746; and Jean in c1748.  The family emigrated to the French Maritimes in c1750 or 1751 and settled at Gabarus Bay, just south of Louisbourg.  A French official counted them there in February 1752, working on land owned by Sr. Pierre Rondeau.  With Pierre and Jeanne were her mother, age 45, and Jeanne's 18-year-old sister Élisabeth Métayer.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.88

Jean Balay or Baloy, a fisherman, born at Mouviron, bishopric of Avranches, in c1702, married Marguerite Beaumont, born at Granville, France, in c1726.  They emigrated to Île Royale and settled at Petit-Dégrat, off Île Madame, where a French official counted them in February 1752.  With them was a daughter, Marguerite, born in c1751.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.66

Jacques Chemin, a soldier, born in the parish of Le-Mesnil-Brout, bishopric of Sez, France, in c1715, deserted his unit either in France or New France.  He married Françoise Ange or Auge, born at St.-Pierre d'Orléron, France, in c1725, and settled at Baie-de-Miré, Île Royale, where a French official counted them in April 1752.  With them was their 6-month-old daughter Jeanne.  The official noted that "The said Jacques Chemin intends settling on the river" at Miré "if the King will give him three years rations.  He has received his pardon as a deserter from the troops."   No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.135

Pierre, son of Charles Boullot and Anne Catelie, born at St.-Jean-des-Champs, Diocese of Coutances, France, c1725, became a ship's captain and merchant.  He married Jeanne-Madeleine, daughter of Jean Richard and Anne Samson, at Louisbourg in August 1751.  Between 1752 and 1762, Jeanne gave Pierre seven children, three sons and four daughters, on Île Royale and at St.-Servan, France, where they settled in October 1759 after the British deported to La Rochelle in 1758.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.276

Nicolas Écard or Hecquart, a fisherman of means, born at Serance, bishopric of Coutances, France, in c1700, married Marie-Anne Pichot of Plaisance, widow of Jean Darembourg, at Port-Toulouse in c1751.  One wonders if this was Sr. Nicolas's first marriage and how long he had been in the colony.  He, Marie-Anne, and her many Darembourg children settled at nearby Île Madame.  Nicolas owned two boats and was employing four seasonal fishermen, all Basques, when a French official counted him and his new family at nearby Petit-Dégrat in February 1752.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.52

Louis Latier, or Lasté, perhaps a soldier in the garrison at Louisbourg, married Anne, daughter of Étienne Trahan and Marie-Françoise Roy of Pigiguit and widow of Jean-Baptiste Benoit, at the citadel in c1751.  Anne gave Louis at least three children, all born in Maryland during exile:  Antoine in c1762, Paul in c1763, and Élisabeth in c1765.  Louis and his family emigrated to Louisiana from Maryland.312 

Jean Daguerre, born at St.-Jean-de-Luz, in the Basque region of southwestern France, in c1728, came to Île Royale as a young fisherman and married Marie D'Etcheverry.  They settled at Petit-Dégrat, off Île Madame, where a French official counted them in February 1752.  With them was their 4-month-old son, Jean, fils.  One wonders if he was kin to Jean-Baptiste Daguerre of Baie-de-L'Indienne, up the coast from Petit-Dégrat; or to Étienne Daguerre, a fisherman, born at Louisbourg in c1719 and counted at Gabarus Bay in February 1752.  No member of Jean's family emigrated to Louisiana.70

Jean Henry dit Maillardet or Maillardé, described as a stone mason, master tailor, and ploughman, born at Orvin, Switzerland, in c1726, was not kin to the other Henrys in the region.  In c1751, he married Anne Barbe, a fellow Swiss born at Bienne in c1720, probably in British Nova Scotia.  They likely were among the hundreds of so-called Foreign Protestants who the British settled at Halifax in the summer of 1750.  Two years later, Jean and Anne deserted Halifax to live among the Acadians.  Anne gave Jean at least two children:  Louis-Gervais, born at Port-La-Joye, Île St.-Jean, only 17 days after a French official counted the family there in August 1752; Anne-Barbe was born probably at Port-La-Joye in c1754.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.192

Jean-Baptiste Hent or Huot, born in the parish of St.-Jean, Île d'Orléans, downriver from Québec, in c1733, came to Île St.-Jean in c1751 and settled at Malpèque, on the northwest coast of Île St.-Jean.  The following year, he married Thérèse, daughter of Pierre Arseneau and Marguerite Cormier of Chignecto and Malpèque, probably at the isolated community.  A French official counted the young couple there that August.  They had no children.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.274

François Le Hardy, native of St.-Modé, diocese of St.-Malo, France, married Marguerite, daughter of Jean Clément and Marie Druce, and settled near her family at St.-Esprit, down the coast from Louisbourg, where François worked as a fisherman.  When a French official counted them at St.-Esprit in February 1752, Marguerite was only 15 years old, and she and François had no children.  None of their descendants emigrated to Louisiana.61

Julien Rabagois, born at Vignac, bishopric of St.-Malo, in c1728, came to Île Royale as a fisherman.  He married Marie, daughter of Acadians Ernest Lambert and Marie Longuépee, and settled at Petit-Dégrat, off Île Madame, where a French official counted them in February 1752.  They had no children.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.72

Sylvain-Jean-Sémidon Gation, surgeon, born at St.-Servan, near St.-Malo, in c1726, married Françoise Faye, born in the Parish of St.-Loy, Bordeaux, in c1720.  They emigrated to Île Royale and settled at Anse-Darembourg on the north shore of Île Scatary, where a French official counted them in April 1752.  They had no children.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.139

Jean-Pierre St. Gla, a farmer, born at St.-Fristre, bishopric of Castres, France, in c1722, married Jeanne De la Bonne of Begnac, France, and emigrated to Île Royale.  They had at least one child, Catherine, born either in France or on the island in c1751.  They settled at Baie-de-Miré, where a French official counted them in April 1752 and noted their recent arrival there.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.126

Jean, fils, son of Jean Roussin and Geneviève Posé, born in the parish of St.-Thomas-de-la-Pointe-à-Caille, Canada, in c1719, became a navigator and emigrated to Île St.-Jean in early 1752.  He married Françoise, 21-year-old daughter of Jean-Baptiste Boudrot and his second wife Louise Saulnier of St.-Famillie, Pigiguit, at Port-La-Joye in April of that year.  A French official counted them there in August.  Françoise gave Jean, fils at least four children:  Françoise in c1753; Marie-Geneviève in c1755; Jean-Baptiste in c1757; and Joseph in c1761, during Le Grand Dérangement.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.198

Claude-Joseph, called Joseph, son of Jean-Claude Billeray and Anne-Monique Godard, born at Vermier-Fontaine, bishopric of Besancon, France, in c1730, married Brigitte, daughter of Michel Forest, fils and his second wife Marie Célestin dit Bellemère, at Port-La-Joye, Île St.-Jean, in June 1752.  In August, a French official counted them at nearby Anse-au-Matelot.  Having just married, they had no children.  They had at least two children on the island in the following years:  Jeanne, born in c1753; and Charles in c1755.  One of Claude-Joseph's younger daughters, born in France, emigrated to Louisiana in 1785.313 

Jacques Nicolas, "master sugar refiner," born at Beauvais, Picardy, in c1715, married Marie Quilien, born at Neis, Ireland, in 1733.  They settled at Port-La-Joye, Île St.-Jean, in the summer of 1752.  A French official counted them there in August.  They had no children.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.193

Pierre, fils, son of Pierre Neveu and Jeanne Tarando of St.-Pierre-de-Sales Parish, Bordeaux, France, probably not kin to Laurent of La Rochelle, came to Louisbourg by November 1753, when he married Catherine, daughter of Jean Vinette of Rochefort, France.  They had at least one child, Catherine, born at Louisbourg in 1754.  No member of this family seems to have emigrated to Louisiana.314 

Martin Porcheron, a weaver born in Lyon, France, in c1731, came to Île St.-Jean by c1756, when he married Marie-Brigitte, called Brigitte, daughter of Noël Pinet and Rose Henry of Minas and Québec and widow of Louis Valet dit Langevin, on the island.  In 1757 and 1758, Brigitte gave the weaver two children, the older one a daughter.  The British deported the family to St.-Malo, France, in 1758.  The two infants died at sea.  In November 1760, at St.-Suliac, near St.-Malo, Brigitte gave Martin a son, Martin-Charles, who died at St.-Suliac in June 1770, age 9.  When in the summer of 1773 French officials encouraged the St.-Malo Acadians to participate in a settlement venture in the Poitou region, Martin was the first to sign up.  Hundreds of others followed.  Brigitte died at Archigny, Poitou, in September 1774, age 60.  At age 44, Martin remarried to Angélique, daughter of Joseph Breau and Ursule Bourg, at Archigny in June 1775.  She was as a midwife.  The settlement failed after two years of effort, and in late 1775 and early 1776 most of the Poitou Acadians retreated to the port city Nantes.  Martin chose to remain in Poitou.  Despite his skills as a weaver, he did not prosper there.  His second wife Angélique died at Archigny in April 1779, age 31.  One wonders if she gave him more children.  No member of this family emigrated to Louisiana.275

Yves, son of Guillaume Crochet and Julienne Durand, born at Megrit, Brittany, in September 1732, perhaps was a soldier or a sailor when he arrived at Louisbourg in the 1750s.  In February 1758, he married Pélagie, daughter of perhaps Claude Benoit and Élisabeth Thériot of L'Assomption, Pigiguit, at Louisbourg.  Five months after their marriage, the French citadel fell to the British.  Three months later, the British deported Yves and Pélagie to France.  All of their children, five sons and three daughters, were born in the mother country not far from Yves's birthplace.  This family--three sons and two daughters, led by Yves's widow Pélagie Benoit--emigrated to Louisiana from France in 1785.  Yves's two daughters married into the De La Garde and Adam families and his three sons into the Boudrot, Dugas, and Belanger families in the Spanish colony and settled on the river and on upper Bayou Lafourche.315 

De La Roque's Survey, 1752

Charles des Herbiers de La Ralière reached Louisbourg in June 1749 and served as its first post-war governor.  Scion of a prominent family of naval officers, des Herbiers himself held the Cross of St.-Louis and had served so gallantly in Flanders during the War of the Austrian Succession he earned not only promotion to the rank of captain but also the post of King's commissioner for reoccupying Île Royale.  With him from Rochefort came several warships and transports full of soldiers, provisions, and settlers for the repatriated colony.  He wasted no time opening negotiations with the British commander of Louisbourg and Île Royale, Colonel Peregrine Thomas Hopson of the 29th Regiment of Foot, for removal of the British garrison.  Formalities were completed on July 23, and Île Royale was officially French again.  As instructed, des Herbiers provided some of his own vessels to transport the British garrison to Halifax.  French authorities were impressed with the performance, and des Herbiers remained at the citadel as commandant of the colony.  Replacing the corrupt François Bigot as the colony's commissaire-ordonnateur was Jacques Prévost de la Croix.   Des Herbiers oversaw the reconstruction of the Louisbourg fortifications, as well as the revival of the fisheries and the colony's commerce, including a resumption of trade with New England.  He looked to Île Royale's "enormous coal deposits" and encouraged their development.  Restoring the colony to its original purpose, however, also would require a base of settlement stronger than the one that had existed before the war.19 

Some of the settlers who had come to Louisbourg with des Herbiers evidently had been deported from the citadel in July 1745.  Many were new to the colony.  To facilitate settlement, or resettlement, des Herbiers "had unclaimed properties surveyed in order to award them to new occupants."  The largest influx of new settlers, however, came from the usual source--the Acadians of peninsula Nova Scotia, who had been drifting into the Maritime islands ever since the colony began.  After the British built Halifax in 1749 and a petite guerre erupted between the redcoats and the Mi'kmaq, the rate of immigration from the peninsula to the islands increased perceptibly.  At Baie-des-Espagnols that year, families from Pigiguit dramatically increased the population, and, as a result, the Spanish Bay "temporarily, held one of the largest populations outside of Louisbourg."  Acadians appeared on Île Royale also at Rivière-de-Miré, along on the north shore of Île Madame, at Rivière-des-Habitants west of the island, and at Pointe-à-la-Jeunesse in the island's interior.  But most of the new immigrants flooded into Île St.-Jean.20

In August 1749, des Herbiers sent a new garrison to Port-La-Joye under the command of Acting Major Claude-Élisabeth Denys de Bonnaventure, whose uncle and father-in-law, Louis Denys de La Ronde, had commanded on Île St.-Jean during the late 1710s and early 1720s.  Denys de Bonnaventure had served there with him, so he was familiar with the place.  With him at Port-La-Joye, serving as commissaire, was François-Marie de Goutin, a native of French Acadia who had served for years at Louisbourg in various positions, including head of the citadel's Conseil Supérieur, before its capture in 1745.  De Goutin, like many French officials in the colony, had been financially ruined by the fall of the fortress.  For a time, in fact, while languishing as a refugee at St.-Malo, he and his large family had subsisted on a government gratuity.  The office of commissaire for Île St.-Jean, held for two decades by Robert Potier Dubuisson, had fallen vacant in March 1744, when Dubuisson died at Port-La-Joye.  Upon the recommendation of the colony's former commissaire-ordonnateur, Sébastien-François-Ange Le Normant de Mézy, de Goutin received the appointment.  As subdelegate to the King's commissary, he now answered to the colony's new commissaire-ordonnateur, Prévost de La Croix.  With an annual salary of 600 livres, de Goutin's fortunes had taken a turn for the better.  De Herbiers tasked him and Denys de Bonnaventure with creating an agricultural community on Île St.-Jean that would serve as a bread basket for the rest of the colony.  De Goutin's connection to peninsula Acadia could serve him well in encouraging more peninsula Acadians to emigrate to the big island.  From the late 1680s until the fall of Port-Royal, his father had served there as an important French official and also had been a peninsula seigneur.  More importantly, François-Marie's mother was a daughter of Pierre Thibodeau, so his list of cousins in the Fundy communities would have been most impressive.  He and Denys de Bonnaventure were authorized to offer Acadian immigrants to Île St.-Jean "free passage for themselves, their household effects, baggage, and livestock...," as well as land on which to settle.  De Goutin would conduct a census of the island's current inhabitants, some of them his kinsmen.  He also would subsist the new arrivals from the island's storehouse at Port-La-Joye, issuing them "implements and food for one year."  According to his biographer, de Goutin "was also to protect former land grants and to encourage farming in the fertile areas.  Pasture was to be made available to settlers, but codfishing discouraged so as to safeguard the new agricultural base," a policy long pursued by administrators in Louisbourg.  Denys de Bonnaventure "had expected to be at Île Saint-Jean only temporarily," implying that Port-La-Joye was considered to be a quiet post, a kind of military backwater.  After the autumn of 1750, however, the post was anything but quiet.  In April 1751, French authorities promoted Denys de Bonnaventure to full major and retained him at Port-La-Joye.  Despite his frequent calls to be relieved of this command, he remained at the post for three more years.  De Goutin met a different fate.  The severe winter of 1750-51, his poorly constructed quarters, and the chronic shortage of meat at Port-La-Joye took a toll on his health.  He fell seriously ill in November 1751 and died the following January, in his early 60s.21 

What so burdened Commandant Denys de Bonnaventure and Commissaire de Goutin after the autumn of 1750 was the sudden arrival of hundreds of Acadians from the Chignecto region--not immigrants so much as refugees, burned out of their homes in the second round of a new conflict with the British in Nova Scotia.  When Denys de Bonnaventure came to Île St.-Jean in 1749, he commanded 735 settlers scattered around the island in a dozen or more communities.  Among the new arrivals were Acadian partisans who had fled Nova Scotia earlier that year to avoid the clutches of British authorities.  Nicolas Gauthier, once the wealthiest man in Nova Scotia, was one of them.  He took his family to Rivière-du-Nord-Est, in the island's interior, where he attempted to restore at least part of his fortune on a habitation he nostalgically christened Bellair, after his estate near Annapolis Royal.  The French government compensated Gauthier for part of his loss, but, "This assistance was not altogether altruistic on the part of the authorities.  Earlier, [French Minister of Marine] Maurepas had suggested that Gauthier's influence and stature among the Acadians might help to attract even greater Acadian immigration to Île Royale and Île Saint-Jean."  Sadly for the Acadians of Nova Scotia, the minister's wish was soon fulfilled.  In 1749, Governor Cornwallis's harassment of the Acadians at Pigiguit motivated dozens of them to vacate their habitants and relocate to the Maritimes.  A year later, in September 1750, the British built Fort Lawrence on the east bank of Rivière Missaguash at Chignecto, and the resulting chaos on the French side of the river led to the doubling of the population of Île St.-Jean in only a few months time.  By 1751, hundreds of Acadians had left Nova Scotia and resettled on the two big Maritime islands, most of them on Île St.-Jean, which by the summer of 1752 held over 2,200 habitants.  Governor des Herbiers of course encouraged the migration, but he and Ordonnateur Prévost at Louisbourg, as well the two officials at Port-La-Joye, were hard pressed to sustain them.  As the Acadians faced "all the difficulties of establishing themselves anew on what was uncleared land, having seen their homes burnt and many of their personal possessions destroyed," Prévost, a typical French bureaucrat, saw them only as so many hundreds of new mouths to feed and "wrote to France complaining about Acadian indolence."  Conditions on Île Royale were just as dismal, as French officials soon learned.22 

.

In 1751, Jean-Louis, comte de Raymond, succeeded des Herbiers as governor.  "Raymond was an irrepressible enthusiast for agricultural settlement who sincerely believed that the island could develop a self-sufficient agriculture...," Andrew Hill Clark informs us.  In early 1752, he ordered Joseph, sieur de La Roque, one of the King's surveyors, to conduct a census of the colony.  De La Roque's counting would start on Île Royale before moving on to Île St.-Jean, where the population had been doubled during the past two years by refugees from the mainland.  One would be hard pressed to find a more thorough census conducted during this era.  De La Roque not only counted the people--their names, ages, origins, the size of their holdings, the kinds and numbers of their animals, the amount of food they had on hand, even the time they had been in the colony--but, being a surveyor/engineer, he also described in great detail the land itself.  After De La Roque had finished his work and sailed to France, Governor Raymond informed the Minister of Marine in a 5 December 1752 letter that he was entirely satisfied with the young engineer's performance: "He is a very good man, full of zeal and talent," the governor assured the Minister. "He is the son of one of the King's Musketeers, of good family, and ... rendered excellent service during the last war.  He has done wonderful things here for me.  It is he, who last year made a tour of Ile Royale to inspect, according to my instructions, all the ports and harbours, [and] search for a new route to Ile au Justaucorps," which lay on the big island's west coast, overlooling today's St. Georges Bay.  Raymond hoped that De La Roque's efforts would "shorten the sea voyage between" Louisbourg and Île-aux-Justaucorps by "more than fifty leagues."08   

In his weeks-long survey of Île Royale, De La Roque noted that Acadians or their spouses living on the island bore the names Alitra, Allain, Amiot, Amireau dit Tourangeau, Arete, Arseneau, Balay, Barrieau, Beaumont, Belliveau, Bénard, Benjamin, Benoit, Berbudeau, Bertaud dit Montaury, Bertrand, Beaulieu, Blanchard, Bodard, Bois, Bonin, Bonnier, Boucher, Boudrot, Bourg, Bourneuf, Boutin, Breau, Brisset, Brisson, Broussard, Butteau, Caissie dit Roger, Carovent, Carret, Chapin, Chauvet dit La Gerne, Clément, Clergé, Comeau, Corporon, Coste, Coulon, Cousin, Daguerre, Daigre, Daniqua, Detcheverry, Diers, Doiron, Druce, Dugas, Dumas dit Vandeboncoeur, Écard or Hecquart, Fardel, Ferret, Forest, Fougère, Fournier, Gaudet, Gautrot, Girouard, Granne, Guédry, Guérin, Hamet, Hébert, Henry dit Robert, Hulin, Labauve, Lafargue, Lambert, Landry, Langlois, Lapierre, Lavergne, Lavigne, LeBlanc, Le Borgne de Bélisle, LeChaux, LeHardy, Lejeune, LePrieur dit Dubois, LeRoy, LeSauvage, L'Hermitte, Lirard, Longuépée, Marcadet, Marchand, Marres or Mars dit La Sonde, Marteau, Martel, Martin dit Barnabé, Mirande, Mius, Nicolas, Olivet, Ozelet, Papon, Petitpas, Picard, Pichot, Pinet, Pitre, Poirier, Pouget dit Lepierre, Préjean, Rabageois, Radoux, Rambourg, Richard, Rivet, RoySamson, Saux, Sire, Tardiff, Tessé, Testard dit Paris, Thériot, Thibodeau, Tompique, Trahan, Triel dit Laperrière, Turpin, Varenne, Vigneau dit Maurice, Vrigneau, and Vincent.  Many of them were peninsula Acadians who had come to the island from Pigiguit and Chignecto to escape the growing conflict in Nova Scotia.  Many had lived on Île Royale for decades.  De La Roque found small numbers of Acadians at St.-Esprit, L'Ardoise, La Briquerie, Petit-Dégrat, Île-de-la-Ste.-Famille, Baie-de-L'Indienne, Rivière-de-Miré, and Lorembec.  They were especially numerous at Port-Toulouse, on the north shore of Île Madame, at Rivière-aux-Habitants, Pointe-à-la-Jeunesse, Baie-des-Espagnols, and Baie-de-Mordienne.10

From the first week of February into April 1752, De La Roque counted 1,500 to 1,600 settlers on Île Royale living outside of the fortress of Louisbourg, only a fraction of whom were peninsula Acadians.  At Louisbourg, an additional 3,500 officials, merchants, laborers, craftsmen, officers, soldiers, and sailors dwelled, very few of them Acadians.01 

Leaving the colonial capital on a rainy day in early February, De La Roque and his surveying team headed southwest on the Miré Road to Gabarus Bay.  Approaching the south shore of the bay, where the harbor and its settlement lay, De La Roque noted that, except for "a lake lying to the left of the road we observed nothing worthy of note throughout the whole distance of two leagues" from Louisbourg.  "This lake discharges its waters into the stream of Pointe Plate, by which stream they are carried to the sea at the harbour of Gabarus," he went on.  "The land is clothed with fir of all description."  After the rain stopped, De La Roque and his companions "continued to follow the highway for half a league, and then took a blazed road" cut from the heavy timber, "which led us to the further end of the gorge of the Montagne du Diable"--Devil's Mountain--"on the sea shore at the harbour of Gabarus.  The length of this road is placed at three leagues"--nine miles today--he determined.  "All the woods are of beech and the surface of the ground is extremely rough," he added.  He then described the Bay of Gabarus in rich detail:  "This bay is formed by the Pointe du Dehors and the Pointe Blanche.  These points lie about north-east and south-west, at a distance from each other of some three leagues, giving the bay a circuit of six leagues inland on the north-west of the island.  Between Pointe Blanche and Cormorandière, a good half league distant from Louisbourg, lies Pointe Plate, the exact place on which the English made a descent and landed the army in the year 1745.  The land between the town of Louisbourg and this point is very rough and marshy, with ten to twelve feet of peat, which neither dries up, nor condenses owning to the great quantity of water with which every part is usually covered.  Nor would it be easy to make practical drainage for the reasons that nearly all the marshes are pierced by ridges which partake of the nature of rocks.  The bottom beneah the ten or twelve feet of peat is a mixture of rich soil full of and traversed by rocks, the whole producing a petrified mass and extremely difficult to remove."  Employing the eyes of a military engineer, De La Roque noted that "All these considerations lead to the conclusion that should the enemy attempt to make a descent on this part of the bay, they would find it very difficult if not impracticable to transport artillery across such rough country."  And yet, nearly seven years before, Pepperell's Yankees had done just that.  "The distance from Cormorandière to Pointe aux Basques, or to Point du Dehors is estimated at four leagues," he went on.  "Within this distance we find:-- 1. Between la Cormorandière and the gorge of the above mention Montagne du Diable there lie several creeks practicable for landing from boats.  The creeks are, respectively, half a league, a league, and a league and a half distant from the site of one of the projected redoubts on the said Cormorandière, on which a landing could be made without running any risk of danger.  The distance between the gorge of the said mountain to the Pointe du Dehors is about two leagues and (between them) there rises a bank of sand half a league in length, and from 40 to 50 toises in width, extending from the foot of the said mountain to a stream which forms the boundary of the homesteads of the Sieur Duchambon, and the heirs of Pierre Rondeau.  On this bank it would be possible to effect a landing at all times and tides except during a heavy gale, and the redoubts to be thrown out on Pointe Plate and on the Cormorandière would offer no opposition on account of their distance.  But it is probable that these two projected redoubts will be very useful in preventing the enemy from effecting a landing as near the place as they did during the last war, and should a landing on the said sand bank be effected, even then the impracticable roads they must follow in order to attack the said redoubts, and gain the road to Miré, are the true guarantees for their security, seeing that it is morally impossible to transport any kind of artillery across the lands in this locality or by way of the perpendicular banks of the streams which intersect them.  It is estimated that the distance between the said sand bank and the Pointe du Dehors is two leagues, and at a quarter of a league to the south east lies a creek where vessels anchor in four or five fathoms of water, and sheltered generally from all winds except from the north which blows off land."  The young sieur then turned his attention to a more peaceful use of the country.  "This bay," he noted, "where a very promising commencement for the settlement of a colony has been made is suitable for the cod fishery; there is also an abundance of pasturage for raising a great quantity of live-stock and the land is also good for cultivation."11 

Most, if not all, of the land De La Roque found on Gabarus Bay belonged to absentee landlords, all colonial officials, including a recently deceased one.  François-Marie, son of Mathieu de Goutin and Jeanne Thibodeau and grandson of Acadian progenitor Pierre Thibodeau, was the oldest of 13 children.  He had been born at Port-Royal in c1690, when his father was serving as French Acadia's lieutnant général civil et criminel.  François-Marie had married twice, to Marie-Angélique, daughter of Charles Aubert de La Chesnay and Marie-Angélique Denys de La Ronde, at Louisbourg in May 1719, and then to Marie-Angélique, daughter of Antoine Puypéroux de La Fosse and Françoise Petit de Boismorel, at Louisbourg in April 1736.  De La Roque likely knew that M. Degouttin, as he called François-Marie, late commissaire of Île St.-Jean, had died only a few weeks earlier at Port-Lajoie.  De La Roque noted that de Goutin's "lot" was "situated on the Pointe du Dehors" and, understandly, was "unimproved."  De La Roque also recorded unoccupied lots belonging to T M. Daillebou, actually d'Ailleboust, "a piece of land situated along the coast" that was "Not cultivated"; M. Thierry, who owned "a piece of ground situated on the coast, (adjoining the above)," which also was Uncultivated"; former governor M. de St. Ovide, whose land was "now occupied by M. St. de Chambon," another former governor; and M. Rondeau, who held "a piece of ground situated in the middle of the said bay," where "There is one settler at work thereon." 

Despite his claim of "a very promising commencement for the settlement of a colony," De La Roque found only three settled families at Gabarus Bay, none of them Acadian:  Sixton Huiker, age 42, ploughman, "native of Switzerland," lived with wife Marie-Jeanne Esteruine, age 35, "native of Dailleban, Switzerland," and two children:  Joseph, age 16; and Angélique, age 9, "Both natives of Louisbourg."  De La Roque noted that Sixton "occupies about two arpents of cleared land to make a garden in which he will sow all kinds of grains as an experiment to discover which will do best.  He has a skiff," and that "The land on which he is settled belongs to M. du Chambon."  He did not note how long the Swiss and his wife had been in the colony.  De La Roque counted two more families on the bay:  Jeanne Baudry, age 45, "native of Plaisance," Newfoundland, and widow of François Clermont.  She lived with three Clermont children:  François, age 33, likely a son from her husband's first marriage; Pierre, age 27, perhaps also from a first marriage; and Jeanne, age 15.  Also with the widow were three hired fishermen:  Étienne Daguerre, age 33, "native of Louisbourg"; Pierre Tuillier, age 27, "native of Dieppe"; and François Durand, age 27, "native of Dinant."  De La Roque noted that the widow owned "Three boats, one sow and five young pigs," and that "The land on which she is settled is situated on the creek au Major, a part of the homestead of M. du Chambon."  Pierre Duport, age 32, ploughman, "native of the parish of Sonneville in Abbeville, diocese of La Rochelle," lived with wife Jeanne Métayer, age 24, "native of the same parish,": and three children:  Pierre, fils, age 6; Jean, age 4; and a daughter "not yet baptized," so not yet named.  Also with them were Jeanne Rousseau, age 45, "widow of Jean Métayer, their mother," and Jeanne's sister Élisabeth Métayer, age 18.  De La Roque noted that Pierre had been "in the Colony for one year, having received rations for that time for himself and his family," and that "The land on which they are settled belongs to and forms part of the homestead of Sr. Rondeau."12  

Early on the morning of February 8, three days after leaving Louisbourg, "we took our departure from the said Gabarus to proceed to the harbour of Fourché," De La Roque recorded.  That afternoon they reached the harbour of Fourché, today's Fourchu, which he observed "lies on the south-west coast of the island about three leagues distant from Gabarus."  The coast road having given out, he and his companions entered a country where travel by birch canoe across ice-choked lakes and streams was the only alternative to a coasting vessel.  "In leaving the said harbour of Gabarus, we crossed the lake on the land of Madame Rondeau, which lies behind the sand bank already referred to"--what locals called a barachois, from the Basque barratxoa or "little bar," a "coastal lagoon separated from the ocean by a sand or shingle bar."  "In keeping to the west for a quarter of a league," De La Roque continued, "the lands are covered with hard wood fit for fuel.  Making west-south-west, during the second stage we reached a portage of about 80 toises," or 500 feet, "which brought us to a second lake with no outlet for its waters save that of filtration.  This is a very extensive sheet of water.  Keeping the same course we followed this lake for 200 toises," a quarter of a mile, "and entering a wood went south-west for a quarter of a league," about three-quarters of a mile, "which brought us out on the Grand lac du Gabarus.  This lake has three arms, running well inland to the north, north-east, and south-west.  The river Barachoise de Bellefeuille rises here, lying in the north arm and is the only outlet from the said lake of Gabarus."  They had now reached the western edge of today's Gabarus Wilderness Area.  "On leaving the wood for the first stage we followed the river in a south-westerly direction for about 400 toises," about half a mile, "and then west quarter north-west for a quarter of a league, all the woods being composed of fir.  At the end of this distance we reached a small portage of about 70 or 80 toises through hard wood, which brought us to a fourth unnamed lake.  In continuing our journey," De La Roque went on, "we followed this lake its entire length, which is not very great.  The timber in this locality is fir, and further on we re-entered the wood going south-west for some 400 toises.  This brought us immediately to the further end of the Barachois de Bellefeuille.  Towards the end of the way we found all kinds of hard wood."  Between Gabarus Bay and this large barachois, De La Roque encountered no settlement of any kind.  Nor would he find any to speak of for a number of leagues down this barren coast.13 

"The Barachois de Bellefeuille is very extensive," the young sieur observed.  "It forms several arms, which run deep inland on the north-east, the north and the north-west.  We crossed, at first holding south-west for about five toises, and then going west, a quarter north-west for a good quarter of a league.  The banks as well as the lands in the interior are wooded with inferior fir.  The entrance to the said Barachois de Bellefeuille lies north and south.  At high tide an empty boat might succeed in making the passage, which is hardly two toises," or 12 1/2 feet, "in width.  The land is mostly peaty and marshy, being only good for pasturage.  In front of the said barachois a sand bank extends a quarter of a league in length by 30 to 40 toises in width.  It runs north-east and south-west.  Besides the sand bank lying outside the entrance, the water is full of shoals and reefs; vessels would be unable anywhere to find shelter from the winds, or to ride in safety in case of a light wind springing up.  Further, as everyone knows, the weather on this coast is so changeable that an enemy would never be so imprudent as to land without making sure of being able to reembark in case of a repulse or if the state of the weather should render such a course necessary.  But even with a favourable wind what advantage would a landing offer?  If they should proceed inland to reach Gabarus Bay how could they pass through a country so marshy as that described above?  Leaving this barachois going west-south-west, we passed an alder plot of some 400 toises in extent, which brought us to the Barachois Marcoche.  The Barachois de Marcoche is very extensive, being a league across," De La Roque noted. "We followed it, making many points of the compass, which we reduced to the south-west.  The barachois has a number of arms running inland for a league, and one running to the north-west a good league and a half.  There are several islets and peninsulas on it, whilst the banks are covered with fir trees.  The entrance, which is perhaps fifteen toises," about 96 feet, "across lies north and south.  Loaded boats pass at high tide.  There is a rock on the starboard side as one enters, and a sand bank on the larboard, leaving room for only one boat to pass.  A sand bank very similar to that in front of the Barachoise de Bellefeuille lies before the entrance.  About a league outside the two barachois there are a number of reefs, visible only at low tide.  From the said lake we skirted the coast which is full of reefs and shoals as far as the mouth of the Harbour de Fourché, a distance of a quarter of a league.  The harbour of Fourché is one of the finest harbours for the cod-fishery on the coast," De La Roque averred.  "The only thing against it is the difficulty of the entrance on account of shoals near it.  It is divided into two arms, the one running to the west, north-west, and the other to the west.  The latter was well settle before the war," De La Roque noted, "there being twelve or fifteen families all doing well.  The English burned the whole place with the exception [of] a storehouse, 100 feet long, on the homestead of the late M. Daccarette, still in existence to-day and used for the raising of cattle," but he recorded no habitants there when he and his party came through.15 

On February 9, a Wednesday, De La Roque and his party left Fourché, "holding north-west for a quarter of a league, past spruce woods rendered impracticable owing to their heavy growth, the route brought us to Lake Ablin, which may be a quarter of a league in length by 200 toises in breadth.  It divides at the further end into two branches, and runs about north-east and south-west.  The shores are entirely covered with fir.  The lake discharges itself into the Barachois de la Grande Framboise by means of a stream, which we followed until we came to an arm of the said Barachoise de la Framboise.  The distance between the two points is possibly an eighth of a league.  The Barachois de la Grande Framboise is situated half a league from the Harbour Fourché.  The entrance lies north-north-west, and south-south-east; its width may be placed at 450 toises," a bit over half a mile.  "There are two reefs opposite the entrance.  A boat of the capacity of five or six cords of wood can pass, while outside there is anchorage.  It is estimated that it runs inland for a league and a half, throwing out several arms that extend, some deeper than others into the land in a north-north-westerly direction forming many islands and points, in its middle; its width may be considered to be a good half league.  The banks are covered with poor fir.  The chief product of these Barachois, creeks and lakes consists of hay, seeing that the country is very marshy," but, again, he recorded no settlers there.  "Leaving the Barachois we took a westerly course past an alder plot of about 200 toises in extent, which brought us to the Barachois de la Petite Framboise."  This barachois," De La Roque noted, "lies two leagues from the Harbour Fouché and four from that [of] St. Esprit.  Its entrance is not suited for anything more than a canoe.  The barachois is a league in width north-east and south-west, and has several arms which run inland for a distance of about two leagues, forming island and points, and it is stated that the arm to the north-north-east discharges its waters through a river into the lake of the river Miré.  All the shores as well as the lands of the interior grow poor fir.  From the barachois we continued to skirt the coast as far as St. Esprit.  In this distance of four leagues we found only two creeks where boats could shelter in bad weather from winds blowing from west-quarter-north-west to north-north-east.  There was much shelter in the creek that has been named the Creek du Caplan.  With these two exceptions the rest of the coast consists of high lands and rocks which was impracticable owing to their extreme abruptness."23

Finally, the surveying party came to the harbor of St.-Esprit, which was "well settled," De La Roque noted.  "It is adapted to the cod fishery, the raising of cattle, and for gardening, the soil being sandy in character.  The harbour of St. Esprit is in truth an open roadstead.  Its mouth lies east-north-east and west-south-west.  Vessels of sixty to seventy tons can enter and anchor in the middle of the roadway with from ten to twelve fathoms of water at high tide.  There are two reefs which one leaves, the one on the starboard and the other on the larboard.  Behind the roadstead is a Barachois," today's Rorys Pond, "which runs inland in a north-westerly direction for about a league.  The settlers cut what hay they require on the banks of this barachois.  Its mouth lies north-east and south-west.  There is sufficient water at high tide to allow all of the passage of a boat laden with five or six cords of wood.  All the lands in the neighbourhood of St. Esprit are covered with fir wood only."  He also noted that "there was a greater number of boats" in the community "before the war than to-day."24 

The depredations of seven years earlier still haunted this part of the coast. 

De La Roque found 14 families at St.-Esprit, only six of them connected to peninsula Acadia:  Le Sieur Jean Perriez, or Perrez, age 42, "native of Plaisance," Newfoundland, "conducting a fishery," lived with wife Marguerite Dion, actually Guyon, age 48, "native of La Cadie."  They had no children, but De La Roque noted that they "have three hired fishermen," which he did not name, "two boats, three cows, three geese, two turkey-hens and nine fowls.  The land that he occupies was granted him, verbally by M. de St. Ovide, and M. Lenormant de Mézy.  It includes a beach and scaffolding for the drying of the fish of two boats, and a large garden where they grow all kinds of vegetable produce."   François Picard, age 39, fisherman, "native of Pléhérel, diocese of St. Brieux," France, lived with wife Anne Barbudeau, or Berbudeau, age 28, "native of the place," and four children:  Julien, age 8; Suzanne, age 5; Angélique, age 2; and Françoise, age 1.  De La Roque noted that François "has passed 24 years in the colony," that he and his family "have been granted rations for two years," they "have no dwelling" but owned "Two boats, a half boat, one cow and sex fowls," and that Le Sieur François, as De La Roque called him, has hired five fishermen, most of them Malouins and one of them Sr. François's eldest son--Jean Gauthier, age 36, "native of Mandes, diocese of St. Malo"; Julien Thomas, age 30, "native of Couet, diocese of St. Malo"; Jean Colinet, age 22, "native of Trebedeau, diocese of St. Malo"; Pierre Briand, no age given, "native of St. Carlé, diocese of St. Malo"; and Toussaint Picard, age 17; "native of Pléhérel, diocese of St. Brieux."  De La Roque noted that Sr. François employed "Three other hired men who are at Louisbourg," but he did not name them.  Jean Granne, age 35, fisherman, "native of Tadé, diocese of St.-Malo," lived with wife Marie Papou, or Papon, age 30, "native of St. Pierre," probably Port-Toulouse, and four children:  Isabelle, age 7; Agathe, age 5; Augustin, age 3; and Geneviève, age 14 months.  De La Roque noted that Jean "has passed 17 [years] in this colony," owned "Two boats, two cows, one calf and six fowls," and has hired fishermen, including a brother-in-law, who "are working for their board."  They included Jean Fougère, age 39, "native of Châteauneuf, diocese of St. Malo"; André Groey, age 24, "native of Caronne, diocese of Avranches"; Toussaint Tramond, age 15, "native of Hebedau, diocese of St. Malo"; Julien Papon, or Papon, age 24, "native of St. Esprit"; Pierre Jourgouche, age 22, "native of Bayonne"; and Gabriel Touria, age 30, "native of Bayonne."  De La Roque also noted that "The dwelling" Jean occupied with his family "was sold to him by the widow Seau," and that "In the deed of sale the number of toises the land contains, either frontage or surface measurement, is not mentioned."  Georges Barbudeau, or Berbudeau, age unrecorded but he was 52, "master-surgeon of St. Esprit, native of the island of Oléron, diocese of Saintes," France, lived with wife Françoise Vrigneau, age 52, "native of Plaisance."  They were Anne's parents.  Living with the surgeon was his 16-year-old nephew Simon Halbert, "native of the island of Oléron."  De La Roque noted that Georges "has been 36 years in the colony," that "He is to remain in the country in the capacity of a surgeon," and that "They have no grant of the land they occupy.  They have a garden but no livestock or poultry."  Herbe Desroches, age 35, fisherman, "native of Coral, diocese of Avranche," lived with wife Marie Barbudeau, or Berbudeau, age 30, "native of this place" and the surgeon's oldest daughter.  With them were four children:  Marguerite, age 10; François, age 8; Jean, age 3; and Pierre, age 3 months.  Also in the household was Louise Duneau, age 14, "native of Louisbourg, in the capacity of servant."  Herbe had hired three fishermen--Yves Galles, age 30, "native of the parish of Guillé, diocese of St. Malo"; Alexis Renard, age 30, "native of Ste. Broulade de Hol"; and Louis Mange, age 23, "native of Carmel, archdiocese of Paris."  De La Roque noted that Herbe "has been in the colony 22 years," that he owned "One boat, one half boat, one cow and eight fowls.  The dwelling that he occupies was given, verbally, by M. Bigot and contains platforms and scaffoldings for drying the fish of two boats."  Isabelle Longue Epée, or Longuépée, age 52, "native of the coast of Plaisance" and "widow of the late Jean Papou" or Papon, lived with four unmarried Papon sons:  Charles, age 29; Julien, age 25; Jean, fils, age 22; and François, age 18--all natives of St.-Esprit and all brothers of Marie.  De La Roque noted that "the land they occupy was given verbally by the authories" and that "They have a garden."  Jean Clément, age 45, another fisherman, "native of the parish of Jeffrets, diocese of Coutances," lived with wife Marie Brus, age 40, "native of la Cadie," and six children, all natives of St.-Esprit:  Jean, fils, age 20; Pierre, age 18; Jean, age 11; a second Pierre, age 9; Louise, age 4; and Chapin, age 10 months.  Jean and Marie also had a son named Hilaire, who would have been age 6 when De La Roque appeared.  The surveyor misspelled Jeans wife's name.  She was actually Marie-Josèphe, only child of Benjamin Druce and Madeleine Henry dit Robert of Minas.  Her father was an English soldier from Oxforshire who, while serving in the garrison at Annapolis Royal, converted to Catholicism and married an Acadian girl from Minas.  De La Roque noted that Jean "has passed 30 [years] in the colony," and that he and Marie-Josèphe owned "One boat, one cow, one calf, and six fowls."  Georges Bonin, age 28, fisherman, "native of the place," lived with wife Marie Diers, age 19, "native of Niganiche," and their 21-day-old daughter, not yet named.  Also living with them was Madeleine Diers, age 9, Marie's sister.  De La Roque noted that Georges and Marie owned "One mare, three fowl, two geese, and two turkey-hens," and that "The land they occupy was granted to them by Messrs. St. Ovide and Le Normand, but they lost the title deed in the war."  Jacques Lirard, fisherman, age 40, "native of the parish of Plerin, diocese of St.-Brieux," lived with wife Catherine Clément, age 22, native of Port-Toulouse and Jean's daughter.  With Jacques and Catherine was their 14-month-old daughter Marie.  Also with them were two hired French fishermen--Nicolas Joasse, age 18, "native of Quarolle, diocese of Avranche"; and Joannes Dharouenaut, age 4, "native of Charau, diocese of Bayonne."  De La Roque noted that Jacques "has passed 26 [years] in the colony," that he owned "Five fowls," and that he and Catherine "have no dwelling place."  François LeHardy, age unrecorded, fisherman, "native of St.-Modé, diocese of St.-Malo," lived with wife Marguerite Clément, age 15, "native of the place" and another of Jean's daughters.  De La Roque did not record François's time in the colony, but he did note that the entire wealth of this young couple "consists of seven fowls," that "they have no dwelling place," and so they likely lived with Marguerite's family.  Madeleine Robert, actually Henry dit Robert, age 52 (actually 62), "native of la Cadie" and "widow of the late Jean Bradon," actually Jean-Baptiste Radoux, also was the widow of Benjamin Druce, Marie-Josèphe's father.  Madeleine lived with three unmarried Radoux children:  Pierre, age 32; Jean, age 24; and Marguerite, age 18--"All natives of Île Royal."  Also in the household was Étienne Porier or Poirier, age 7, also born on Île Royale, "her nephew."  De La Roque noted that the widow owned "One heifer, and five fowls," but "had no dwelling place."  Jean Beaulieu, age 48, "native of Bourneuf, diocese of Nantes," lived with second wife Marie Hulin, age 48, "native of Grandville, diocese of Coutances," and two sons, the older perhaps from his first wife, Madeleine Rodon:  Pierre, age 6; and Jean, fils, age 2.  De La Roque noted that Jean "has passed 30 [years] in the colony," that he and Marie owned "Four fowls, and they have no dwelling."  François Bonnieu, probably Bonnier, age 24, fisherman, "native of the place," lived with wife Marguerite Lavaudière, age unrecorded, "native of Port Toulouse," and two children:  Barbe, age 3; and Jean, age 5 months.  De La Roque noted that the couple owned "one mare for the whole of their livestock" and said nothing of their land or dwelling.  Anselme Blanchard, age 34, "farmer for M. Dola Barras, Captain of the port, native of Cobeguy," that is, Cobeguit, was living with second wife Marguerite Doiron, age 32, and six children, the older ones from his first wife Marie Robichaud:  Marie-Marthe, age 15; Joseph, age 10; Isabelle, age 7; Marguerite, age 4; Jeanne, age 3; and Clothilde, age 2.  "They have not yet cleared any land," De La Roque noted, and owned only "A cow with her calf," a hint that they were recent arrivals.25 

The surveying party left St.-Esprit on February 11 and reached L'Ardoise, the next coastal community, late that day.  "The distance between the two points is estimated at six leagues," De La Roque noted. "We noticed, first, thay a bank of sand on which there is a great deal of grass, extends from St. Esprit to the Creek de la Choui, and, further, that this Creek de la Choui affords excellent anchorage from the south-west; north-west, and north-quarter-north-east winds, but it is open to the full force of winds from other points.  It has an area of three quarters of a league, and in the centre seven or eight fathoms of water.  There are two submerged reefs outside the said creek that are left to starboard on entering.  The Grande Rivière runs into the said creek," which lies between today's L'Archeveque and Point Michaud.  "The narrow entrance of the creek lies north and south.  It runs inland about three leagues and after dividing into three arms penetrates inland to the west, north-west and north.  Vessels of seventy tons, if they could only effect an entrance, might pass up the creek for two leagues, but the passage is only practicable for vessels drawing six or seven feet of water, and that only at high tide.  It's shores are covered with all kinds of hard wood, with quantities of pine or, spruce on the high ground, and on the banks of the three arms.  During the remainder of the distance, which is estimated at four leagues, we did not find any place suitable as a place of refuge for boats.  It is all composed of abrupt declivities and chains of rocks impracticable for vehicles.  All the land in the vicinity of the sea is covered with fir and poor spruce."  And then they reached L'Ardoise, where the bay "is adapted to the cod-fishery," De La Roque observed.  "The family of the Sieur Coste, who took took refuge here at the time of the last war with the English, makes good catches of codfish of eery merchantable quantity.  The bay is divided into two parts; the one that is settled being very small and exposed to the winds blowing in from the open sea, but it was preferred to the larger arm seeing that that does not run so far inland, and is therefore more exposed to the full force of the wind.  In the larger branch vessels find shelter from winds from every point generally, and when they are to lie there for some time, without proceeding on their way, they can by using precaution find anchorage.  It runs inland for a good half league, but the water is only deep enough for boats.  The banks are covered with hardwood.  The soil is known to be largely sandy in its composition and suited only for the cultivation of hay, and garden stuff."26

At L'Ardoise, De La Roque found nine more Acadian families, all related to Sr. François Coste, native of Marseille and long-time resident of the island who once had worked as a carpenter at Port-Royal in "la Cadie."  He had come to Port-Toulouse in c1717, where he excelled as a coastal pilot.  Living with the 81-year-old sieur (De La Roque recorded him as age 90) were his 78-year-old wife Madeleine Martin dit Barnabé, "native of Port Royal" (De La Roque insised she was 89), two orphaned grandchildren--Joseph and Madeleine Dugas, ages 21 and 12, children of daughter Marguerite, wife of Joseph Dugas of Port-Toulouse--and Louis Mercier, age 17, "native of Canada, engaged for one year in the capacity of servant."  De La Roque noted that Sr. Coste owned "Five cows, two mares, one sow, six fowls, and a garden."  Marie-Catherine Coste, age 57, "native of Port Royal" and François's daughter, lived with her second husband Pierre Boy, or Bois, age 70, a fisherman, "native of St.-Jean des Champs, Diocese of Coutances," and their seven children, all from Pierre:  Judith, age 27; Cécile, age 21; Joseph, age 19; François and Madeleine, age 17; Charlotte, age 14; and Geneviève, age 11.  De La Roque noted that Pierre had been "40 years in the colony" and that he owned "One ox, two cows, three calves, one bull, two pigs, seven fowls, one boat and a large garden."  François's daughter Madeleine Coste, age 54, "native or Port Royals," was the widow of Barthélemy Petitpas, who, like his father Claude, fils, had served as agent-interpreter among the Mi'kmaq, befriended the British, but later turned against them.  They captured him in 1745, about the time they captured Louisbourg, and Barthélemy died in a Boston prison in January 1747, age 60.  His widow Madeleine was living with six unmarried Petitpas children in February 1752:  Jean, age 24; Pierre, age 21; Claude, age 18; Guillaume, age 17; Pélagie, age 14, and Paul, age 12--"All natives of Port Toulouse."  De La Roque noted that the widow owned "One ox, four cows, one calf, two pigs, five fowls, one boat, and a large garden."  Madeleine Petitpas, age 34, "native of Port Toulouse," probably Madeleine Coste's oldest daughter, lived with husband Charles Lavigne, age 34, coaster, "native of Port Royal," and five children--Anne, age 9; Charles, fils, age 6; Cécile, age 5; Benoit, age 3; and Joseph, age 5 months.  Also in the household was domestic servant Gilles Poirier, age 13, native of St.-Esprit, perhaps a kinsman of Étienne Poirier of that village.  De La Roque noted that Charles and Madeleine owned "One ox, four cows, one calf, two pigs, seven fowls, one boat of the capacity of ten cords of wood and a garden."  Joseph Petitpas, fisherman, age 29, native of Port-Toulouse, probably Madeleine Coste's oldest son, lived with wife Anne Lafargue, age 25, "native of Petit Degras," and a 15-month-old son whose name De La Roque did not record.  They owned "One cow, five fowls, and a garden."  Jean Coste, age 38, coaster, "native of Port Royal" like his older sisters, lived with wife Madeleine Lafargue, age 29, "native of Petit Degrat," and five children:  François le jeune, age 11; Pierre, age 9; Jean, age 6; Geneviève, age 3; and Étienne, age 6 months.  Also in the household was Ambroise Lebandon, age 24, "native of Port Toulouse, in the capacity of domestic."  De La Roque noted that Jean and Madeleine owned "Six head of cattle, one mare, two pigs, seven fowls, one boat of the capacity of 15 cords of wood and a garden."  Gervais Brisset, age 50, fisherman, "native of Condé, diocese of Bayou [Bayeux]," Framce. lived with wife Marie-Josèphe LeRoy, age 36, "native of Port Toulouse" and only child of Marie-Catherine Coste and her first husband Sébastien Le Roy dit L'Espérance.  With Gervais and Marie-Josèphe were five daughters:  Marie-Josèphe, age 16; Catherine, age 12; Brigitte, age 8; Suzanne, age 6; and Gervaise, age 3.  De La Roque noted that Gervais "has passed 30 [years] in the colony" and that he and Marie-Josèphe owned "One ox, four cows, one calf, two pigs, six fowls, one schooner of the capacity of 15 cords of wood, and a garden like the others."   Pierre Brisson, age 52, a fisherman, "native of Nantes," lived with wife Anne Bois, age 33, "native of Port-Toulouse and Pierre's daughter.  With them were three children:  Marie, age 11; Jean, age 5; and Pierre, fils, age 18 months.   Also living with them was Louis Minereau, age 20, "native of Rochfort, as a domestic."  De La Roque did not say how long Pierre had been in the colony, but he did note that he owned "Five head of cattle, one mare, two pigs, five fowls, one boat and a garden."  Noël Amiot, age 40, fisherman, "native of Quiberon, diocese of St. Malo," lived with wife Marguerite Bois, age 30, "native of Port Toulouse" and another of Pierre's daughter.  With Noël and Marguerite were four children:  Marguerite, age 8; Jean, age 4; Madeleine, age 2; and an unnamed son, probably Pierre, age 1.  De La Roque reported that Noël had been "in the Colony since 1728" and that he owned "Seven head of cattle, one pig, five fowls, one boat, and a garden."   De La Roque noted of the entire community:  "The land on which the family of François Coste is settled was granted ... by Messrs. de Saint Ovid[e] and de Soubras," the governor and intendant of Île Royale in 1717.  "It extends a half a league on the seashore.  The small quantity of meadow land is situated on the banks of the Grande Baye.  They would not know where to obtain sufficent hay for their live stock, unless they carried it from the lands of Canseau," in Nova Scotia.  "The beach is naturally enclosed and there are scaffoldings for drying the fish."  De La Roque also noted that "all [these] settlers as well as those at Saint Esprit and at Gabarus have received rations for two years," such was the precarious nature of farming and fishing along this coast.27

The survey party left L'Ardoise on February 13 and reached Port-Toulouse "on the same day, the distance between the two points being estimated at two leagues.  About two hundred toises from the bay de l'Ardoise, settled by le Sieur François Coste," De La Roque related, "we found a second very extensive bay," near present-day Rockdale.  "The entrance to it lies south-east and north-west with a depth of four fathoms of water; and vessels, once inside the find anchorage in 15 or 16 feet of water, and shelter from winds from the south-quarter-south-west; west, north-west; north; and north-quarter; north-east.  In truth they are not secure in case of heavy weather, for the bottom is composed of moving sands, and vessels are liable to drag their cables, and drive on to the rocks of the Cap de l'Ardoise, or run aground on a sand bank that extends to the further end of the bay.  It is little frequented by the sailors during the autumn, which is the seaon for gales, and vessels only go there to load with cord wood.  A quarter of a league outside the bay to the south, quarter south-west, lies an island of the same name, which may be hald a league in extent.  It is close to the lands [of] Grand Isle, near the cape at the south-west of the said bay.  All the shore as well as the interior is covered with hard timber.  Leaving the bay we pass through an alder plot about an eighth of a league in extent, which leads to a species of barachois, afterwards following the shore for half a league before striking the Barachois des Sept Islots.  This barachois is not of much importance.  It has a little water and it seems probably that at some remote date it was meadowland, which has been submerged with the waters left by the incursions of the sea into the island.  One sees where in reality there is the grass still at the bottom, and at low tide there is at the most only a foot of water over it.  The bottom is very muddy.  Outside there are seven small islands which give to this place the name Sept Islots.  Finally a blazed road is taken which leads to the further end of the barachois to the east of Port Toulouse.  All this part of the country is covered with mixed timber, but fir is the predominant wood." 

"Port Toulouse is situated to the right as you enter the little channel," De La Roque observed.  "The mouth is formed by the Pointe à Coste, on the lands of Isle Royale, and the Cap de la Ronde, on the isles Madame.  The port extends three leagues running east and west.  The breadth varies at divers points but is estimated to average from 150 toises to 200 toises.  Vessels of 150 tons could not pass on account of two shoals that are in the centre of the said channel and it would take good seamanwhip to work small vessels through"--seamanship such as that displayed by harbor pilot François Coste in days gone by.  "Port Toulouse is formed by the Point à Coste and the Pointe de la Briquerie," De La Roque explained, "which are reckoned to lie north-west and south-east, and to be three quarters of a leage apart.  There is one channel which the King's vessels of 30 to 36 pieces of cannon could enter, but it is winding, and it is necessary to buoy the course on port and starboard in order that vessels may pass up the middle of the channel without fear of coming to grief.  It is a pity that this port is not practicable to vessels of all kinds; it presents a charming perspective and could be easily fortified, but it would be impossible to prevent an enemy effecting the landing of troops without the construction of several forts at the various points suitable for that purpose, between the Pointe de l'ancienne Intendance and the rivière à Tillard.  On this rivière à Tillard, in the creek de la Briquerie defence is everywhere quite easy, and without being visible from the present settlement.  When near the land one estimated la Briquerie is a good league from the settlement, and the rivière à Tillard three-quarters of a league.  Vessels of 100 tons can enter and find shelter in this river, secure from winds from all points generally.  The basin is not very large but is well adapted for sheltering ships.  The settlers of Port Toulouse beach their boats and schooners here for the winter.  It is the only spot that is concealed from observation from the King's Post.  From Pointe à Coste to the King's Post there lies a sand bank which leaves a small space between it and the land on the north side where the Post stands and between this sandbank and the land on the north side, there is an arm running inland to the east for about a good half league.  It is just as easy to effect a landing in this spot as in the preceding." 

The miliary engineer had good reason to be concerned about the defense of this strategic French outpost.  Pepperell's Yankess had burned it during the previous war, and it was still in the process of reconstruction.  Tensions between Britain and France were heating up in the Ohio valley.  In Nova Scotia, the new British stronghold at Chebouctou, now Halifax, lying on the same coast as Port-Toulouse, was entering its third year, as was the peninsula-wide petite guerre pitting the British against the Mi'kmaq and Acadian paritsans.  The aggressive Edward Cornwallis, builder of Halifax and several fortified outposts among the Acadians in the Fundy settlements, was still governor of British Nova Scotia and still determined to overawe the French inhabitants there. 

De La Roque proceeded with his survey.  "The land of l'ancienne Briquerie is found to be stony and not capable of producing marketable stuff," he went on.  "Half a league east-south-east from Port Toulouse lies Grande Grave," today's Grande Greve.  "It is bordered by Pointe Pinet on the east and by Pointe à Coste on the west.  The entrance lies north-east by south-west.  Vessels can find anchorage here and shelter from winds from almost every point, only those blowing off shore being dangerous.  They anchor in five to six fathoms of water.  Two reefs lie opposite to pointe à Coste.  They are visible at low water and left on the starboard beam as one enters.  At the far end of the creek there is a barachois running a good quarter of a league inland in a north-westerly direction.  All this section is covered, with a mixed timber."28

Port-Toulouse, today's St. Peter's, had been occupied by Europeans since the 1630s.  De La Roque found 44 families in and around the port, the largest concentration of Acadians on the island.  The first 30 families he counted were, for the most part, long-time residents engaged in subsistence agriculture and the coasting trade.  Typical of Acadians, many, if not most, of them were related by blood or marriage:  Jean-Baptiste Martel, age 42, "native of Québec," a coaster, lived with wife Marie-Josèphe Pouget, age 48 (actually 44), "native of Port Royal," and five children:  Charles, age 18; Joseph, age 16; Baptiste, age 13; Madeleine, age 11; and Épotille, age 8.  De La Roque noted that Jean-Baptiste and Marie-Josèphe owned "Four oxen, eight cows, one horse, eleven fowls, three ducks, six geese, and a gander."  Jean-Baptiste informed De La Roque that "the land for his dwelling" had been sold to them by Jean Clément, who the engineer had visited up the coast at St.-Esprit.  Jean-Baptiste insisted he "did not know the extent" of the land around his dwelling, "nor that of a meadow from which he carried hay for wintering his live stock."  Jean Bois, age 22, a coaster, "native of the neighbourhood" and son of Pierre of L'Ardois, lived with wife Judith Coujet, actually Poujet, age 23, "native of Port Toulouse" and Marie-Josèphe's younger sister.  De La Roque noted that "The land they occupy was sold to them by le Sieur Boudrot," likely Charles dit Charlot or his brother Michel dit Miquetau Boudrot, and that Jean and Judith "have partly cleared a piece of ground for a garden."  Judith and Jean owned "one cow with a calf, four turkey hens, five geese, three fowls, and one schooner."  Having married only the year before, Jean and Judith had no children.  Nicolas Beriot, actually Barrieau, fils, age 49, a coaster, lived with second wife Ursule Gotre, actually Gautrot, "native of des Mines," age 49, and six children:  Marie, age 16; Joseph, age 14; Olivier, age 12; Pierre, age 10; a second Joseph, age 7; and Madeleine, age 4.  The sieur noted that Nicolas, fils and his family "have taken refuge in the island for two years."  Also, that "The land they occupy was granted them in 1749 by M. Dubaget, then Commandant of Port Toulouse," that they "have made a small clearing for a garden, and uncultivated land for a meadow."  Pierre Degré, or Daigre, age 56, carpenter, "native of la Cadie," actually L'Assomption, Pigiguit, lived with second wife Marie-Louise Testard dit Paris, age 41, "native of Port Royal" and widow of Charles dit Petit Charles Pinet.  Pierre and Marie-Louise had married recently, in c1750, so four of the five children living with them were Pinets; another evidently was Pierre's daughter by his first wife Madeleine Gautrot:  Madeleine Pinet was age 25; Joseph Pinet, age 24; Marie-Josèphe Daigre, age 23; Pierre Pinet, age 22; and a second Pierre Pinet, age 12.  De La Roque noted that all of Pierre and Marie-Louise's children were natives of Port-Toulouse, but he did not say how long the family had been in the colony.  De La Roque did note that "The land they occupy was given to them by M. de Rouville, then Commandant at Port Toulouse," and that "The only clearings they have made are one for a garden, and one for pasturage, where they cut about thirty quintals of hay," a hint that they were recent arrivals, and that they owned "Three cows and nine fowls."  Michel Samson, coaster, age 40 (actually 45), "native of la Cadie," actually Port-Royal, lived with wife Anne dite Jeanne Testard dit Paris, age 35, "native of Port Royale" and Marie-Louise's sister.  With Michel and Jeanne were seven children:  Jeanne, perhaps also called Anne, age 22; Jean, age 17; Jeanette, age 15; Michel, fils, age 13; Sébastien, age 11; Judith, age 8; and Joseph, age 3.  De La Roque noted that Michel, père "has spent 25 years in the colony," that "The land they occupy was granted verbally by Messieurs de Saint Ovide and Le Normand," that the family had "cleared two or three arpents of land, which they have turned into meadows, where hay comes up best, and a garden where vegetables thrive best."  They owned "two oxen, eight cows and six fowls," but De La Roques said nothing of a boat.  De La Roque also noted that "They have been granted two years rations."  Charles Pinet, a 27-year-old coaster, "of Port Toulouse," probably an older son of Marie-Louise Testard, lived with wife Jeanne Samson, age 32 (likely 22), "native of Port Royale" and Michel's daughter.  Charles and Jeanne lived with an unnamed son whose age was not recorded, but the child likely was Jean, age 1 1/2 or 2.  De La Roque did note that the land on which the couple lived belonged to Charles's father-in-law "Sr. Samson," who "has given them land for building and to make a small garden when garden products do best."  The couple owned "two cows and six fowls."  Mathieu Samson, age 42, coaster, "native of Port Royal," lived with wife Marguerite Pouget dit Lapierre, age 42, "native of la Cadie," actually Annapolis Royal, and Marie-Josèphe and Judith's sister.  Mathieu and Marguerite lived with seven children:  Pierre, age 17; Jean, age 16; François, age 14; Isabelle, age 13; Charlotte, age 8; Bruneau, age 7; and Jeanne, age 3.  De La Roque noted that the couple "have been granted two years rations, and have been in the colony since 1730," that "The land they occupy was granted to them verbally by Messieurs de St. Ovide and Le Normand," and that "They have three oxen, two cows, and seven fowls," as well as "a clearing for a garden and a piece of ground four arpents in extent for a meadow."  Abraham Dugas, age 36, coaster, "native of Mount[sic] Royal" (De La Roque meant Port-Royal), lived with wife Marguerite Fougère, age 28, "native of la Cadie," actually Annapolis Royal, and five children:  Marguerite, age 16; Jean, age 13; Marie, age 11; Geneviève, age 9; and Joseph, age 18 months.  De La Roque noted that "They have been in the colony since 1719," that "They have been granted rations conformably to the King's ordinance," that their land was granted to them "verbally, by Messieurs de St. Ovide, and Le Normand," and that "They have made a clearing for a garden, and the rest is in pasture, with a second meadow above the dike of the Isles Madame."  De La Roque also noted that they owned "two oxen; three cows; one sow; seven fowls; and one batteau."  Marie Marchand, age 43, "native of la Cadie," actually Annapolis Royal, was widow of Charles Pinet l'aîné, Charles dit Petit Charles's older brother.  With her were four of her Pinet children:  Jean, age 21; Jeanne, age 18; Jean-Baptiste, age 13; and Angélique, age 12.  De La Roque noted that "The land she occupies was granted in form to Sr. Louis Marchand," her father, "by Messieurs de St. Ovide, and le Normand," but that she and her husband had "lost their title deed during the late war."  De La Roque also noted that "She has no clearing except for a small garden."  Charles Pinet, fils, age 25, coaster, "native of the place" and another of Marie Marchand's sons, lived with wife Hélène Guédry, age 22, "native of la Cadie."  Evidently the young couple had no children.  "They have neigher live stock nor dwelling place," De La Roque noted, so they likely lived with the widow Pinet.  Pierre Le Sauvage, age 27, coaster, "native of la Cadie," actually Minas, lived with wife Jeanne Pinet, age 22, "native of Port Toulouse" and one of Marie Marchand's daughters.  They, too, had no children and "neither live stock nor dwelling place."  Louis Dantin dit La Joye, age 50, native of Paris, lived with wife Marguerite Marres dit La Sonde, age 36, "native of Saint Pierre," that is, Port-Toulouse, and five children: Gabriel, age 10; Jeanne, age 9; Louis, fils, age 7; Barthélemy, age 4; and Joseph, age 2.  "Their land," De La Roque noted, "is situated on the land of Marc la Soude," actually Marres dit La Sonde," their father," but De La Roque did not record what Louis dit La Joye did for a living.  Judith Petitpas, age 60, "native of Port Royal," widow of surgeon/fisherman Bernard Marres dit La Sonde and Marguerite's mother, lived with two unmarried sons:  Jean-Baptiste, age 24; and Joseph, age 21.  De La Roque noted that Judith and her sons also had lost the deed to their land "in the late war," that they owned "One ox, three cows, two calves and four fowls," and "make their hay on the banks of the rivière à Tillard, where their meadows lie, which "were granted to them in the same deed as their homesteads."  Honoré Boucher dit Villedieu, age 36, "native of la Cadie," probably Grand-Pré, lived with wife Marie-Anne Marres dit  La Sonde, age 24, native of the area and one of Judith Petitpas's daughters.  With them were three children:  Béloni, age 8; Marie-Josèphe, age 4; and Jean, age 2.  De La Roque noted that Honoré "has passed 30 [years] in the colony," that he and Marie-Anne owned "two oxen, two cows, and four fowls," and that their house "is on their mother's homestead."  Michel Boudrot dit Miquetau, fils, age 35, coaster, "native of la Cadie," lived with wife Anne dite Jeanne Fougère, age 27, native of the area, and Marguerite's sister.  With Miquetau and Jeanne were two children:  Jeanne, age 2; and Joseph, age 2 months.  They owned "One ox, one sow; six fowls and one schooner" and also had "made a small clearing for a garden."  Miquetau, born in c1717 probably at Annapolis Royal, had been taken to Port-Toulouse soon after his birth, so he was not a new arrival.  Jacques dit Jacob Coste, age 47, a "builder, native of Port Royal" and son of François of L'Ardoise, lived with wife Françoise Petitpas, "native of la Cadie," age 45, and son Claude, age 22.  De La Roque noted that "They hold in live stock, two oxen, three cows; two pigs, one horse ten fowls; one bateau and a skiff," and that "The land on which they are settled was given them verbally by Messieurs de Saint Ovide, and Le Normand.  They know nothing as to its extent, and have cleared ground for a garden only."  Joseph Dugas, fils, age 38, coaster, "native of la Cadie," was the widower of Marguerite LeBlanc, who had died recently.  (She was a daughter of Acadian resistance leader Joseph LeBlanc dit Le Maigre of Minas, who also lived at Port-Toulouse.)  Joseph, fils lived with five children:  Marguerite, age 10; Anne, age 8; Marie and Joseph, age 5; and Françoise, age 3.  Also living with them was niece Marie Breau, age 22, "native of la Cadie."  He owned "One ox, two cows, two pigs, and 12 fowls," had inherited his land from his father but lost the land deed "in the last war," and had, with his late wife, "cleared about two arpents of land where they have several times sown turnips, but they have never come up well."  Pierre Bois, fils, age 19, coaster, "native of the place" and son of Pierre of L'Ardois, lived with wife Jeanne Dugas, age 22, "native of Louisbourg" and Joseph Dugas, fils's youngest sister.  Pierre, fils and Jeanne had no children, but they owned "two cows and one hen."  Claude Clerget or Clergé, age 60, coaster, "native of the parish of Acre, diocese of Langres," lived with wife Françoise Lavergne, age 50, "native of Port Royal."  With them were six children, including two of Françoise's sons from her first and second marriages to Claude Petitpas, fils and Antoine Lavandier, and four children by Claude Clergé:  Joseph Petitpas, age 21; Abraham Lavandier, age 17; Gabriel Clergé, age 14; Félicité Clergé, age 12; Françoise Clergé, age 11, and Anne Clergé, age 10.  De La Roque noted that Claude and Françoise "have live stock consisting of two oxen, two cows, two heifers and three fowls.  The land they occupy is situated at the further end of Bras d'Or," and "They have cleared about two arpents of ground, where they raise all sorts of garden stuff."  Jacques Petitpas, age 28, a coaster, "native of Canceau," actually Port-Toulouse, Françoise Lavergne's son by her first husband, lived with wife Françoise Breau, age 28, "native of la Cadie," and their 9-day-old daughter Marie.  De La Roque noted that Jacques and Françoise owned "one ox, one sow, four fowls and a bateau," and "The land they occupy was given them by their mother, out of her homestead."  Anne Baudreau, actually Gautrot, age 54, "native of la Cadie" and widow of Jean Braud, or Breau, lived with six Breau children:  Joseph, age 26; Marie, age 22; Ermant, age 20; Anne, age 18; Marguerite, age 15; and Madeleine, age 14.  De La Roque noted that the widow "has no dwelling place," and that "Her children follow the coasting trade."  Jean-Baptiste Petitpas, age 30, coaster, "native of la Cadie," actually Port-Toulouse, and Jacques's older brother, lived with wife Françoise Bertaud dit Montaury, age 27 (actually 25), "native of la Cadie," and their 5-month-old son Jean.  They also lived on Jean-Baptiste's mother's homestead.  De La Roque noted that "The character of the land in the further end of Bras d'Or," north of and across a narrow peninsula from Port-Toulouse, "is very well suited to the cultivation of much garden stuff, such as peas and other vegetables.  Notwithstanding that the fogs are as prevalent as at Louisbourg in the spring, the Sr. Petitpas told me that one year his father," Charles, fils, "sowed wheat and that it came up in fine condition and well nourished."  Joseph Vigneau dit Maurice, age 37, coaster, "native of la Cadie," lived with wife Catherine Arseneau, age 33, "native of Port Royal," and seven children:  Rose, age 15; Joseph, fils, age 13; Nicolas, age 11; Jean, age 10; Marguerite, age 7; Pierre, age 6; and Hippolyte, age 3.  Also in the household was a domestic, Baptiste Bareu, perhaps Breau, "who intended "to settle in the colony," so he probably was not a native of the island.  De La Roque noted that Joseph and Catherine "have been settled in the Colony 14 years," owned "two oxen, two cows, four pigs, ten fowls, and one bateau," that they "have turned the whole" of their land "into pasture," and "have verbal permission from Messrs. Desherbiers and Prévost to settle on the land they occupy."  Madeleine Soret or Ferret, age 46, "native of Québec" and widow of ____ Coulon and Pierre Dumas dit Vandeboncoeur, lived with three children from her two marriages:  Dominique Coulon, age 20; Marguertie Coulon, age 18; and Pierre-André Dumas, age 12.  De La Roque noted that the widow "has been in the colony 29 years," that she, too, lost her land deed in the late war, and that "She had turned all the forepart of her homestead into meadow land from which she saves from 130 to 140 quintals of hay."  He also noted that "She has no live stock."  Joseph Fougère, fils, age 36, coaster, and Marguerite and Jeanne's brother, lived with wife Marguerite Coste, age 32, "native of Port Toulouse" and Jacques dit Jacob's daughter.  With Joseph and Marguerite was their own 4-year-old daughter, Modeste.  De La Roque noted that the couple had been "in the colony 28 years."  Also in the household was 12-year-old Marie-Madeleine ____, "native of la Cadie," a domestic.  Joseph and Marguerite owned "one ox, one cow, one heifer, two geese, four fowls, and a share in a vessel."  Their dwelling had been sold to them by neighbor Claude Dugas, age 26, a coaster, "native of this place" and Joseph, fils's brother.  Claude lived with his wife Marie-Madeleine, called Madeleine, Belliveau, age 34 (actually 42), "native of Port Royal" and widow of Jean Fougère, père.  (She was Joseph Fougère, fils's stepmother.)  With Claude and Madeleine were six children, most of them from her first marriage:  Louison Fougère, age 18; Isabeau Fougère, age 17; Barbe Fougère, age 16; Jean Fougère, age 10; Michel Fougère, age 9; and Joseph Dugas, age 2 months.  "In live stock they have two oxen, two cows; one mare; one goose, one pig, and five fowls," De La Roque noted.  "They have cleared a garden, and the remainder of the homestead is in meadow land from which they draw 20 to 30 quintals of hay."  Their land had been sold to them "by the late Jean Robert Henry," but "The extent of the said land was not specified in the deed of sale."  Nicolas Préjean, age 42 (actually 47), coaster, "native of Port Royal" and widower of Marguerite Broussard, lived with six children:  Louison, age 18; Marie, age 16; Jeanne, age 9; Rose, age 8; Cécile, age 4, and Gabriel, age 1.  Nicolas owned "Two cows, two fowls, and a bateau."  He, too, De La Roque noted, lived on land sold to him by "the late Jean Robert Henry," on which "There is a garden and the rest of the land is pasture."  (Later that year, at Port-Toulouse, Nicolas remarried to Anne, 22-year-old daughter of Michel Samson and Anne dite Jeanne Testard dit Paris.)  Nicolas Lavigne, age 68, coaster, "native of St. Denis," near Paris, lived with second wife Marie-Anne Demanceau, actually Clémençeau, age 43, native of Port-Royal, and six children:  Anne, age 19; Marguerite, age 15; Nicolas, fils, age 14; Madeleine, age 11; Barbe, age 7; and Geneviève, age 2.  De La Roque noted that Nicolas "has spent 25 [years] in the colony," that "Of live stock," he and Marie-Anne "have two oxen, two cows, two bulls, four geese, and seven fowls," that "They have made a clearing for a garden and the rest of the land is in pasture," and that "The homestead on which they are was merely granted to them verbally by Messieurs de Saint-Ovide, and Le Normand."  Orré, actually Renée, Marchand, age 36, "widow of the late Breau," actually Pierre-François Briand of Paramé, near St.-Malo, lived with seven Briand children:  Jeanne, age 20; Joseph, age 15; Pierre, age 14; François, age 11; Célestine, age 9; Jean, age 7; and Georges-Cyprien, age 4.  "In live stock she had two cows, and one sow."  De La Roque also noted that the land the widow occupied "was granted to her by Messieurs de Saint Ovide, and Le Normand."  However, "In the grant the extent of frontage of the said land is not stated, but it is clearly specified that its depth extends from the settlement to the further end of Bras d'Or."  Jean dit Poitiers Marchand, age 40, "native of Port Royal," Renée's older brother, lived with wife Geneviève Pouget, age 35, also "native of Port Royal," and two sons--Eustache, age 2; and Louis, age 1.  "In live stock they have four oxen, two cows, eight geese, five turkey hens, eight fowls," and they also owned a skiff.  "Their meadows are situated on the Grand Passage, from la Platriere to the Isle de l'Ours," De La Roque noted, "the distance between these boundaries being on league, where they gather 60 to 70 quintals of hay.  They have two other dwellings, one granted verbally by M. de la Valière, subject to the good pleasure of Messieurs de St. Ovide and de Mézy.  The other was sold to them by the widow Boudreau."  As at Gabarus, St.-Esprit, and L'Ardois, De La Roque noted that "all the settlers enumerated above, were given two years rations, with the exception of several who complained of not having received their supplies from the store house, because the storekeeper had taken their orders from them, and gave them a supply on account, telling them to return another time, and when they went back for the balance le Sr. Lartigue did not remember the occurrence, and they never received the balance due to them."29

De La Roque then turned to the "new settlers, refugee Acadians," found "throughout the command of Port Toulouse"--10 families who, over the past few years, had fled the chaos in Nova Scotia.  With few exceptions, these refugees were related by either blood or marriage to many of the established settlers at Port-Toulouse, as well as to one another:  Jean dit Miquetau Boudrot, age 29, "native of Port Royal" and younger brother of Michel dit Miquetau, fils, lived with wife Françoise Arseneau, age 23, "native of la Cadie" and Catherine's younger sister.  With Jean and Françoise were three children: Joseph, age 3; Jean, fils, age 2; and Angélique, age 3 months.  Also with them was Nicolas La Treille, perhaps Triel dit Laperrière, age 10, "a relative," born in "la Cadie."  De La Roque noted that Jean dit Miquetau and Françoise have been in the colony two years and have received rations during that period," that "They have neither live stock nor dwelling," but they did "have ten fowls, and a bateau they are building to carry wood to Louisbourg."  Jean-Baptiste, called Baptiste, Vigneau dit Maurice, age 25 (actually 35), "native of Port Royal" and younger brother of Joseph dit Maurice, lived with wife Agnès dite Anne Poirier, age 28, "native of la Cadie," and six children:  Marie, age 12; Jean-Baptiste, fils, age 10; Théotiste, age 8; Amand, age 6; Marguerite, age 4; and Nastazie, probably Anastasie, age 1.  "They have been in the colony half a year," De La Roque noted, "and have been granted rations for two years."  They owned "one cow, one calf, one sow, eleven fowls, and a bateau.  They have no dwelling place," the sieur added, noting that "The land on which they are settled was marked out for them by M. de Villejoint," and that "They have made no clearing."  Joseph Poirier, age 47, "native of la Cadie" and Agnès dite Anne's older brother, lived with wife Jeanne Gaudet, age 35, "native of Port Royal," and four children:  Anne, age 18; Joseph, fils, age 15; Marie, age 10; and Modeste, age 4.  "They have been in the colony two years," De La Roque noted, "and have been granted rations for that time."  They owned "one ox, one cow, one calf, four pigs, eleven fowls, and one bateau.  The land on which they are settled was given them by M. de Villejoint.  It was long ago cleared by fire.  They have done no clearing."  De La Roque said nothing of a dwelling.  Vincent Arseneau, age 32, "native of la Cadie," lived with wife Marguerite Poirier, age 21, "native of Port Royal" and Joseph's daughter.  Vincent and Marguerite had no children.  De La Roque noted that they have been in the colony two years, and have been granted rations for that period.  They have only one cow.  The land they have was granted to them by M. de Villejoint.  They have done no clearing."  Jean Vigneau dit Maurice, age 48, coaster, "native of la Cadie" and older brother of Joseph and Baptiste, lived with wife Isabelle, also called Louise, Arseneau, age 37, "native of des Mines" and Catherine and Françoise's older sister.  Jean and Isabelle lived with three daughters and two orphans:  Marguerite, age 18; Anne, age 15; Marie, age 9; Charles Bourd, probably Bourg, age 14; and Simon Poirier, age 8.  De La Roque noted that they had been in the colony for two years, had been given rations for that time, and owned "two oxen, one cow, two pigs, three geese, six fowls, and a bateau."  Their land also had been "marked out for them by M. de Villejoint," and they had "made a clearing for a garden."  Jean Bte. Bouteau, actually Jean-Baptiste Butteau, age 27, "of Port Toulouse, native of la Cadie," lived with wife Jeanne Caissie, age 23, "native of Port Royal," 8-month-old daughter Marguerite, and Anne Clémençeau, age 7, probably Jeanne's niece.  "One ox forms their whole stock," De La Roque noted.  "They have been in the country for 18 months and have been granted rations for two years."  He also noted that "The land which they have improved was given by M. de Villejoint," that "They have cleared about two arpents to make a meadow and a garden; for as regards grain not only is the nature of the soil unsuitable for its growth but the fogs that prevail in the spring prevent it from being productive."  André Temple, age 24, "native of the parish of Menibec," actually Menibeaux, "bishopric of Avranches," Normandy, lived with wife Marie Deveau, age 22, "native of la Cadie," and daughter Marguerite, perhaps Marie-Marguerite, age 3 months.  "They have been three years in the colony," De La Roque noted, "and have received rations during that period....  The land they occupy was marked out for them by M. de Villejoint.  They have made a clearing for a garden, and another of about four arpents in extent for a meadow."  De La Roque said nothing of their livestock.  Marie Quéry, actually Caissie, age 55, "native of l'Acadie," actually Chignecto, "widow of Pierre Devot," actually Deveau, was Marie's mother and Jeanne Caissie's aunt.  The widow lived with two younger Deveau children:  Pierre, age 18, and Anne, age 13.  "In live stock," De La Roque noted, she owned "one ox, one cow and calf, one sow, ten fowls, three geese.  She is in the country since the month of August last, and she lives in the house of André Temple, her son-in-law."  Charles Poirier, age 30, "native of la Cadie," lived with second wife Marguerite Vigneau, age 25, "native of Port Toulouse" and sister of Jean, Joseph, and Baptiste.  With them was 18-month-old son Charles, fils.  "They have been in the country 18 months," De La Roque noted, "and have been granted rations for three years....  In live stock they have one sow and ten fowls.  The homestead on which they are settled is owned by a man named Langlois [likely François], a settler in the Isles Madame.  When they came there he promised to give them the freehold, but on seeing that they had improved the property and built a house on it, he declined to fulfill his promise and demanded the sum of 100 écus in settlement," a substantial sum in that day.  The tenth family De La Roque counted among the recent arrivals was that of Joseph LeBlanc, age 55, known by his dit, Le Maigre--"the Skinny One."  LeBlanc was native of Minas and one of the most famous Acadians of his day.  As early as the 1720s, soon after marrying Anne, daughter of Minas notary and tax collector Alexandre Bourg dit Bellehumeur, Le Maigre chose to resist the British authority then seated at Annapolis Royal.  During the war with Britain in the early 1740s, in fact, the skinny merchant from Minas had become as active in the Acadian resistance as the Broussard brothers of Peticoudiac.  Le Maigre was especially adept at providing sustenance in the form of entire cattle herds to French, Canadian, and Native forces operating on the peninsula.  For his efforts, Le Maigre was thrown into the dungeon of the British fort at Annapolis Royal.  He escaped and continued his activities, but, during the war's final days, Governor Shirley of Massachusetts placed a 50-pound bounty on his head.  In 1748, Le Maigre gathered up his family and headed for the safety of the French Maritimes.  De La Roque found him at Port-Toulouse with wife Anne Bourg, age 53, and three children:  Alexandre, age 20; Paul, age 17; and Anne, age 10.  Nephew Joseph LeBlanc, age 6, also was part of the household, along with nieces Anne and Marie-Josèphe Allain, ages 18 and 15.  Living with the family was the redoubtable Alexandre Bourg dit Bellehumeur, age 84, a widow now, the judge and notary who once represented Minas before the colonial Council at Annapolis Royal.  De La Roque reported that the family had "been in the colony three years, and have received rations during that time.  In live stock they have twenty-five cattle," a fraction of the substantial herds Le Maigre had controlled on the peninsula, and "ten fowls."  They also owned a skiff.  "The dwelling in which they are belongs to Joseph Dugas, their son-in-law," De La Roque explained.  Joseph Dugas, fils was the widower of Le Maigre's daughter Marguerite, who had died recently.  Joseph, fils allowed his father-in-law, Bellehumeur, and the others "to occupy" the dwelling "until such time as they are given land."  The French government had promised the banished resistance leaders, including Le Maigre, compensation for their losses in the service of the King, but, as De La Roque's survey reveals, that just compensation was slow in coming.30 

De La Roque next counted the "Old Settlers in La Briquerie," near Port-Toulouse--four more Acadian families related to one another:  Honoré Préjean, age 40, a coaster, "native of la Cadie" and younger brother of Nicolas of Port-Toulouse, lived with wife Marie Brossard, or Broussard, age 30 (actually 33), "native of Port Royal" and younger sister of Nicolas's recently deceased wife Marguerite.  With Honoré and Marie were eight children:  Félix, age 11; Marie-Anne, age 9; Félicité, age 7; Cyprien, age 5; twins Julien and Madeleine, age 2; and two "not yet named" twin sons, age 2 1/2 months.  Also living with them was Thomas Nolen, age 27, "native of Ireland, in the capacity of a domestic."  De La Roque noted that Honoré and Marie owned "one ox, three fowls, one bateau" that he "is in the colony since 1732," and that "The land on which Sr. Honoré Prejean has built was sold to him by Charles Boudrot.  He has done no clearing."  Marguerite Dugas, age 46, "native of Port Royal," was widow of Joseph Boudrot and Abraham's older sister.  She lived with three Boudrot children:  Louison, age 19; Marguerite, age 16; and Charles, age 14.  Joseph Boudrot, fils, age 30, coaster, "native of Port Toulouse" and Marguerite Dugas's son, lived with wife Judith Fougère, age 19, "native of said place," and their 4-month-old daughter Jeanne.  Pierre Boudrot, age 25, coaster, "native of the said place" and Joseph, fils's brother, lived with wife Josette Dugas, age 19, "native of petit Saint Pierre."  De La Roque noted that they owned "two cows, two calves, and eight fowls."  Perhaps referring to the Boudrot clan, De La Roque observed that "The land on which they are located was given them verbally my Messrs. de Saint-Ovide, and Le Normand, and is situate on the coast of Saint Pierre.  They have made a clearing for a garden, and the rest of the place is pasture land.  Their meadows are on the Barachois à Descouts on the lands of the Isles Madame.  They could cut one hundred quintals of hay, if only it could be well saved, but they only grow, and cut grass sufficient for the live stock they have."  He added, perhaps referring to the entire community, that "The lands were granted to them by the late Monsieur La Vallière, Commandant at Port Toulouse."38

After a full week's effort, De La Roque and his party "left Port Toulouse on the twentieth of February and arrived at the rivière à Bourgeois ... in the evening of the same day.  The rivière à Bourgoies," he continued, "empties its waters in the little channel a league and a half from Port Toulouse.  It takes its source in a large basin situated a quarter of a league from its mouth in the northern part of Isle Royale.  It lies east and west, and is estimated as being a half league in length.  The breadth of the river is unequal but its average width is estimated at 150 toises," or about 960 feet.  "Its entrance lies north and south.  At high tide there are 15 to 16 feet of water in the river throughout its whole course of a quarter ofa league in extent, whilst over the whole area of the basin already mentioned the depth varies from three to five feet.  Vessels of 100 tons burden can enter and load with the cordwood and dimenstion timber, which is cut by the settlers of Port Toulouse during the winter.  All the shores of the basin as well as the lands in the interior are covered with hard wood." 

The following day, De La Roque and his party "left rivière à Bourgeois, and," later in the day, "reached the creek à Descoust, situated in the lands of the Isles Madame....  On leaving the basin of the rivière à Bourgeois one has to make a portage of about a quarter of a league," or three quarters of a mile.  "It is covered with fir and leads to the large creek," he noted.  "This large creek would form part of the little channel, if there were not two islands, close to one another, lying in a line with the lands north of the said channel, and causing a break in the connection.  The two entrances to the said creek lie at the two extremities of these islands.  The eastern entrance is the most used; it lies north and south. Vessels of 100 tons burden can make the passage, and find anchorage in from three to nine fathoms of water in any part of the creek.  The entrance to the west can only be used by vessels drawing six or seven feet of water, and at high tide.  It lies north-east and south-west.  The length of this creek is estmated at three quarters of a league.  It runs east and west, with a breadth of a quarter of a league, towards the northern lands.  All the banks are wooded with fir, but to compensate for this, a quarter of a league inland from the creek there is nothing but hard timber."

 De La Roque and his party then headed to Île Madame.  "We next traversed the little channel above the Isle Brulée, at which place there may be 150 toises of land," he continued.  "Isles Madame," as he called the big island, "lie to the south-south-west of Port Toulouse, and are separated from the islands of Ile Royale by the little channel," today's Lennox Passage.  "Isle Madame is estimated to be three leagues in length, by one league in breath.  Lengthwise it lies east and west, as does the channel, whilst its breadth lies north and south.  The nature of the soil is not suitable for cultivation, as in addition to the fact that fogs are constantly prevalent during the whole of spring, the quality of the soil can only be described as a mixture of earth largely composed of clay, and an infinite number of rough stones heaped one upon the top of another.  The island in the interior is wooded in places with beech-wood and the wild cherry tree, the remainder being covered with spruce and fir.  The settlers on this island follow various callings, in order to secure a livelihood.  Those who are not engaged in the cod fisheries, are employed in navigation during the summer, whilst in the winter they make cord wood, which they sell at 9 livres a cord, delivered at the coast, whilst as a general rule all the settlers endeavour to add to their earnings by finding keep for a few head of cattle.  The whole coast is practicable for small vessels, and a landing can be very easily affected at almost any point."39

De La Roque turned his attention first to "the old settlers who are located on the north coast of the Isles Madame only."  Again, he found a dense web of kinship connections among most of the 10 families he counted there:  Pierre Bernard, actually Bénard, age 66, coaster, "native of St. Malo," lived with wife Cécile Longuépée, age 50, "native of la Cadie" and sister of Isabelle, widow Papon, of St.-Esprit.  With Pierre and Cécile were eight children:  Anne, age 24; François, age 22; Nicolas, age 18; Geneviève, age 17; Françoise, 15; Froisille, age 10; Charles, age 8; and Isaac, age 5.  De La Roque noted that "They have spent 30 years in this island," that "In live stock they own one ox, two cows, two pigs and four fowls," and that "The land on which he has been located since 1720 was granted to him verbally by Messieurs de St. Ovide and Le Normand.  He has done a large amount of clearing and there is a fair amount of improved land.  Sr. Pierre Bernard[sic] has made several attempts to grow wheat," De La Roque added, "but though it has always come up well, it has not ripened."  Jean Bernard, actually Bénard, age 30, coaster, "native of this place" and Pierre and Cécile's oldest son, lived with wife Catherine Langlois, age 28 years, also a "native of Isles Madame," and 16-month-old daughter Madeleine.  Also with them was " a man named Pancros, aged 20 years, a native of Dieppe, who follows the fishery at Petit Degra, during the summer."  Jean and Catherine owned "one ox, one cow and six fowls."  François Langlois, age 42 (actually 72), "a settler in the colony for 30 years, native of Paris," lived with wife Madeleine Comeau, age 65, "native of Port Royal," and their twelfth and youngest child, Joseph, age 18.  Catherine Langlois, wife of neighbor Jean Bénard, was another one of their younger children.  De La Roque noted that the old patriarch owned "a skiff, two cows, three calves, and two fowls.  The land on which he is settled was given to him verbally by Messrs. Saint Ovide and Le Normand.  All the clearing he had made is containted in two gardens, but he also has a large piece of cleared ground which serves as a meadow."  Pierre-Jacques Pouget, age 40, coaster, "native of Port Royal," lived with wife Madeleine Langlois, age 30, "native of la Cadie" and one of the old patriarch's younger daughters.  With them were five children:  Madeleine, age 14; Pierre, fils, age 9; Jean, age 7; François, age 2; and a 3-week-old daughter "not yet named."  "They are settled on land owned by Langlois, père," De La Roque noted.  "They have made a clearing of about a quarter of an arpent in extent for a garden.  In live stock they own, four cows, three calves, one ox, one pig, and  three fowls."  François Josse dit Saint-Breuic, age 56, coaster, "native of St. Glam, bishopric of Dolle," France, lived with wife Marie Langlois, age 48, "native of Port Royal" and François and Madeleine's oldest daughter.  With them were seven sons:  Pierre, age 23; Joseph, age 22; Mathieu, age 17; Guillaume, age 13; Gabriel, age 11; Aimable, age 8; and Jean-Marc or Jean-Marie, age 6.  "In live stock they own, three cows, one calf, and three fowls," De La Roque noted.  Josse's land "was given to him verbally by the authorities.  The quality of the soil renders it unsuitable for cultivation, and the most they can do is, by using a large amount of manure, to raise a little garden produce."  Mathurin Joseph, age 45, fisherman, "native of Plangrenoy, bishopric of St. Brieux," France, lived with wife Marie Gourde, age 31, "native of Louisbourg," and three daughters, all born on Île Madame:  Louise, age 11; Hélène, age 10; and Cécile, age 2.  De La Roque noted that Mathurin "has spent 23 [years] in the colony ... has no land and is obliged to rent."  François Josse, fils, age 26, coaster, "native of Port Toulouse," lived with wife Marie-Marguerite Tardiff, age 22, native of Louisbourg, and their year-old-daughter Jeanne.  They owned "a cow, and a bateau."  Their land," De La Roque noted, "was given to him verbally by the authorities.  He has clearerd about an arpent of land to make a garden."  Pierre-François, called François, Langlois, age 44, fisherman and "native of Port Royale," lived with wife Henriette Bernard, likely Bénard, age 33, "native of the place" and probably Pierre's oldest daughter.  With François and Henriette was their 14-month-old daughter Henriette.  "They own two cows, a calf, and three fowls," De La Roque recorded.  "Their house is built on land owned by Langlois's father.  They have cleared land to make a garden."  Nicolas Langlois, age 29, fisherman, "native of Port Toulouse" and Pierre-François's younger brother, lived with wife Isabelle Pouget, age 27, Pierre-Jacques's sister.  With Nicolas and Isabelle was their 2-year-old son Nicolas, fils.  "They own two cows; three calves, an ox, a pig, and four fowls," De La Roque noted.  "Their house is built on land owned by Langlois' father."  Jean Pouget, age 28, ploughman, "native of la Cadie" and brother of Pierre-Jacques and Isabelle, lived with wife Marguerite Langlois, age 31, "native of Port Royal" and François's youngest daughter.  With Jean and Marguerite was their year-old son François.  "In stock they own, four cows, three calves, two pigs, and four fowls," De La Roque noted.  "Their land is the same as that of their father LangloisMonsieur de Villejoint has given them a meadow situated on the river à Dumolin at the little channel.  It is very extensive and they carry sufficient hay from it to keep 24 head of cattle."  De La Roque then added:  "All of the above named settlers have been a long time in the colony, and have had rations granted them for two years only."40

De La Roque then turned to "the new settlers, refugees from la Cadie, on the Isles Madame," including Île à Descoust, today's D'Escousse--a dozen more families with the usual kinship networks:  Herné, or René, Lambert, age 65, plougman, "native of la Cadie," lived with wife Marie Longuépée, age 54, "native of Cobeyt," that is, Cobeguit, and four children:  François, age 21; Ambroise, age 19; Jeanne, age 15; and Isabelle, age 14.  De La Roque noted that "They have been three years in the colony, and have been granted rations for that time."  He said nothing of livestock.  Olivier Lambert, age unrecorded, ploughman, "native of la Cadie," likely a son of René and Marie, lived with wife Marie-Anne Pichot, age 17, "native of Petit Degra."  Referring to the extended family, De La Roque noted that "The land they occupy was located for them by Monsieur de Villejoint.  They have made a clearing, by cutting as much cord-wood as they possibly could along the shore, choosing to work on that part of the land, where they could make a living by cutting cordwood, as the nature of the soil make no return for cultivation," which must have been a disappointment for these farmers.  Claude Giroir, or Girouard, age 55, ploughman, "native of la Cadie," lived with wife Marie-Madeleine, called Madeleine, Vincent, age 44, "native of Port Royal," and seven children:  Joseph, age 23; Marguerite, age 21; Marie-Josèphe, age 16; Sylvain, age 14; Basile, age 11; Antoine, age 8; and Proxède-Isabelle, age 5.  "They have been in the colony three years," De La Roque noted, "and have been granted rations for that period.  In live stock they own, three oxen, two cows, one calf, one pig, and five fowls.  They are settled on land that was chosen for them by Monsieur de Villejoint, but have found that the nature of the soil would not repay cultivation.  They cleared ground, and made a garden, sowing cabbage and turnip seed, but though they used a prodigious quantity of manure, the seed did not come up very well"--a sad commentary on the prospects for agriculture in this part of the colony.  Jean Daniqua, age 40, fisherman, "native of Grave, bishopric of Coutances," France, lived with wife Marie Sire, perhaps Cyr, age 26, "native of la Cadie," and two daughters:  Marie, age 2; and Rose, age 14 months.  "He has no homestead," De La Roque noted, "and no house built except in the bush.  He has been in the colony since the month of August last.  He has been granted rations for one year."  Jean Comeau, age 37, ploughman, "native of la Cadie," was widower of Marguerite Turpin, who had died the year before.  He lived with five children:  Jean, fils, age 16; Marguerite, age 14; Isabelle, age 11; David, age 7; and Charles, age 4.  "He has two cows," De La Roque noted, "has been three years in the colony and has been granted rations for that period.  He is settled on land located for him by Monsieur de Villejoint.  He only took possession last autumn and made neither clearing nor improvement."  Pierre Guédry dit Grivois, fils, age 28, ploughman, "native of la Cadie," lived with wife Haniez Friel, actually Agnès Triel dit Laperrière, age 27, "native of la Cadie," and four children:  Marie, age 7; Simon, age 5; Marguerite, age 3; and Charles, age 7 months.  Also living with them was niece Philippe Turpin, age 10.  "They are in the colony since the month of August last," De La Roque noted, "and have been granted rations for one year."  Pierre Friel, actually Pierre dit Triquel dit Patron Triel dit Lapierrière, age 74, "native of la Cadie," actually Port-Royal, lived with wife Catherine Bourg, age 68, "native of la Cadie," actually Port-Royal, and Agnès's parents (she was, in fact, their only child).  De La Roque noted that Pierre dit Patron and Catherine "live with Guédry their son-in-law," that "They have one ox and two cows," and "The land they occupy is situated on the Isle à Descoust.  It was chosen for them by Monsieur de Villejoint.  They have done no clearing."  Étienne Hamet, age 66, ploughman, "native of Saint-Jean, bishopric of Coutance," lived with wife Marguerite Benoit, age 56, "native of la Cadie."  De La Roque noted that "They have been in the colony two years and have been granted rations for a term of three years," that they owned "a cow and calf and three fowls," and that "The land he occupies is situated on the little creek."  They were "there by permission of Monsieur de Villejoint" and have "done a little clearing, sufficient for a garden."  Jean-Baptiste Forin, actually Forest, age 30, ploughman, "native of Des Mines," probably Ste.-Famille, Pigiguit, lived with wife Marie-Madeleine LeBlanc, age 26, "native of la Cadie," and three children:  Olivier, age 6; Marguerite-Théodose, age 5; and Étienne, age 1.  "They have been in the country two years," De La Roque noted, "and have been granted rations for three."  Their land also was "situated on the little creek," and they had "cleared land for a garden."  Jacques Barican, actually Barrieau, age 47, ploughman, "native of la Cadie" and younger brother of Nicolas of Port-Toulouse, lived with wife Anne-Marie, called Marie, Turpin, age 43, "native of Des Mines" and Marguerite's oldest sister.  With Jacques and Marie were nine children:  Marie-Josèphe, age 22; Jean, age 20; Pierre, age 18; Sifroy, age 16; Marguerite, age 14; Marie, age 12; Précéde, age 7; Ursule, age 4; and Rosalie, age 2.  Niece Marguerite Turpin, age 7, also lived with them.  De La Roque noted that "They are in the colony since the 16th of last July, and have been granted rations for one year.  Monsieur de Villejoint settled them on land at the Pointe à Jacob.  Since that time they have built, and have cleared an arpent of land for a garden.  They have a horse and four fowls."  Charles Doiron III, age 33 (actually 36), ploughman, "native of la Cadie," lived with wife Marie-Madeleine Tibouday, actually Thibodeau, age 35, "native of Port Royal," and seven children:  Marie, age 12; Baptiste, age 10; Zacharie-Aimable, age 8; Joseph-Marie and Charles, fils, age 6; Madeleine, age 4; and Marie-Anne, age 6 months.  De La Roque noted that Charles "has been in the colony three years with all his family, and he had only a house built in the wood and two fowls."  Eustache Lejeune dit Briard, age 37, coaster, "native of la Cadie," actually Grand-Pré, lived with wife Marie-Anne Barrieau, age 25, "native of Port Royal" and Jacques's daughter.  Eustache and Marie-Anne lived with two daughters:  Agathe, age 4; and Marie-Josèphe, age 17 months.  "They have six fowls," De La Roque noted.  "They have been three years in the colony, and have received rations for that time.  The land on which he is settled was located for him by Monsieur de Villejoint.  It is situated on Point à Jacob.  He had made a small clearing for a garden."  De La Roque then added:  "Throughout this account it is made very clear that if the settlers are obliged to clear the land and are prohibited from fishing or embarking on vessels engaged in the coasting trade, it is certain that they will not be able to make a living."44

The survey party moved on to the next settlement on Île Madame.  "We left the creek à Descoust on the 23rd of February," De La Roque continued, "and, following the shore, arrived at Petit Degrat the same day.  The distance from the creek à Descoust, lying on the open coast directly opposite to Port Toulouse, to the Cap à la Ronde, is estimated at a quarter of a league.  Through this distance the coast rises so abruptly from the open sea, and reefs and shoals are so numerous that it is difficult to tell how to land.  The Cap à la Ronde and the Cap au Gros Né form the entrance to the Great Creek du Petit Degrat.  They lie about a league apart [indecipherable]  The entrance to this creek [indecipherable] and it runs a league inland.  It makes a wide bend at the further end, where 200 toises," or a quarter of a mile, "from land, vessels can anchor in five to six fathoms of water, and is sheltered from all winds, except those from between the east-north-east and south-east.  With regard to other winds, they blow off shore and in the heavy autumnal gales that prevail here vessels would certainly not be safe.  So commodious is this creek that the English, when they were in possession of the country, took vessels of three hundred tons burden there to load with cord wood.  In the centre are three islands lying together, and visible at any state of the tide.  Small vessels can shelter here from the east, north-east and south-east winds.  A shoal lies between those islands and the land.  There is a channel between this shoal and the islands, and another between the shoal and the land, one on either side of the reef.  At the entrance at an estimated distance of a quarter of a league from Cap à la Ronde, there lies a shoal which can be left either to starboard or larboard on entering, a channel lies between this shoal and the Cap à la Ronde.  Throughout the whole of the district, to the west-north-west, to the north, and to the north-east there is nothing but hard timber, and throughout the remainder is fir.  The said creek lies only a quarter of a league distant from the Petit Degrat.  Before the war the waters of these two places met by means of a channel which has been filled, but at the entrance only, by a surge of the sea.  Vessels carrying five or six cords of wood, or other cargo formerly passed there loaded.  The local fishermen found this channel a great convenience, in taking their boats laden with supplies to Louisbourg.  Once out of the great creek they found themselves crossing the Barachois de l'Ardoise, instead of being obliged, as they are to-day, to leave by the entrance to the harbour of Petit Degrat, to double the Cap Gros Né which projects far into the sea, and then go four or five leagues outside to make l'Ardoise.  The passage to the point of crossing the harbour of l'Ardoise; by way of the channed referred to, could be made in an hour, whilst in doubling the Cap du Gros Né, the fishermen are not sure of doing it in 24 hours and if they meet contrary winds they have to be driven ashore rather than run the risk of being driven ten or fifteen leagues out to sea.  It would be a convenience to the fishermen if they were able to take their boats in and out of the harbor of Petit Degrat, no matter what wind was blowing at the time.  It is estimated that the channel could be made as practicable for navigation as it was before for an outlay of not more than 300 livres, a small amount in comparison with the benefit to be derived.  One is also led to believe that this creek could be used by fishing vessels.  This would be a great benefit because fishing is not carried on in the autumn, which is the season of the gales.  Some superb beaches for drying cod fish lie at the further end of this creek on the edge of the plain."

De La Roque noted that "Petit Degrat is suitable only for the cod fishery.  None of the peole who are settled there have any other occupations.  Fish are very abundant and none finer are found at Île Royale.  This place lies on the south-east coast of the Isles Madame, opposite to the port of Canceau.  Petit Degrat harbour is formed by the Pointe à la Rivière, lying to the north-west of the harbour, and by the Cap de Fer lying to the south east.  It is calculated that the entrance is an eighth of a league in breadth, that it lies north-east and south-west, and that the harbour runs half a league inland to the south east, preserving the same breadth, or thereabouts.  A shallow at the entrance lies about a hundred toises from, and opposite to Cap de Fer.  It is left to starboard on entering, and after entering, the land is coasted in taking the channel that passes the reef.  The channel to larboard is very difficult to navigate even at low tide.  The bottom is composed of nothing but impracticable rock.  The harbour is practicable only to vessels of less than 150 tons burden.  Vessels of heavier tonnage would experience difficulty in entering.  There are only thirteen feet of water in the channel at high tide, but when one has gained the harbour, he can anchor his ships in the creek aux Navires, in four or five fathoms of water.  This creek runs inland for a short distance.  The lands in the neighbourhood of the Petit Degrat are of a nature unsuitable for cultivation.  They are composed of rocky bluffs, with spongy soil covered with a foot and a half of peat on the surface."45

As a result of the area's unsuitability for agriculture, De La Roque found no peninsula Acadians among the seven families he listed in a "General census of men, women, boys, girls, live stock, schooners, bateaux, and boats of the Petit Degrat":  Nicolas Écard, or Hecquart, age 52, fisherman, "native of the parish of Serance, bishopric of Coutances," France, lived with wife Marie-Anne Pichaud, actually Pichot, "widow of the late Jean Embourg," actually Darembourg or Rambourg.  She was "native of Plaisance."  All of the children in their household were Darembourgs from Marie-Anne's first marriage:  Félix, age 19; Jean-Noël, age 17; Jean-Pierre, age 16; François, age 14; Martin, age 12; Jérôme, age 8; and Isabelle, age 4.  De La Roque noted that "Le Sr Nicolas Écard has four men engaged for the next fishery season"--Jean Daribot, age 42; "native of Bayonne"; Martin D'Etcheverry, age 40, "native of St. Jean de Luz"; Joannis Dorebida, age 25, "native of St. Jean de Luz"; and Bernard Le Basque, age 36, "native of Bayonne"--all Basques from southwestern France.  "Le Sieur Écard owns the following live stock," De La Roque related:  "two oxen, two cows, three heifers, one pig, six hens, with their rooster, and two boats.  The homestead on which he is settled was granted to the late Jean Embourg in 1722 by Monsieur de Rouville then commandant at Port Toulouse, without however, the quantity of land he could enter upon, being determined."  Marguerite Rambourg, age 29, "native of the place" and "widow of the late Emanuel," lived in her mother's household with 14-year-old daughter Marie-Josèphe.  De La Roque noted that Marguerite's "land lies at the further end of the great creek, and she had ground for two gardens cleared, but she does not cultivate them, as she had become dumb and is in her second childhood."  Nicolas Le Borgne, age 36, fisherman, "native of Dieppe," lived with Marie Darembourg, no age given, "native of Petit Degra" and another daughter of Marie-Anne Pichot.  With Nicolas and Marie were two children:  Michel, age 3; and Marie-Anne, age 15 months.  Also counted with the family was Jérôme Darembourg, age 10, likely Marie's younger brother and probably the same Jérôme counted earlier.  Also in the household was niece Françoise Emanuel, age 8, sister Marguerite's daughter.  De La Roque noted that Nicolas employed "Three men for the fishery"--Joannis D'Etcheverry, age 19, "native of Dagitery, bishopric of Bayonne"; Dominique La Reide, age 36, "native of Beatrix, bishopric of Bayonne"; and Joannis D'Etcheverry, age 58, "native of Aquitary, bishopric of Bayonne"--all Basques.  "In live stock," De La Roque noted, Nicolas and Marie "own one bull, three cows, seven fowls and one boat," that "The land on which they are settled was given to them verbally by Messieurs Desherbiers and Prévost in 1749" and "Upon it are platforms, beach and scaffoldings for drying the fish from two boats."  Jean La Fargue, "the elder," also called Joannis de Lafargue, père, age 70 (actually 63), fisherman, "native of St. Jean de Luz," lived with wife Marie-Anne Osselette, or Ozelet, age 58, "native of Plaisance," and four of their 13 children:  Jean, fils, age 22; Cécile, age 20; Charlotte, age 16; and Jeanne, also called Anne, age 14.  De La Roque noted that the old Basque owned "three cows, nine fowls, and two boats," that his "land, which he had improved, was only granted to him verbally by Messieurs Desherbiers and Prévost.  He has on it a platform, beach and scaffolding for drying the fish from the two boats."  Marc Vilalong, or Villalon, age 47, fisherman, "native of Trebeda, bishopric of Dol," France, lived with wife Marie-Jeanne Ozelet, age 38, "native of Plaisance" and Marie-Anne's younger sister.  With Marc and Marie-Jeanne were six daughters:  Marie-Jeanne, age 20; Cécile, age 18; Marie-Anne, age 16; Marie, age 14; Marguerite, age 10; and Madeleine, age 3.  De La Roque noted that "They have three fowls and a boat," that "The land they occupy was given to them verbally by Messieurs de St. Ovide and Le Normand in 1732," and "They had on it platforms, scaffoldings and beach for drying fish from two boats."  Mathurin Picard, age 35, fisherman, "native of Pléhéret, bishopric of St. Brieux," France, probably a younger brother of François Picard of St. Esprit, lived with wife Angélique Romain, age 21, "native of St. Esprit."  They had no children, but Mathurin, like his older brother, employed "four men hired for the next fishing season"--Jean Desroches, age 34, "native of Caret, bishopric of Avranches"; Jean Dupont, age 31, "native of Vins, bishopric of Avranches"; Pierre Nourry, age 21, "native of Vins"; and Étienne Barbudeau, age 16, "native of Saint Esprit."  Jean Baloy, or Balay, age 50, fisherman, "native of Mourvion, bishopric of Avranches," lived with wife Marguerite Beaument, or Beaumont, age 26, "native of Grandeville," and their 16-month-old daughter Marguerite.  Also with them were Robert Guitton, age 17, "native of Rennes"; and Allain Reou, age "2 (?) years," "native of Quimper Bossever, bishopric of Trégnier"--likely hired fishermen.  De La Roque did not say how long Jean and Marguerite had lived in the colony or how they held their land, but he did note that Jean "has two boats, and three fowls," and that "His dwelling is adjoining that of Maturin Picard."46 

De La Roque then counted 10 families he called "fishermen of Petit Degrat, who have no house built at the fishery."  Among them were a hand full of peninsula Acadians:  Antoine Villalong, or Villalon, age 20, "native of this place" and Marc's son, lived with wife Geneviève Darembourg, age 22, "native of Petit Degrat," whose family was living at Havre-St.-Pierre on Île St.-Jean.  "They have no dwelling here, but only a house in the woods," De La Roque noted.  They also had no children.  Étienne Saux, age 41, "native of Plaisance," Newfoundland, lived with wife Marie-Anne La Fargue, age 33, "native of the place" and probably a daughter of Joannis.  With Étienne and Marie-Anne were five children:  Angélique, age 12; Marie, age 11; Marguerite, age 8; Charlotte, age 3; and Jean-Baptiste, age 14 months.  De La Roque noted that Étienne "has been in the country for 30 years" and "has four fowls."  Louis Saux, age 24, fisherman, "native of Saint Esprit" and Étienne's brother, lived with wife Marie-Jeanne Lafargue, age 27, "native of the place" and Marie-Anne's younger sister.  With them was their 18-month-old son Étienne le jeune.  De La Roque said nothing of land and livestock, so one suspects Louis and Marie-Jeanne lived with his older brother.  Jean Maréchal, age unrecorded, a fisherman, "native of Carot, bishopric of Avranches," lived with wife Marguerite Doiron, age 23, "native of la Cadie" and sister of Charles III of Île Madame.  Jean and Marguerite had no children.  De La Roque noted that he "has been in the country twenty years," that he and Marguerite "have no dwelling at the fishery," but he "has a schooner, which he uses to follow his calling."   François Cardet, actually Fardel, age 55, fisherman, native of Rui, bishopric of Vannes," France, lived with wife Marie-Marguerite Pitre, age 40, "native of la Cadie," actually Annapolis Royal, and two children:  Pierre, age 4; and Marie-Anne, age 2.  De La Roque noted that François "has been 35 years in the colony" but said nothing of land and livestock.  Jean Daguerre, age 24, fisherman, "native of St. Jean de Luz, bishopric of Bayonne," lived with wife Marie Decheverry, or D'Etcheverry, age 22, "native of Port Toulouse," and their 4-month-old son Jean, fils.  De La Roque said nothing of Jean's time in the colony or of his land and livestock.  Jean Majet, actually Jean-Baptiste, called Jean, Maillet, age 35 (actually 38), fisherman, "native of Plaisance," lived with wife Claire Langlois, age 47 (actually 42), "native of Isles Madame" and "old settler" François's daughter (Claire's first husband was Joannis D'Etcheverry dit Miquemak, so she was living among her former in-laws).  With Jean and Claire were five children:  Jean-Marie, age 12; Jean-Pierre, age 8; François, age 6; Marie, age 3; and an infant not yet named.  De La Roque noted that the couple "own one ox, one cow, and four fowls" and that "They have built a house on the Barachois à Villedieu."  Pierre Giroir, or Girouard, age 24, fisherman, "native of la Cadie," lived with wife Cécile D'Etcheverry, age 20, "native of the Isles Madame," their unnamed infant, probably son Jean-Baptiste, and Madeleine D'Etcheverry, age 17, "native of Port Toulouse" and Cécile's sister.  De La Roque noted that "They have built their house in the woods" and own "two fowls."  He gave no details about their land.  Julien Rabageois, age 24, fisherman, "native of Vignac, bishopric of St. Malo," lived with wife Marie Lambert, age 22, "native of la Cadie" and daughter of René of Île Madame.  Evidently Julien and Marie had no children.  "They have neither dwelling house nor live stock," De La Roque recorded.  Isabelle Toulon, age 36, "native of Plaisance, widow and second wife of René dit Renaud Pichot, lived with son François, age 14.  De La Roque noted that "She owns, jointly with Madame Gerard, a dwelling situate on the line dividing their lands.  Le Sieur Herne Pichot obtained a grant in form from M. de St. Ovide, and from M. de Soubras, of a parcel of land having a frontage on the sea-shore of forty toises," or 256 feet, "and a depth of sixty toises," or 383 1/2 feet.65 

 De La Roque noted ominously about the community:  "There is more than sufficient land around the harbour of Petit Degrat for the accommodation of all these settlers, who have no houses on the fishery, if once the boundary lines of the lands of those who have dwellings are defined in comformity to their letters of concession, and" Sr. Jean Hiriart, a major concessionaire, "is once forced to make restititution of all these concessions, which he has appropriated on his own private authority.  It can be most truthfully affirmed that le Sieur Hiriart, solely and also in common with his partner," Sr. Pierre D'Aroupet, "holds possession of one half of the harbour, and of two thirds of the remaining half, and it is anticipated, unless the authorities take the matter in hand, that these two men will expel all the settlers one after the other, or contrive to enslave them, as will be shown in the proper place, when the truth of what is here stated will be duly manifested." 

Here was another reason why so few peninsula Acadians could be found at Petit-Dégrat. 

De La Roque then turned his attention to the dozens of "fishermen engaged in the cod-fishery at Petit Degra, but who are not domiciled there."  None had family connections to the Acadians in Nova Scotia or to the other Maritime islanders.  The great majority of these itinerant fishermen were Basques from St.-Jean-de-Luz.  De La Roque also recorded the so-called "Thirty-six Months Men," mostly natives of St.-Jean-de-Luz, though two were from Bayonne and Agens, probably Anglet, also in the Basque country.  None, like the others, held ties to peninsula Acadian.  At the end of the long listing, De La Roque noted:  "The Sieurs Hiriart and D'Aroupet are partners in their cod-fishery business.  They have taken possession on their own authority solely, of four fishing lots to which there are heirs living."  They included heirs "of the late Jean Osselet, who for two years engaged in the fishery on the concession with two boats.  The grant is for ground sufficient for drying the fish of four boats."  De La Roque further documented the venality of the concession partners:  "The only source from which the settlers" of Petit-Dégret "can obtain hay for the subsistence of their cattle is from Isle Verte, lying a quarter of a league out on the open sea, opposite Cap au Gros Nez.  They have no other meadowlands whence they can carry hay.  Le Sieur Daroupet, however, some time ago became the principal proprietor of Isle Verte, and claims that no one can go there to make hay without previously obtaining his permission."47

Having lingered at Petit-Dégras for three days, De La Roque and his companions headed overland to present-day Arichat.  "We left on the 26th of February and arrived at the harbour of Grand Nerichac the same day," the seiur related.  "In order to travel from the harbour of Petit Degrat to the great harbour of Nerichac one enters the bush, the road is estimated as being half a league in length.  The lands are covered with timber of all kinds.  The harbour of Grand Nerichac makes one of the finest ports that there is in the country.  A survey shows that it is well fitted for those carrying on the cod-fishery by means of a vessel.  It is enclosed by the lands of Isles Madame, and an island called Isle de Punot (Pichot), lying on the open sea.  The harbour has two entrances, that to the east being the better.  This entrance lies north-east and south-west, and is estimated to be barely a quarter of a league in breadth.  At this entrance to the harbour, opposite the island are three reefs which are left to larboard by boats going in.  In order to pass clear of these reefs, which lie almost in the middle of the entrance, boats have to sail close to the land.  The second entrance, to the westward lies west-north-west and east-south-east, and is about half a league in breadth.  Only vessels from 40 to 50 tons burden can use this entrance.  The harbour is of great extent, running inland to the north west for a good league.  The harbour of Petit Nerichac," east of today's West Arichat, "is entered as one leaves that of Grand Nerichac," De La Roque continued.  "Only small vessels can make the entrance.  Its great area is composed of a vast number of creeks and barachois, stretching inland, and covered with hard wood."  They then left the south coast of Île Madame, where they had found no inhabitants except at Petit-Dégras, and headed west to a settlement on the coast of Île Royale that did contain refugees from Nova Scotia. 

"Then we hugged the shore as far as Cap Rouge," De La Roque related, "whence we passed through the little channel in order to reach the rivière des Habitants.  From the harbour of Petit Nerichac to Cap Rouge the distance is estimated at a quarter of a league," or three quarters of a mile, "and from Cap Rouge to rivière aux Habitants is counted a five leagues," or 14 1/2 miles.  "From the time we left the channel we followed the right bank of the channel until we arrived at the great basin of the rivière aux Habitants.  This river empt[ie]s itself into the little channel of Froncak," near today's Lower River Inhabitants.  "The entrance to the basin lies east and west, and has seven fathoms of water at low tide.  There is not the same depth of water in every part of the basin.  The area of the basin is one league in length, running east-north-east, by a quarter of a league in breadth, and the depth of the water, which is more in some places than in others, is estimated as varying from nine to four fathoms.  There are three reefs in the said basin, lying a quarter of a league to starboard outside the rivière aux Habitants, but those entering the river by tacking, do not consider them at all dangerous.  The settlers on this river make most of their hay on the shores of this basin.  The rivière aux Habitants runs about six leagues," or 17 1/2 miles, "inland in a direction which is about north-north-east by south-south-west, but making a zig-zag course.  It is estimated that Isle Brulée," probably today's Birch Island, :which lies in the centre of the basin that forms the rivière aux Habitants, is situated half a league from the mouth of the river.  This island is the highest point reached by vessels of sixty to seventy tons burden.  It cannot be said that they can ascend no higher up the river, but they would not know how to navigate the river above the house of one Guillaume Benoist," an Acadian, "and so winding and narrow is the channel that one requires to be an experienced pilot to succeed in taking a vessel so far up.  Although throughout the channel there is water to the depth of three or four fathoms, yet, on account of the rapids which are estimated to be about a league and a quarter above the mouth of the river, sailors would not even know how to take a boat higher up the stream than this island.  On this island le Sr. Guillaume Benoist has constructed an ordinary saw mill.  The banks on the rest of the river are merely plateaux, where the settlers make hay, and which might be turned into fine meadow land, if only the residents would take the trouble.  The country is covered with all kinds of hardwood and fine fir trees, out of which the people make lumber for carpentry purposes, and boards two inches thick, and 12 to 14 inches wide.  The government had no idea of making any outlay, or of inducing the settlers to do so, in clearing the land, so that the residents could grow wheat, or rye, or above all buck-wheat, oats or peas but they should be directed to lay out meadow lands on the banks of the river, so that they could feed live stock."48 

De La Roque counted "the settlers on the rivière aux Habitants," all of whom--a half dozen families--were refugees from Nova Scotia.  Typically, they were all related to one another by either blood or marriage:  Joseph Landry, age 36 (actually 34), carpenter, "native of la Cadie," actually Grand-Pré, lived with wife Marie-Marguerite Breau, age 35, "native of des Mines," and three daughters:  Anne, age 11; Marguerite, age 9; and an unnamed 3-year-old.  Also in the household was Joseph's nephew Alexis Lejeune, age 18.  De La Roque noted that "In live stock they own, two oxen, four cows; two heifers, a pig, and five fowls," that "He has no dwelling place and for that reason has made no clearing," and that "They are in the colony since the 15th of last August, and are granted rations for one year."  Jean-Baptiste Landry, age 60 (actually 62), ploughman, "native of la Cadie," probably Pigiguit, Joseph's father, lived with wife Marie, actually Marguerite, Bouherut, actually Gautrot, age 59, "native of Pepeguit."  Living with them was Jean Daigle, age 20, a nephew, and Marguerite Landry, age 18, a niece, both "natives of la Cadie."  De La Roque noted that "In live stock" Jean-Baptiste and Marguerite owned "two oxen, two cows, one bull, one pig, and three fowls.  They have been in the colony since ___, and have been granted rations, as has Joseph Landry their son."  Alexis Landry, age 29, ploughman, "native of la Cadie," probably Pigiguit, and Jean-Baptiste's youngest son, lived with wife Marguerite Aucoin, age 29, "native of la Cadie," and two sons:  Jean-Baptiste le jeune, age 3; and Joseph le jeune, age 2.  De La Roque noted that "They have in live stock four oxen, five cows, one calf, two pigs and three fowls.  They are 18 months in the colony, and have been given rations for one year."  Jean-Bapiste dit Labbé Landry, age 39, ploughman, "native of la Cadie," actually Grand-Pré, Jean-Bapiste's oldest son, lived with wife Marie-Josèphe dite Josette LeBlanc, age 32, "native of the same place," and six children, "All natives of la Cadie":  Jean, age 13; Joseph, age 11; Charles, age 9; Marie, age 7; Pierre, age 4; and Marguerite, age 2.  "Their live stock consists of three oxen, two cows two pigs and five fowls," De La Roque noted.  "They have been in the colony eight months, and have been granted rations for one year."  Guillaume dit Perrochon Benoist, or Benoit, age 46, "builder, and owner of a saw-mill, native of la Cadie," lived with wife Joseph Benoist, actually Marie-Josèphe Gautrot, age 50, "native of the same place" and Marguerite's younger sister.  With Guillaume and Josèphe were six children, "All natives of la Cadie":  Pierre, age 22; Michel, age 20; Boniface, age 15; Simon, age 13; Judith, age 15; and Geneviève, age 9.  "They have been in the colony for three years," De La Roque noted, so Sr. Guillaume, as he called him, evidently was the original settler at Rivière-aux-Habitants.  He, too, had received rations from the government in Louisbourg during that period.  "They have one ox, three cows, five heifers, one bull, three pigs, and five fowls in live stock."  De La Roque concluded about this small community of refugees:  "This land which they have improved is situated on the right," or west, "bank of the rivière aux Habitants, but they will not continue to cultivate it for any length of time on account of the serious and frequent inundations of the river, caused by the melting of the snows in the springtime.  At these times, not only are they prevented from working on the land, but they find it almost impossible to prevent the mouth of the river from being closed by silt."49

The survey party then endured a week-and-a-half-long trek through the frozen interior of Île Royale.  "We left the rivière aux Habitants on the 29th of February," De La Roque recorded, "and returned to Port Toulouse that same day.  On the 10th of March we left Port Toulouse taking the road for the Isle de la Sainte Famillie, at which point we arrived on the same day.  The Isle de la Sainte Famille lies on lake Bras d'Or"--the Arm of Gold--"at an estimated distance of two leagues, or six miles, "from Port Toulouse, and in 45 degrees north latitude.  The island," today's Chapel Island, "lies north and south as regards its length and east and west as regards its breadth, which latter, varying in different parts, has been reduced to an average of 300 toises," or slightly over a third of a mile.  "Whilst the quality of the soil does not appear wholly bad, there is no evidence supplies as yet, which could justify certain assurance that any crops which might be grown would come to maturity.  The island is covered with all sorts of timber, but chiefly beech and wild cherry.  There has been a settlement on the island, since the date when M. l'Abbé Maillard moved his mission to the Indians.  The Indians do not live on this Isle de la Sainte Famille, but they have their village on the lands of Grand Isle, opposite the Isle de la Famille, (the reason of this being that the wild dogs devoured all their domestic animals).  The arm of the sea that separates these two islands is only a hundred toises wide.  The Indians only live here during the summer, for there being no means of subsistence for them on the island in the district to the west of Bras d'Or and the district in the north of the island.  They only return to the Isle of Sainte Famille in time for Easter and Whitsuntide when they make their religious duty."

De La Roque found only three Europeans at Île-de-la-Ste.-Famille, all of them island Acadians.  Louis Petitpas, age 26, "interpreter for the Indians, ... lives on this island" with wife Madeleine Pouget, age 23, "native of the said place."  Actually, both Louis and Madeleine were natives of nearby Port-Toulouse, where De La Roque had counted their relatves the previous month.  Living with the young couple was Baptiste Roma, age 19, "native of Trois Rivière de l'Île St. Jean," probably a domestic.  Louis and Madeleine's livestock consisted of "one ox, two cows, one horse, two pigs, six ewes and six fowls.  They have made a clearing of about 36 toises square for a garden where cabbage and turnips have come up well, and they have grown several ears of wheat of a quality above the ordinary, and well filled, but it is considered that while these ears of wheat and the cabbage and turnips have done well on the cleared land where the manure of the live stock rotted in during the year, which had produced a hot-bed six inches deep, they have no assurance that unless the same quantity of manure is placed on all land where crops are sown they would come up with the same beauty, the same quantity and so perfectly matured," De La Roque noted.50

 "We left the Isle de la Sainte Famille on the 11th of March, and set out for the west end of Bras d'Or," he continued.  "We camped in the woods in the evening for the night of the 11th and 12th, arriving at the further end of Bras d'Or on the 12th.  Here we camped for the night.  The distance from Sainte Famille to the further end of Bras d'Or is counted to be six leagues," just short of 17 1/2 miles.  "We walked nearly all the way on the ice, but in places on the Bras d'Or where the ice had thawed we were obliged to take to the brush, and put on our snowshoes in order to get over the snow.  All this region of the Bras d'Or is covered with hard timber, mixed with a good deal of fir.  We took the road on the 15th[sic; he meant 13th] day of the month of March, traveling north-north-west.  While traversing the bush we came across a patch of spruce wood half a league in extent.  The soil did not appear to be of a marshy character.  Next we came to a growth of beech, but only one of small  importance, and in the third place to a second patch of spruce wood.  As a matter of fact all sorts of wood are plentiful here, but fir is the most plentiful, in the three-quarters ofa league, which we traversed before reaching the spur of the slope of the first mountain, where there is a stream of some three or four toises," 19 to 25 1/2 feet, "in width. We climbed the mountain to its highest point so as to make sure of our way.  Its sides though somewhat precipitous are not sufficiently so to prevent the construction of a practicable road, by which loaded vehicles could ascend and descend by making a winding course.  The slope is very even and covered with hard timber through which a horse could gallop.  It is estimated to be 400 toises," or 2,556 feet, "in length at most, and then it rises for half a league," or 7,676 additional feet, "forming a declivity so gentle as to be just sufficient to determine the direction in which the water will flow.  It is covered with all sorts of timber.  In the third piece of sprucewood, half a league in extent, the soil appeared to be of a very moist character, nevertheless one could not be sure seeing that it was on the highest part of the mountain.  Imperceptibly descending it led us to a section of the mountain which is in all respects impracticable, but turning aside from this point and passing half a league to the west we found a pass through which by making three zig-zags a road could be constructed, which could be made more practicable than those false roads over which 24 pounders [cannon] have been taken.  The land is covered with mixed timber.  Having descended the mountain we camped at its foot.  The whole descent may have been an eighth of a league," about a third of a mile, "in all.  We estimated that we had travelled two leagues and two thirds on the road which we had taken and in that distance we took note of four small streams," De La Roque reported. 

"We resumed our journey on the 14th," he went on, "in a direction north-west a quarter west.  In the first two leagues we ascendend and descended several mountains which require no special mention.  The timber is mixed wood.  Next for a good half league we descended an almost imperceptible slope until we came to the river aux Habitants.  In order to cross this stream we had to cut down a fir tree and use it as a bridge over the narrowest part of the river, which we estimated at 30 feet at most, the depth of the stream is barely 6 or 8 feet.  Its bed, like that of all the other streams we passed, is of a nature to lead use to conclude that the land in this section of the country is not swampy, even in the least.  The bed is composed of red sand and pebbles, the water being extemely clear.  The lands are known to be sandy.  We followed one of the arms of the river for a quarter of a league, which brought us to the foot of the Grande Montagne.  We ascendend this mountain as it lay in our road.  The ascent is about a quarter of a league, through woods of beech.  Owing to the height of this mountain it appears at first impracticable to build a carriage road across it, but by following a circuitous route and taking advantage of the passes between the small hillocks a road could certainly be constructed by which all, even loaded conveyances might ascend and descend.  It must be remembered that such a work would entail a great deal of labour.  We camped on the summit of this mountain.  On the 15th we resumed our journey travelling northward for a league, after which we left the river Judac," today's Judique, "on our left.  Leaving the river we continued on our way always following the crest of the mountain, till it dies away gradually as one nears the harbour of the Isle aux Justeaucorps," today's Port Hood, on Cape Breton Island's western coast.  "The lands are covered with hardwood.  That day we kept to the crest of the mountain for one league, being delayed by bad weather, and on the 16th we resumed our road, keeping north-north-wes, and continuted keeping to the top of the mountain till it sloped down to the harbour of the Isles aux Justeaucorps.  We calculated that we made a league and a half that day.  The lands in this section of the country are mostly covered with poor spruce.  On the two isles lying outside the harbour there are some freestone quarries from which the stone used in building the subterranean vaults, as well as the gates of the King's bastion" at Louisbourg "was taken.  The stone was also used for the gates of the King's hospital, but the builder, must have known how inferior its quality was, since part of the stone used in these buildings was brought from France.  There is another kind of stone found in these islands which is suitable for grinding tools.  These two islands, situate in the open sea off the mainland, and one of which is touching the land, make the harbour a safe one, whilst it is said that a coal mine exists on the mainland."  From the Îles-aux-Justeaucorps, De La Roque and his entourage spent March 17-20 returning south then east to Port-Toulouse, which they reached on the 21st.  

They then directed their attention, again, to the island's interior to survey one of the largest refugee communities on Île Royale.  "We remained at Port Toulouse during the 22nd, 23rd and 24th, leaving on the 25th day of March to proceed to the Pointe la Jeunesse," De La Roque related.  "We slept the night of the 25th and 26th at the Isle de la Sainte Famille, and reached Pointe la Jeunesse in the evening of the 26th.  The distance between he Isle de la Sainte Famille and the Point la Jeunnesse is estimated at seven leagues," or a bit over 20 miles, "and this is travelled in the winter on the ice, and in the summer by boat.  The Pointe à la Jeunesse is situate on the narrows of the great lake of Bras d'Or," near present-day Grand Narrows.  "The lands lie exceedingly high and are covered with all kinds of mixed wood. The settlers are unanimous in reporting the ground as unsuitable for cultivation.  It is freely traversed with rocks, which prevent its being worked," De La Roque added.  He did not say it, but the founding of this community was a significant moment in the history of the island's settlement.  The year before the engineer's arrival, Europeans appeared for the first time in the interior of Cape Breton Island to settle where only the Mi'kmaq had dwelled.  All were Acadian refugees, most of them cattlemen from Chignecto and Minas.  They brought with them the largest importation of cattle since the colony was created, but, Andrew Hill Clark avers, their beeves "largely disappeared after one winter."74 

At Pointe-à-la-Jeunesse, De La Roque found 22 families trying mightily to survive in a wilderness so different from their homes on the Fundy shore.  Typically, most, if not all, of them were related to one another either by blood or marriage:  Jean Benoit, age 69 (actually 71), ploughman, "native of Port Royal," who had come to the island from Cobeguit, lived with second wife Marie Amireau dit Tourangeau, age 67, "native of cap de Sable" and widow of Joseph Mius d'Azy.  Of Jean's 14 children by his first wife Marie-Anne Breau, four of them resided in the community with their own families.  Marie had given him no more children, so the couple lived alone.  "They are in the colony eight months," De La Roque noted of the elderly couple, "and have been granted rations for eighteen months."  Jean Bourg, age 36 (actually 39), ploughman, "native of la Cadie," from Cobeguit, lived with wife Françoise Benoit, age 31, "native of Port Royal" and one of Jean's youngest daughters.  With them were six children:  Martin, actually Marin, age 11; Luce-Perpétué, age 8; Gertrude, age 5; twins Joseph and Anne-Marie, age 2; and an unnamed children, likely Jean-Baptiste, age 4 months.  "They have in live stock, one ox, two cows and three pigs," De La Roque noted.  François LeBlanc, age 38, ploughman, "native of la Cadie," from Minas, lived with wife Isabelle Dugas, age 31, "native of la Cadie," and five children:  Joseph, age 11; Marie, age 6; Isabelle, age 4; François, fils, age 2; and an 18-day-old infant not yet named.  "They have an ox," De La Roque noted.  Charles Hébert l'aîné, age 45 (actually 49), ploughman, "native of la Cadie," from Cobeguit, lived with wife Marguerite Dugas, age 49, "native of la Cadie" and Isabelle's sister.  With Charles and Marguerite were seven children:  Ambroise le jeune, age 22; Anne, age 19; François, age 17; Isabelle, age 15; Luce, age 10; Olivier, age 7; and Sixte, age 5.  "In animals," De La Roque noted, they owned  "one cow."  Ignace Caret, actually Carret, age 75, ploughman, "native of la Cadie," from Pigiguit or Cobeguit, lived with wife Cécile Henry, age 52, "native of Port Royal," and eight children:  Charles, age 28; Joseph, age 25; Honoré, age 23; Marie, age 20; François, age 18; Zenou, age 16; Anne, age 12; and Ignace, fils, age 8.  "In lived stock," De La Roque noted, they owned "two oxen, two cows, ten sheep three pigs, four fowls."  Pierre Bourg, age 25, ploughman, "native of la Cadie," lived with wife Madeleine Hébert, age 24, "native of la Cadie" and Charles l'aîné's daughter.  With Pierre and Madeleine was a child "not yet named.  They owned two oxen and one cow," De La Roque noted.  Anne Bourg, age 28, "native of la Cadie" and widow of Jean Hébert, lived with three children:  Sarville, probably Serville, age 7; Basile, age 5; and Jean-Bapiste, age 2.  "She owns one cow," De La Roque noted.  Antoine Henry, age 48, ploughman, "native of la Cadie" and brother of Madeleine of St.-Esprit, lived with wife Claire Hébert, age 48, "native of la Cadie," and seven children:  Isabelle, age 26; Claire, age 24; Joseph, age 22; Eustache, age 20; Madeleine, age 18; Aimable, age 10; and Paul, age 8.  De La Roque said nothing of livestock for this family.  Joseph Hébert, age 42, ploughman, "native of la Cadie," Charles l'aîné's younger brother, and widower of Isabelle Benoit, lived with second wife Cécile Nanson, actually Melanson, age 48, widow of Charles Bourg.  Joseph and Cécile had married only two years earlier.  With them were seven children, all of them his:  Joseph and Anne-Josèphe, age 17; Françoise and Xavier, age 13; Marie, age 12; Isabelle, age 8; and Baptiste, age 7.  "In live stock, they own, one ox, one cow and two pigs," De La Roque noted.  Pierre Breau, age 26, ploughman, "native of la Cadie," lived with wife Marguerite Guédry, age 24, "native of la Cadie," and an unnamed 21-day-old daughter.  Also living with them as Pierre's sister Marie-Josèphe, age 18, "native of la Cadie."  De La Roque noted that they "own one pig and four fowls."   Antoine Breau, age 29, ploughman, "native of la Cadie," actually Cobeguit, and Pierre's older brother, lived with wife Cécile Bourg, age 29, and four children:  Angélique, age 8; Cécile, age 6; Blaise, age 4; and Suzanne, age 1.  "And in live stock," De La Roque noted, they own "one ox, two cows, two calves, four pigs and six fowls."  Jean-Baptiste Guérin, age 33, ploughman, "native of la Cadie," lived with wife Marie-Madeleine Bourg, age 32, "native of Beaubassin," and two sons:  Jean-Pierre, age 2; and an unnamed son, Jérôme, age 2 months.  "In live stock," De La Roque noted, "they own one cow and two pigs."  Dominique Guérin, age 31, ploughman, "native of la Cadie" and Jean-Baptiste's younger brother, lived with wife Anne LeBlanc, age 25, "native of la Cadie," and three daughters:  Anne-Josèphe, age 5; Nastay, probably Anastasie, age 3; and Marguerite, age 1.  "They have two pigs," De La Roque noted.  Olivier Benoit, age 35, ploughman, native of "la Cadie" and Jean's son, lived with wife Marie-Anne, called Anne, Part, age 34, "native of Louisbourg," and four children:  Marie-Ange, age 9; Olivier, fils, age 7; Clément, age 4; and Jean, age 18 months.  "One pig is all the live stock," De La Roque noted.  Charles Hébert le jeune, age 27, ploughman, "native of la Cadie" and younger brother of Charles l'aîné and Joseph, lived with wife Marguerite-Josèphe Bourg, age 23, "native of Beaubassin," and two sons:  Charles, fils, age 2; and an unnamed son, age 5 months.  "In live stock they own one ox, one cow and one pig," De La Roque noted.  François Hébert, age 38, ploughman, "native of la Cadie" from Cobeguit and brother of Charles l'aîné et al., lived with wife Isabelle Bourg, age 32, "native of la Cadie," and eight children:  Olivier, age 13; Françoise, age 11; Ursule, age 10; Joseph, age 8; François, fils, age 6; Tarsille, also called Thérèse, age 5; Marie, age 3; and an unnamed daughter, age 2 months.  "They own in live stock, two oxen and three pigs," De La Roque noted.  Charles Guédry, age 26, ploughman, "native of la Cadie," actually Annapolis Royal, and Marguerite's older brother, lived with wife Adélaïde-Madeleine, called Madeleine, Hébert, age 25, "native of la Cadie" and widow of Jean Breau.  With Charles and Madeleine were two daughters:  Marie-Madeleine, age 6, likely a Breau; and an 8-day-old daughter not yet named, probably Marguerite-Victoire.  Also with them were three of Charles's younger brothers and a sister:  Joseph Guédry, age 20; Jean-Femilien Guédry, age 17; Augustin Guédry, age 12; and Aniez, actually Agnès, Guédry, age 10.  De La Roque noted that Charles and Madeleine owned "one ox and one pig."  Benjamin Mieux, actually Charles-Benjamin, called Benjamin, Mius d'Azy, age 24, ploughman, "native of la Cadie," actually Cap-Sable, and son of Marie Amireau dit Tourangeau.  Benjamin lived with wife Marie-Josèphe, called Josèphe, Guédry, age 30, "native of la Cadie," widow of Amand Breau and Charles's first cousin.  With Benjamin and Josèphe were two daughters:  Marguerite-Pélagie Breau, age 6; Marie-Josèphe Mius, age 2; and Nastay, probably Anastasie, Mius, age 1.  The owned "one ox,"  De La Roque noted.  Charles Benoit, age 26, ploughman, "native of la Cadie" and Jean's youngest married son, lived with wife Marie-Josèphe Estebondon, actually Thibodeau, age 24, "native of Port Royal," and three children:  Marie-Madeleine, age 5; François, age 2; and Marguerite, age 16 months.  De La Roque noted that "in live stock they own one ox, one cow and two pigs."  Martin Henry, fils, age 35, ploughman, "native of la Cadie," Cécile's younger brother and Antoine's nephew, lived with wife Marie-Josèphe Benoit, age 29, "native of la Cadie" and Jean's youngest daughter.  With them were five children:  Basile, age 8; Jean-Charles, age 6; Simon, age 4; Anne, age 2; and a 15-day-old son not yet named.  "One pig is all their live stock," De La Roque noted.  Ambroise Hébert, age 40, "native of la Cadie" from Cobeguit and another brother of Charles l'aîné et al., lived with wife Marie-Madeleine Bourg, age 36, "native of la Cadie," and six children:  Marie-Madeleine, age 16; Basile, age 12; Françoise, age 9; Ambroise, fils, age 7; Jean-Pierre, age 5; and Isaac, age 2.  Their livestock included "one ox and three pigs."  Jacques Arete, age 30, "native of Port Toulouse," lived with wife Rose Alitra, age 28, "native of la Cadie," and two daughters:  Marie-Rose, age 2; and one unnamed.  De La Roque noted that "The only description of live stock they have consists of five fowls."  Of the community, De La Roque noted:  "When all of settlers landed on their arrival from la Cadie in August last, they owned between them the number of 188 oxen or cows, 42 calves, 173 sheep or ewes, 181 pigs and 17 horses.  A comparison with the recapitulation will easily show how many of these have perished from want of hay on which to feed.  The settlers had not even water to give them within reach, and now all ask to leave fully do they realize that they cannot live here."  And leave some of them did.  According to A. H. Clark, these Acadians left the wilderness within the next year or two, though most of them remained in the French Maritimes.  Clark speculates that the livestock at Pointe-à-la-Jeunesse perished not only because of "want of hay," but "some considerable number must have been killed for food and there was a substantial export of horses to the West Indies from Louisbourg in 1752."  Clark insists that "There were lands of moderately good agricultural potential around the shores of Bras d'Or Lake, but these Acadians from the easily worked, dyked tidelands of the Bay of Fundy apparently were averse to clearing forests."75 

De La Roque and his party left Pointe-à-la-Jeunesse on the morning of March 28 "and arrived at Port-Dauphin the same day.  On leaving the Pointe à la Jeunesse," De La Roque explained, "one takes the ice in order to cross the little lake of Bras d'Or, and then going north-quarter-north-east for three leagues," nearly nine miles, "reached the Isle Rouge, lying in front of the harbour of la Cadie, and then holding north-east for a league, proceeds directly forward on the Rouillé road.  The Rouillé road runs nearly north-east-quarter north, and south-west quarter south.  It is reported to be two leagues and a half in length by teen feet in width.  It is very winding in is course, the bridges are not built, neither are the bad places mended, nor the steep places cut down.  The bluffs at the two extremities of the road are exceedingly steep, particularly the one lying at the further end of the bay of Port Dauphin, which is estimated to rise perpendicularly to a height of at least thirty feet.  The lands in the vicinity of Port Dauphin," near present-day Englishtown, near the site of Charles Daniel's Fort Ste.-Anne, constructed in 1629, "are extremely high and precipitous, and are traversed with masses of stone heaped one on top of another and crumbling away through the action of wind and weather.  The land is mostly covered with hard wood.  The nature of the soil as well as the position of the land is not favourble to cultivation.  Any settlers who might be placed here for the purpose of improving the land might be given full liberty to make their living as best they could, they might subsist on the large herds of cattle they could raise, the country having an abundance of pasturage.  The roadstead of Port Dauphin is formed by the Cap Dauphin, situated on the lands to the north, and the Pointe Basse on those to the south.  The Isles de Libore lie three quarters of a league out to sea to the east-south-east of the entrance.  The island is estimated to be two leagues in length, whilst the breadth between Cap Dauphine and the Pointe Basse is estimated as being more, though at the further end it is only half a league.  The harbour is formed by two banks of sand; the one lying to the north and the other to the south.  The distance between these two banks is only 70 to 80 toises," about 450 to 510 feet, "and forms the entrance to Port Dauphin.  The entrance lies north-east and south-west.  The depth of water in the channel is twelve fathoms, whilst throughout the whole extent of the harbour there is fifteen to twenty fathoms of water." 

De La Roque found only four families living at Port-Dauphin, all headed by natives of Newfoundland or France, one of them a colonial official:  Le Sr. Courtian, actually Jean-Baptiste Courthiau, age 50, "sub-delegate of the Admiralty authorities of the town of Louisbourg, native of Bayonne," actually Plaisance, lived with wife Marie-Geneviève, called Geneviève La Forest, age 43, "native of Rochefort."  With them was Marie-Catherine, called Catherine, La Forest, age 17, "their niece," De La Roque called her, "native of Louisbourg."  (In fact, Catherine was Geneviève's half-sister and Jean-Baptiste's sister-in-law.)  De La Roque noted that Le Sieur Courthiau "owns two dwellings in Port Dauphin by grant of Messieurs de Costebelle and De Soubras," the first governor and first commissaire-ordonnateur of Île Royale.  "The first" parcel of land, De La Roque continued, "is situate on the borders of the roadstead and contains 150 toises," or 959 feet, "front on the sea-shore; with regard to its depth, it is not determined.  The second is above the pool, and has only 20 toises, or 128 feet, "frontage.  He occupies two meadows to which he has not yet the titles.  They are situated on the Rivière de Rouville, and contain about seven arpents.  In live stock," the sieur and his wife owned "one cow, one heifer, three ducks and nine fowls."  De La Roque noted that Antoine Massé, no age given, was "in the service of le Sr. Courtian in the capacity of a 36-months man"; and Julien Gomeriets, "native of Combourg, bishopric of St. Malo," was "engaged for one years in the service of Sr. Courtian."  Maurice Leveque, or Lévesque, age 43, "native of Boulan, bishopric of Avranches," lived with wife Marie-Anne Bernard, age 35, "native of the place," and three children:  Marie, age 11; Joseph, age 8; and Jean-Baptiste, age 3.  Also with them was Mathurin Doulet, age 59, :native of St. Malo," Maurice's "fishing partner," who evidenltly had no family of his own.  De La Roque noted that Maurice "has spent 35 years in the Colony," that he and Marie-Anne owned "One boat and nine fowls," that "The land on which they are settled was granted to their late father," Claude Bernard dit Léveille of Poitiers and Québec," by Messieurs de Costobelle and Soubras," that "They lost the title deed in the last war" and "have made a clearing for a garden in which they have grown all sorts of garden produce, and to which they have six apple trees bearing fruit.  The fruit does not ripen well."  Philippe Demarets, or Desmarais, age 55, ploughman, "native of Amiens," France, lived with wife Marie-Anne Rondeau, age 58, "native of Québec."  No children lived with them.  De La Roque noted that Philippe "is three years in the colony," so one wonders where they lived before 1749.  "They have five fowls," De La Roque recorded.  "The land on which they are settled was given them verbally only by Messieurs Desherbiers and Prevost."  Julien Fouré, or Fourré, age 33, fisherman, "native of Carbé, bishopric of St. Malo," lived with wife Marie-Anne Du Charme, age 21, "native of Québec," and their 2-year-old son Julien, fils.  De La Roque did not say how long they had been in the colony, but he gave a clue that they were recent arrivals by noting "They have no dwelling house in the country."  He said nothing of land or livestock.76

"Left Port Dauphin the 31st March," De La Roque continued, "and arrived the same day at Little Bras d'Or.  In leaving the King's Post [Fort Dauphin] we ascended the mountain to the south.  It is covered with all sorts of wood, but chiefly fir trees.  We descended to the Great Bras d'Or.  It is estimated that there is one league of portage.  We passed the Great Bras d'Or on the ice at the imminent risk of our lives, so rotten had the ice become owing to the effect of five or six days of incessive thaws.  The great Bras d'Or lies between the lands of Port Dauphin and those of the Isle de Verderonne.  The distance between the [mouth] of the great Bras d'Or and the little lake of Bras d'Or is estimated at seven leagues," nearly 20 1/2 miles, "which constitutes the length of the Isle de Venderonne, while its breadth is a good quarter of a league, though its entrance is at most 400 to 450 toises," about half a mile, "in width.  There is a reef lying off the lands of Port Dauphin which necessitates hugging the coast of the Isle of Verderonne, and one makes the passage in 15 to 20 fathoms of water.  Little Bras d'Or is settled my M. [Louis-Simon] de la Boularderie," one of the few seigneurs in the colony.  "It is suited for Cod fishery, for agriculture and for the raising of quantities of live stock," De La Roque continued.  "The quality of the soil does not appear absolutely poor." 

De La Roque counted five fishing families on the Boularderie concession at Petit-Bras-d'Or.  Most of the family heads were immigrants from Newfoundland, some of them natives of France.  None had connections to peninsula Acadia, though some of them bore "Acadian" surnames:  Georges Biliart, actually Dihars dit Estevin, no age given, fisherman, "native of Chapeau Rouge, on the coast of Plaisance," lived with wife Marie Coupeau, actually Coupiau dit Desaleur, age 47, "native of St. Pierre," Newfoundland, and eight children:  Alexandre, age 26; Marie, age 18; Jeanne and Louis, age 17; Marguerite, age 12; Madeleine, age 11; Georges, fils, age 10; and Victoire, age 6, "All native of Bras d'Or."  With them were two hired fishermen:  Joseph Doex, age 20, "native of the bishopric of Bayonne"; and Nicolas Richard, age 38, "native of Grandville."  De La Roque noted that Georges owned "Two boats and eight fowls," that "The land he occupies was granted by the late M. de la Boularderie," the Bras d'Or seigneur," that "He had built on it a beach and staging for drying the fish of two boats, and has made a clearing of about two arpents in extent."  Julien Durand, age 42, fisherman, "native of Plaisance," lived with wife Madeleine Vincent dit Desmarets, age 22, "native of Niganiche," and their 15-year-old daughter Bernadine, "native of Niganiche."  With them were 10 hired fishermen, all but one natives of Grandville, bishopric of Coutances, France:  Jean Trouvé, age 42; Vincent des Roches, age 40; François Toré, age 30; François Trogue, age 27; Jacques La Troqué, age 28; Jean Chesne, age 30; Jean le Moine, age 26; Jacob ___, age 18; Jean Catelier, age 22; and Jean Pierre, age 19, "native of St. Malo."  De La Roque noted that Julien "has two boats, one-half boat and one small boat for the fishery.  The land he occupies was granted to him by M. de la Boularderie.  It contains 45 toises", or 288 feet, "fronting on the sea shore; but with regard to the depth the extent is not determined.  There are on it platform, beach and scaffolding for drying the fish of three boats and he has made a clearing of two arpents in extent."   François Gouet, age 55, fisherman, "native of Plairier, bishopric of Dol," lived with wife Marie Montagne, age 45, "native of Plaisance," likely his second spouse.  With them were nine children:  Jean, age 25; Barthélemy, age 23; François, fils, age 21; Jean-François, age 14; La Chesne, age 16; Pierre, age 14; Marie, age 12; Georges, age 10; Fauchon or Franchon, age 4.  Also with them was Jeanne Ouelle, age 18, Marie's daughter from a previous marriage and widow of Guillaume Messer.  With the young widow was her 4-year-old son who De La Roque did not name.  Also in the household were three "hired fishermen":  Pierre Michel, age 20, "native of St. Brieux"; Jacques Poussard, age 23 "native of Plaisance"; and Jacques Gresse de Grandville, age 45.  De La Roque noted that "The land" François "occupies was granted to him by M. de la Boularderie.  It has about 100 toises frontage on the sea shore.  There are on it platforms, beach and scaffolding for drying the fish of two boats.  There is a great deal of land cleared, and still more uncultivated.  He owns in live stock, one cow, one bull, three goats and twelve fowls."  Jean Pichot, age 32, fisherman, "native of Nerichac," was a bachelor.  De La Roque noted that "He has with him three men":  Jean Rambourg, age 27, "native of Grandville," "and two others who live with De Broise, master Smith. He has also two other little boys to look after the kitchen and superintend the platforms for drying the fish," as well as François Pagnon, age 40, "native of Granville."  "All these people are at Louisbourg," De La Roque continued.  "He does not know their age.  He has two boats and fears that, for want of hands, he will only be able to send one to the fishery.  He came here one year ago from Gaspé, where he was settled.  The homestead he occupies was given him by de la Boularderie.  It contains about 80 toises fronting on the sea shore.  There are on it platforms, beaches and scaffoldings for drying the fish of two boats.  He had made a clearing sufficient for the sowing of a peck of wheat and for a very good garden.  He had had rations given him for six months."  Basile Borny, age 50, fisherman, "native of the coast of Plaisance," lived with wife Marie-Jeanne, called Jeanne, Pichot, age 33, "native of Nerichac," and their 12-year-old son Jean.  With them also were two hired fishermen:  Joseph Pinçon, age 55, "native of Britanny"; and Gilles Tosse, age 33, "native of Combourg, bishopric of St. Malo."  De La Roque noted that Basile "owns one boat, one schooner and eight fowls," that he and his family "are in refuge at Labrador from Cap de Rés for a year, and have been given rations for six months.  The land he occupied was granted him by M. de la Boularderie.  It has 100 toises front on the sea shore.  There are on it platforms, beach and scaffoldings for the drying of the fish of two boats and enough land cleared to sow a barrel of wheat."  Antoine Berteau dit Lyonnais, age 50, "native of Port aux Basques," Newfoundland, lived with second wife Joseph Lemare, actually Marie-Josèphe Glamard, age 27, "native of Niganiche," and seven children from his two marriages:  Antoine, fils, age 24, and Pierre, age 19, from his first marriage to Anne Sabot; and Joseph, age 11; Françoise, age 7; Jean-Baptiste, age 4; a 2-year-old son whose name De La Roque did not record; and a 9-month-old also unnamed.  De La Roque did note that Antoine was a "settler for one year past at Bras d'Or," that back at his home in Port-aux-Basques "he managed affairs of the English," and that son Pierre was "still at Boston with the English."  Also in the household were "two boys for cooking hired at Niganiche, whose names and age he does not known" and "his aunt" Marie Linier, age 90, "native of Plaisance."  "He has no live stock," De La Roque continued, "but owns two boats and is building a third.  The place he occupies was given him by M. de la Boularderie.  It consists only of a bank of sand on the sea shore, sufficient for drying the fish of three to four boats.  There are on it platforms, beach and scaffolding for drying the fish of the said boats.  The only clearing is for a garden."

"The land which M. de la Boularderie has had cleared on the little Brasdor is about 100 to 150 arpents with at least as much cultivated land," De La Roque added.  "There are two gardens which are very large and which contain all sorts of fruit trees particularly apple trees."77

De La Roque and his party then moved on.  During the first week of April, they lingered at nearby Baie-des-Espagnols, where they found one of the largest concentrations of Acadians on Île Royale.  "The baye des Espagnols," today's Sydney harbor, "is situated at two leagues distance from the narrows of the little Bras d'Or," De La Roque observed.  "It is formed by the Pointe aux Pommes, situate on the lands to the north and the Point Basse on the lands to the south.  They lie north and south and at an estimated distance of a half league, and are situate a league and a half from the entrance, which is formed by the sand bank de Brouillant, situated to the north of the said entrance, and of that of Berrichon to the south.  The presence of these two banks leaves but a narrow space for vessels to enter, but large enough to leave nothing to fear.  Boats can pass with a depth of water of eight fathoms.  Inside the entrance the bay divides into two arms; one runs inland to the south for a distance of about three leagues, the breadth in sight of the mouth being a small league which gradually diminishes toward the further end, where it is about 150 to 160 toises.  It contains several small creeks, isles and points.  The timber on the banks is mixed, hard wood, however, predominating.  This hard wood is mostly suitable only for fuel, but a small proportion of it might be used in the construction of schooners, bateaux and boats.  The settlers are unanimously of the assured opinion that the nature of the soil is suited to the production of all kinds of grains, vegetables and roots.  The second arm of the bay, as well as the narrow channel at its entrance runs west, south-west. It runs inland for about two leagues.  The nature of the soil on this arm is even better than of that on the other arm, and above all of that which is found between the two arms, and which forms a sort of peninsula jutting out from the mainland, and having a breadth of half a league.  From the beginning of this point, separating the two arms, up to the land at the north end this second arm of the bay preserves an equal breadth.  At the further end there is a river navigable by boat for upwards of a league.  This stream rises in a large lake, which may be two and a half leagues in circumference, and which lies in the lands to the west.  Around the lake is a belt of hardwood mixed with a little fir.  A league and a half southward from the mouth of the lake there is a limestone quarry.  Vessels can enter the bay with eight fathoms depth of water, and once inside can anchor in eight to twelve fathoms.  Throughout the bay there is most secure anchorage.  The bottom is composed of strong tenacious mud, and the anchor can only be weighed with a good deal of difficulty.  Frequently the anchor comes up with 200 pounds of bottom clay attached to it, thus showing that vessels are not likely to drag their anchors here as they do in the port of Louisbourg.  Winds no matter from what point they blow can hardly imperil vessels anchored in this bay, because even when winds from the east north-east blow in at the mouth of the western arm and there is a good deal of sea on, vessels have only to take refuge in the southern arm which is generally safe from any wind.  No reefs or shoals exist in any part of the entrance."78

De La Roque counted 36 families at Baie-des-Espagnols, the great majority of them Fundy Acadians who had come to the colony since 1749.  Also in the community were several fishing families, one of them quite prominent, who had lived on the bay for years.  Only one of these fisherfolk, a wife, was a native of British Nova Scotia.  Typically, most, if not all, of the Spanish Bay Acadians were related by blood or marriage:  Jean Cousin, age 35, navigator, "native of St. Malo" and recently of Minas and Cap-Sable, lived with wife Judith Guédry, age 30, "native of Boston."  Her birthplace, unusual for a peninsula Acadian, reflected her family's participation in the maritime trade between New England and British Nova Scotia.  Jean and Judith lived with four children:  Bénoni, age 9; Marie la Blanche, age 7; Jean-Baptiste, age 5; and Marie-Madeleine, age 2.  They owned "One ox, two cows, two pigs and six fowls; one boat," De La Roque noted.  "The dwelling they occupy was granted only verbally by Messieurs Desherbiers and Prevost.  They have made a small clearing on it where they have grown a large quantity of beans and turnips and have besides a large piece of fallow land, about five or six arpents in extent.  They have no meadow land."  Germain Lejeune, age 50 (actually 59), ploughman, "native of la Cadie," actually Port-Royal, lived with wife Marie Guédry, age 40, "native of la Cadie," and five children:  Joseph, age 22; Marguerite, age 16; Chrysostôme, age 12; Germain, fils, age 11; and Paul, age 5.  They owned "One cow and one pig," De La Roque noted. "The dwelling which they have improved, was given them only verbally by Messieurs Desherbiers and Prevost.  They have made a clearing where half a barrel of wheat could be sown, they have sown cabbage, turnips, beans and pumpkins, all of which came up in great abundance.  In addition they have made a large piece of uncultivated land of about 6 or 7 arpents in extent."  Paul dit Gravois Guédry, age 45 (actually 51), ploughman, "native of la Cadie," actually Port-Royal, Judith's father and Marie's uncle, lived with wife Anne-Marie dite Nanette Mius d'Azy, age 43 (actually 47), "native of la Cadie," actually La Hève, and six children:  Jean, age 22; Marguerite, age 20; Thomas, age 19; Paul, fils, age 10; Petitjean, age 9; and François, age 2.  "They own two cows and seven pigs," De La Roque noted.  "The dwelling in which they are settled was given them by Messieurs Desherbiers and Prevost.  They have cleared land of about two arpents in extent, where they have grown cabbage, turnips and beans in abundance.  In addition they have a good deal of fallow land where they will sow seed this year."  Jean Olivet, age 35, ploughman, "native of Pepiguit," that is, Pigiguit, lived with wife Josette Hébert, age 25, "native of la Cadie," and four children:  Marie and Anne-Josette, age 6; Anne-Angélique, age 2; and Jean-Fournier, age 2 months.  Also living with them was Josette's mother, Anne-Josette Lejeune, age 110[sic], "native of Port Royale."  De La Roque noted that "They will soon have been here in the colony two years, and have been given rations for that time."  "The only live stock they own is one pig,"  De La Roque continued.  "The homestead on which they are settled was given to them verbally by Messieurs Desherbiers and Prevost.  They have cleared land on it, of about two arpents and a half, where they have sown all sorts of roots which have come up well, and they have fallow land of about the same extent."  Joseph Guédry, age 38 (actually 35), plougman, "native of la Cadie," actually Grand-Pré, lived with second wife Marie-Josèphe dite Josette Benoit, age 24, "native of la Cadie," and three children, two of them by his first wife, whose name has been lost to history:  Perrine, age 13; Servant, age 10; and Jeanne, age 3.  "They are in the country two years and have had food from the King for the said time," De La Roque noted.  "Their live stock consists of one pig.  The dwelling or the land in which they are settled, has been given to them verbally by Messieurs Desherbiers and Prevost.  They have made a clearing of about twelve arpents from which they have gathered a large quantity of very fine turnips, cabbage and beans."  Antoine Boulin, actually Eustache Boutin, age 40, ploughman, "native of la Cadie," actually Pigiguit, lived with wife Agathe Viger, age 40, "native of Cap de Sable," and seven children:  Jean-Baptiste, age 17; Ruffine, age 15; Qualier, age 12; Angélique, age 9; Joseph, age 7; François, age 5; and Agathe, age 18 months.  "In the month of September they will have been three years in the colony," De La Roque noted.  "They have been given rations for 33 months.  The land in which they are settled was given them by Messieurs Desherbiers and Prevost.  They have made a clearing on it to sow half a peck of oats and half a bushel of peas."  De La Roque said nothing of their livestock.  Jean, actually Joseph, Boutin, père, age 76, "native of la Cadie" and widower of Marie-Marguerite Lejeune dit Briard, lived "alone in a small house that his children"--Joseph, fils, Eustache, Charles, and Paul--"have helped him build.  He makes hand barrows and other like things for his own amusement," De La Roque noted.  Paul Boutin, age 25, "native of la Cadie," actually Grand-Pré, and Joseph, père's youngest son, lived with wife Eustache, actually Ursule, Guédry, age 21, "native of la Cadie," and her younger brother Pierre, age 11.  "They have two sheep and one hen," De La Roque noted.  "The land on which they are was give to them verbally by Messieurs Desherbiers and Prevost.  They have made a clearing in which to sow a peck of oats and a bushel of peas."  Charles Boutin, age 29, ploughman, "native of la Cadie," lived with Marie-Josèphe, called Josèphe, Guédry, age 28, "native of la Cadie" and daughter of Paul dit Gravois, and three children:  Jean-Charles, age 5; Olive, actually Pierre-Olivier, called Olivier, age 3; and Marie-Françoise, age 3 months.  Living with them was Josèphe's sister, Eleine, probably Hélène, Guédry, age 29, "native of la Cadie."  De La Roque said nothing of the family's land or livestock.  Joseph Boutin, fils, age 42, ploughman, "native of la Cadie," actually Grand-Pré, and Joseph, père's oldest son, lived with wife Françoise Pitre, age 42, "native of la Cadie," probably Cap-Sable, and eight children:  Joseph III, age 20; Euphrosine, age 18; Ambroise, age 15; Bernard, age 13; Paul le jeune, age 9; Marie, age 6; Anne, age 4; and Michel, age 1.  De La Roque noted that "The family ... have been thirty months in the colony, and they have been granted rations for 33 months," that T"he land on which they are settled was given to them by Messieurs Desherbiers and Prevost.  They have made a clearing of two arpents, in which last year they sowed a quarter of a bushel of oats fro which they gathered twelve bushels, making 48 pecks, each grain thus producing 47 and one more."  Jean-Baptiste Lejeune, age 26, ploughman, "native of the East coast" of Nova Scotia, lived with wife Judith Viger, no age given, "native of Cap du Sable," and two children:  Claude, age 3; and Geneviève, age 5 months.  De La Roque noted that "They have been in the colony for two years, and have been given rations for that time," that they owned "Two sheep, one pig and two fowls," that "The land on which they are settled was given to them by Messieurs Desherbiers and Prevost," and "They have made a clearing of one arpent in extent on it."  Augustin Benoit, age 24, ploughman, "native of la Cadie" and brother of Guillaume dit Perrochon of Rivière-aux-Habitants, lived with wife Marguerite Lejeune, age 22, "native of la Cadie," and 16-month-old daughter Marguerite.  In livestock, De La Roque noted, they owned "one pig and three fowls.  The land on which they are settled was given to them verbally by Messrs. Desherbiers and Prevost.  They have made a clearing on which to sow a peck of oats."  Jean Lejeune, age 52, ploughman, "native of la Cadie," Germain's brother and Marguerite's father, lived with wife Françoise Guédry, age 48, "native of la Cadie" and Paul dit Grivois's youngest sister.  With Jean and Françoise were eight children:  Eustache, age 20; Jérôme, age 17; Grégoire, age 15; Félicité, age 13; Barnabé, age 11; Eleine, probably Hélène, age 9; Anne, age 7; and Jean-Charles, age 3.  "They have been in the colony 18 months," De La Roque noted, "and have been granted rations for two years.  In animal stock they own two oxen, one sow and two sheep.  The land on which they are settled was given them by Messieurs Desherbiers and Prevost.  They have made a clearing on it of two arpents.  They have no other pasturage than [what] they can find in the wood."  Olivier Trahan, age 35 (actually 21), ploughman, "native of la Cadie," lived with wife Isabelle Lejeune, age 26.  Olivier and Isabelle had married the previous November so they had no children.  "They live with their father, Jean Le Jeune," De La Roque noted.  He said nothing of livestock for the young couple.  Charles Trahan, age 31, ploughman, "native of la Cadie" and Olivier's older brother, lived with wife Marguerite Boudrot, age 34, "native of the same place."  With them was their 3-year-old daughter Cécile, and Marguerite's half-brother Jean-Baptiste Boudrot, age 25 (actually 29, who would marry Charles's sister Lucie the following October).  "They are in the colony for three years, and have been given rations for that time," De La Roque noted of Charles and Marguerite.  Their livestock consisted of "four oxen, four cows, three calves and one pig.  The land on which they are settled has been given to them verbally by Messieurs Desherbiers and Prevost.  They have made a clearing on it of about two arpents.  They do not know how to praise the beauty of the land sufficiently.  Such an abundance of vegetables of very fine quality has been returned to them for the seed they have sown."  Jean Trahan, age 66 (actually 69), ploughman, "native of la Cadie," actually Grand-Pré, lived with wife Marie Giroir, or Girouard, age 60 (actually 54), "native of the same place" and sister of Claude of Île Madame.  Jean and Marie were Olivier and Charles's parents.  Living with the older couple were the youngest of their 12 children:  Paul, age 19; Lucie, age 18; Agathe-Blanche, age 15; and Marguerite, age 9.  Also in the household was Allein Gredenguy, age 19, "native of Brest," probably a domestic.  "They have been in the colony for three years and have been given rations for that time," De La Roque noted.  "In live stock," they owned "one ox, two cows, two heifers, one pig and five fowls."  François Marteau, age 40, ploughman, "native of Paris," lived with wife Françoise Trahan, age 25, "native of la Cadie," and their 8-month-old son Joseph.  "They have been in the colony three years, and were given rations for that time," De La Roque noted.  Honoré Trahan, age 26, ploughman, "native of la Cadie," actually Ste.-Famille, Pigiguit, perhaps Françoise's brother, lived with wife Marie Corporon, age 33, "native of the same place," and three children:  Marie, age 5; Pierre, age 2; and Marguerite, age 3 weeks.  "They have been in the colony three years, and have been given rations for that time," De La Roque noted.  "In live stock they own two oxen, two cows, two calves, two pigs and one hen.  The land in which they are settled was given to them verbally by Messieurs Desherbiers and Prévost.  They have made a clearing of four arpents."  Thomas Commère dit La Chapelle, age 85, fisherman, "native of Plaisance," Newfoundland, lived with wife Charlotte Vincent dit Desmarets, age 68, "native of the same place."  De La Roque noted that "They have been given rations comfortably to the King's orders."  With them were two sons and their families.  Louis Commère, age 30, "native of Scatary," lived with wife Marguerite Grossin, age 24, "native of the harbour de Fourché," and two children:  Thomas, age 18 months; and Charlotte, age 4 days.  "Four goats are all their live stock," De La Roque noted.  "Their dwelling place on the fishery is at [Île] Scatary," down the coast.  "It was given to them in form by Messieurs de Costebelle and Soubras.  It contains 24 toises fronting the sea shore, the depth not being determined."  Servan Commère, age 29, fisherman, "native of Scatary," lived with wife Marie-Anne, called Anne, La Forest, age 29, "native of Louisbourg," and four children:  Jean, age 9; Louis, age 4; Marie, age 3; and Jeanne, age 11 months.  "They have four domestics including a 36 months man," De La Roque noted of the Commère clan:  Yvon Brunet, age 28, "native of St. Malo," lived with wife Marie Touze, age 30, "native of St. Jean, bishopric of St. Malo."  They evidently had no children.  Yves Carovent, age 23, "native of Brest," lived with wife Marguerite Lejeune, age 21, "native of la Cadie."  They, too, had no children.  Nicolas Tenguy, age 22, "native of the parish of Ecovignas, bishopric of St. Malo," was a bachelor.  As was Simon Godet, age 17, "in the capacity of a 36-months man, native of Plaisance," who, De La Roque noted, "has two years more to complete his term and have his liberty."  De La Roque also noted that "They own one boat," evidently referring to the Commères.  Pierre Benoit, fils, age 48, ploughman, "native of la Cadie," lived with wife Anne-Marie Godet, actually Gaudet, age 63, "native of the same place," and daughter Catherine, age 20.  "They have been three years in the colony and have had rations for that time," De La Roque noted.  "The land in which they are settled was given to them verbally by Messieurs Desherbiers and Prévost.  They have one arpent cleared."  Jean-Baptiste, called Jean, Benoit, age 25, ploughman, "native of la Cadie" and Pierre, fils's son, lived with wife Anne Trahan, age 21, native of Ste.-Famille, Pigiguit, and Honoré's younger sister.  "They have been two years in the colony and have been given rations for the said time," De La Roque noted.  "The land they occupy was given to them verbally by Messieurs Desherbiers and Prévost.  They have made a clearing on it of an arpent square and has two arpents of fallow land."  Charles Roy, age 34, "native of Port Royal," lived with wife Marguerite Lejeune, age 30 (actually 32), "native of the same place," actually Grand-Pré, who he had recently married at Port-Orléans, up the coast.  They, too, had no children.  "They have been in the colony for one year, and have been given rations for the said time," De La Roque noted.  "The land that they occupy was given to them by Messieurs Desherbiers and Prévost.  They have made a clearing where they can sow half a peck in oats and peas."  Étienne Trahan, age 64 (actually 62), ploughman, "native of la Cadie," actually Grand-Pré, and Honoré and Anne's father, lived with wife Marie-Françoise, called Françoise, Roy, age 46, "native of Port Royal," and two unmarried sons:  Charles, age 18; and François, age 16.  Also living with them was "cousin" Ossite Corporon, age 17, "native of Port Royal."  Ossite, in fact, was Marie-Osite-Anne, youngest sister of Étienne's son Honore's wife Marie Corporon.  "They have been three years in the colony and have been given rations for the said time," De La Roque said of Étienne and Françoise.  "In live stock, they have one cow, one sow, three fowls.  The land they occupy has been given to them by Messieurs Desherbiers and Prévost.  They have made a clearing on it of half an arpent square.  Jean-Baptiste Lejeune, age 24, ploughman, "native of la Cadie," lived with wife Marguerite Trahan, age 24, "native of same place, another of Étienne's daughters.  With Jean-Bapitiste and Marguerite were three children:  Jean, probably Jean-Baptiste, fils, age 3; Blaise, age 2; and Marguerite, age 2 months.  "Two pigs are all their live stock" De La Roque noted.  "They are in the colony two years and a half, and have been granted rations for 33 months.  They land they occupy had been given them by Messieurs Desherbiers and Prévost.  They have made a clearing on it half an arpent square."  Paul Lejeune dit Briard, age 50, ploughman, "native of la Cadie," actually Port-Royal, and brother of Eustache dit Briard of Île Madame, lived with wife Marie Benoit, age 47, "native of la Cadie" and Augustin's sister.  With Paul and Marie were nine children:  Josèphe, age 20; Nastasie, age 18; Paul, fils, age 17; Pierre, age 16; Reine, or Renée, age 14; Anne, age 10; Joseph, age 7; Marie-Rose, age 5; and Eleine, probably Hélène, age 4 months.  Paul had a "partner in a skiff they have," François Roy, age 50, "native of the parish of Plumeau, bishopric of Brest," evidently not a fellow Acadian.  "The land on which they are settled, was given to them verbally by Messieurs Desherbiers and Prévost," De La Roque noted of Paul and Marie.  "They have made a clearing on it to be able to sow a peck of wheat and a half peck of oats.  They have a large piece of fallow land."  Pierre Le Roy, age 28, ploughman, "native of la Cadie," lived with wife Marie Lejeune, age 24, "native of the same place," and three daughters:  Henriette, age 3; Rose, age 2; and Suzanne, age 1 month.  "They are in the country 30 months, and have been granted food from the King for 33 months," De La Roque noted.  "In animal stock they own one cow and one pig.  They land they occupy was given them verbally by Messieurs Desherbiers and Prévost."  Charles Le Roy, age 52, ploughman, "native of Paris" and evidently Pierre's father, lived with wife Marie-Charlotte Chauvet dit La Gerne, age 52, "native of la Cadie," probably Pigiguit, and seven children:  Marguerite, age 24; Alexandre, age 22; Charles, age 18; Anne, age 16; Martine, age 14; Alexis, age 10; and Osite, age 7.  Also with Charles and Marie-Charlotte were two of their married daughters and their husbands.  Jean Fournier, age 33, fisherman, "native of Québec," lived wife Geneviève Le Roy, age 26, "native of la Cadie."  They had no children.  Charles Lejeune, age 23, ploughman, "native of la Cadie," lived wife Marie Le Roy, age 20, "native of the same place."  They also had no children.  De La Roque noted of Charles and his extended family:  "They have in live stock three oxen, six cows, four pigs and sixteen fowls.  They will have been two years in the colony on the 22nd July, and have been given rations for the said time.  They land they occupy was given to them by Messieurs Desherbiers and Prévost.  He has made a clearing on it for a garden of about half an arpent in extent, and has a large piece of fallow land.  He has found pastorage situated at the distance of a league to the east-south-east from their dwelling place for feeding three or four head of cattle."  Joseph Lejeune, age 48, ploughman, "native of the colony," actually Port-Royal, and Germain and Jean's youngest brother, lived with wife Cécile Pitre, age 45, Françoise's sister.  With Joseph and Cécile were seven children:  Joseph, fils, age 19, "unfit for militia duty"; Basile, age 17; Chrysostôme, age 15; Perpétué, age 13; Olivier, age 7; Athanase, age 5; and Jacques, age 2.  "They own in live stock two oxen, two cows, one calf, one pig and two fowls," La Roque noted.  "They are in the colony two years, and have been granted rations for 33 months.  The land they occupy was given to them verbally by Messrs. Desherbiers and Prévost.  They have made a clearing of about one arpent in extent, and have a large piece of fallow land."  Paul Benjamin, age 27, ploughman, "native of la Cadie," lived with wife Cécile Lejeune, age 21, "native of la Cadie" and probably Joseph's daughter.  With Paul and Cécile was their 4-month-old son Jean-Baptiste.  They owned, in animals, "two oxen, one cow, one calf and a pig," De La Roque noted.  "They are in the colony two years and have been granted rations for 33 months.  They land on which they are settled was located for them by Messieurs Desherbiers and Prévost.  They have made a clearing on it of about one arpent in extent and have a large piece of fallow land."  Marcel, actually Marie-Marcelle, Trahan, age 27, "widow of the late Pierre Boutin, native of la Cadie," lived with three Boutin children:  Marie-Josèphe, age 6; Anne, age 5; and Alexis, age 3.  "She had been in the colony for two years and a half and has been given rations for the said time," De La Roque noted.  He said nothing of her livestock or land.  Alexis Lejeune, age 27, ploughman, "native of la Cadie," lived with wife Madeleine Lejeune, age 23, "native of the same place," and two daughters:  Marie-Josèphe, age 3; and Madeleine, age 18 months.  "In the month of September," De La Roque noted, "they will have been three years in the colony and they have received rations for 33 months.  They have two pigs, two sheep and nine fowls.  The land on which they are settlers has been given them by Messieurs Desherbiers and Prévost.  They have made a small clearing on it for gardening and have also a large piece of fallow land."79

Although De La Roque found the habitants on the Spanish Bay generally prosperous, for many of them the venture did not last.  Andrew Hill Clark explains:  "These Acadians, out of sheer necessity to survive by supplementing the inadequate 'vivres' supplied from Louisbourg, had cleared something under forty arpents at the time of De la Roque's visit and had livestock, surviving from those they had brought from Baie Verte or Tatamagouche, amounting to some thirty cattle, twenty pigs, and a few sheep, goats, and fowl.  No doubt they cleared more land the next year [1753] but their situation grew worse and, despite grain sent to relieve them in 1754, they returned to Acadia at the end of the year with harsh words for the land and the unfulfilled promises of the government.  Among their other difficulties was lack of experience or equipment for the fishery; they had but two boats in 1752."  Some of the Baie-des-Espagnols habitants, along with relations from Mordienne and Miré, did not wait until "the end of the year" to leave Île Royale.  By late August 1754, six families, consisting of 28 individuals, had made their way to Halifax, where they beseeched the colonial Council to allow them back into the province.  In October, after the family heads took an unqualified oath of allegiance, most were provisioned for the winter and sent to Mirliguèche, near the German Protestant settlement of Lunenburg on Nova Scotia's Atlantic coast.  There they reconstructed the old Acadian village amidst the ashes of October 1749.  Meanwhile, four individuals, probably part of a nuclear family, were permitted to return to their old homes at Pigiguit.80

"We left the Baye des Espagnols on the 5th of April," De La Roque continued, "and arrived at four o'clock in the afternoon at the Bay de l'Indienne," today's Lingan.  "The distance between the bank of the Berichon to Pointe Basse is estimated at a league and a half.  The coast lies about east-north-east by west south-west.  Throughout this distance, so high are the shoals, that it is evident that an enemy would not be able to effect a landing.  At low tide the shoals stand above water for a distance of more than a hundred toises," or 639 feet, "from the foot of the cliff.  In addition, about a quarter of a league out to sea, there lies a reef which is said to be half a league from Pointe Basse, and a league from the bank of the Berichon.  The distance between the Pointe Basse and the Cap Charbon, lying at the entrance to the Baye de l'Indienne, is also estimated at a league and a half.  Pointe Basse and Cap Charbon lie east-south-east and west-north-west.  After having doubled Pointe Basse, and gone a quarter of a league, one reached a creek of no great size, but in which, nevertheless the fishing boats take refuge when they cannot make the harbour.  This proves that the creek is on the open coast, and it is only when the wind blows overland from the Isle that the boats can go out fishing.  Then, at a quarter of a league from this creek, there is a barachois, which runs inland, in a south-westerly direction, for a good quarter of a league, and which is about 40 toises in breadth.  In this barachois vessels can lie sheltered from north-north-west; west and south-south-east winds.  Finally between this barachois and the Cap au Charbon there is no place fitted as a place of refuge for boats.  The Baye de l'Indienne is only fitted for the cod-fishery and for the raising of plenty of live stock.  The entrance to the bay is formed by the Cap au Chabron, lying on the lands at the north end of the harbour, and by the Cap de Table lying on the land to the south-west.  The entrance lies north-west by south-east.  It is estimated that the distance between these two points, Cap au Charbon and Cape de Table, is one league, and that there are from fifteen to sixteen fathoms of water on the line between them but then the bottom of the bay gradually shelves upwards towards the narrows, until there are but eleven feet of water at spring tide.  The bay is restricted (in its accommodation) by a bank of sand, which crossed it from south-west shore, leaving between it and the land on the north-east a space of from twenty to twenty-five toises only in breadth, in which space vessels repairing to the harbour for coal on the King's account are loaded.  It is the only place to which vessels can go to take in cargo, and it is much to be deplored, because in lading coal falls into the water, and in course of time will fill the channel and thus render it impracticable.  Behind the bank of sand is a great barachois which runs very far inland in a westerly direction.  It is estimated that its average breadth is three-quarters of a league with a length of one league.  Its banks are covered with grass, and the crops would be vastly increased if the settlers would go to the trouble of burning and cutting, or pulling out the roots of the fir brush.  The lands around the barachois are covered generally with fir trees.  Three small rivers flowing from the west, north-west, and north-north-west empty themselves into this barachois."  After conducting his survey of Baie-de-L'Indienne, De La Roque noted "that the beaches for drying fish in the harbour, as well as those of Little Bras d'Or, are not made with stones as are those of Louisbourg, but with branches of birch and wild cherry.  The reason is that the beaches made with pebbles do not allow of sufficient ventilation, and the cod becomes overheated by the great heat of the month of July."81 

De La Roque found six families at Indian Bay.  All of the heads were natives of France or Spain, but two, perhaps three, of their wives had ties to peninsula Acadia:  Baptiste La Guerre, actually Jean-Baptiste Daguerre, age 50, ploughman, "native of Bilbau in Spain," lived with wife Brigitte Trahan, age 35, "native of la Cadie," actually Pigiguit, daughter of Jean of Baie-des-Espagnols.  With Baptiste and Brigitte were eight children:  Madeleine, age 14; Jean-Baptiste, fils, age 13; Marie-Rose, age 12; Antoine, age 8; Marie, age 6; Charles, age 3; Pierre, age 1; and Isabelle, age 4 months.  "In live stock, they own eight oxen fourteen cows, three ducks and eight fowls," De La Roque noted.  "In the month of August they will have been three years in the colony," though they were married at Louisbourg in May 1737.  "They have been granted rations for 33 months.  The land on which they are settled was given to them verbally by Messieurs Desherbiers and Prévost.  They have made a clearing of about ten arpents in extent."  Pierre Le Gros, age 34, carpenter, "native of Paris," lived with wife Servanne Laman, perhaps Lanoue, age 22, "native of Little Bras d'Or," and their 2-year-old daughter Marguerite.  "They have been given rations for two years," De La Roque noted.  "They have no live stock of any kind.  The land on which he has settled has not been given to him; he has placed himself there waiting for one which has not been improved, to be given him."  François Le Breton, age 48, fisherman, "native of he parish of St. Léger, bishopric of Coutances," lived with wife Marie Mordan, or Mordant, age 32, "native of Little Bras d'Or," and three children:  François, fils, age 12; Charles, age 7; and Isabelle, age 2.  Also with them were "three fishing partners":  Nicholas Le Breton, age 24, "native of the parish of St. Léger" and likely François's brother; Pierre Tosse, age 41, "native of the parish of Bruvilly, bishopric of St. Malo"; and Julien Tournier, age 22, "native of the parish of Hedia, bshoprick of St. Malo."  "For 29 years," De La Roque noted, "the Sr. François Le Breton has been in this country.  He has been given rations for two years.  The dwelling in which he is settled belongs to his father-in-law," Joseph Le Mordant dit Lanoy of Louisbourg and Petit-Bras-d'Or.   Sr. François "is settled on it," De La Roque explained, "waiting to be given a location outside the narrow for where he now is he cannot put up platforms for drying fish, on account of the vessels loading there with coal for the King."   Marie-Catherine, called Catherine, Le Bon, age 38, "widow of the late Gabriel Borny" and "native of Coutances," lived with four Borny sons:  Jean, age 20; Gabriel, fils, age 15; Jacques, age 12; and André, age 3.  With the widow Borny were "Three fishing partners ... all of the department of Bayonne":  Jean Maslarex, age 36; Bertrand Anglade, age 27; and Mathieu Mourgue, age 30.  "She owns two boats and four fowls," De La Roque noted.  "She has been given rations for two years.  The concession she occupies on the property as given to her verbally by Messieurs de St. Ovide and Le Normand without determining the extent.  She has made a beach with scaffolding and platforms for drying the fish of two boats, and has made a garden."  François Dauphin, age 45, fisherman, "native of the parish of St. Père, bishopric of Coutances," lived with wife Perrine Mordan, or Mordant, age 23, probably in his early 30s, "native of Little Bras d'Or" and Marie's sister.  Living with them were two sons:  François, fils, age 12; and Claude-Pierre, age 18 months.  Also part of the household were three fishermen:  Claude Lamort, age 43, "native of St. Planché, bishopric of Coutances"; Pierre Colin, age 30, "native of Dinan, bishopric of St. Malo"; and Jean Moreau, age 19, "native of Limoges."  De La Roque noted that François "owns one boat and eleven fowls.  He had been given rations for two years.  The dwelling on the fishery on which he is settled was granted to the late Jean[-Baptiste] Villedieu, his father-in-law [actually his stepfather] by Messieurs de St. Ovide and de Mézy without delivering any title to him, or limiting the extent of the land.  He has on it beach scaffolding and platforms for drying the fish of two boats."   ._____ Nicolas, age 45, "native of Montanes, bishopric of Coutances," France, was the fishing partner of his stepson-in-law, François Dauphin, also of Coutances.  Living with Nicolas was his wife Marie Ebert, actually Hébert, age 50 (actually 57), "native of la Cadie," actually Minas, widow of Joseph Le Mordant dit Lanoy and Marie and Perrine's mother.  Nicolas and Marie had no children living with them; they had married only two years earlier, and Marie was beyond childbearing age.  De La Roque noted that Nicolas "has been in the country 27 years" and that he and his wife "have no grant of the land they occupy, and no clearing except one for a small garden."82

"We left Baye de l'Indienne on the 7th day of April," De La Roque continued, "taking the road for the bay de Mordienne, and reached that place," today's Port Morien, "the same day.  After passing the Cap de Table we reached the coal mine from which the coal for the troops of the garrison is drawn.  The English constructed a sort of entrenchment with palisades at this point, in order to protect themselves from attack by the Indians.  The fortification is a square bastion, constructed of palisades at each angle.  In the centre of the entrenchment is a block-house, built of logs, placed one on top of the other, the upper floor of which being intended for the placing of four pound cannon.  Outside the entrenchment are two main buildings built of stakes, the one being sixty feet long by fifteen wide, and the other being twenty-five feet long by the same width as the first.  Vessels awaiting cargoes of coal cannot be loaded in every sort of weather, but only when there is no wind, or when it blows lightly off land from over the island.  At other times vessels would find it impossible to lay alongside, so that when the sea is still, the soldiers, or other persons, superintending the drawing of the coal, hoist a pennon on a flagstaff, within sight of the vessels lying in the Baie de l'Indienne, as a signal to them to come in and load.  It is stated that this coal mine extends along the whole coast to Little Bras d'Or.  A quarter of a league along the road from the coal mine is the Cap de Table, which with the Cap Percé forms Glace Bay, situate half way between these two bays.  Cape de Table is so high and so precipitous that no vessel would be able to approach without running the risk of losing crew and cargo, but vessels can go down to Glace Bay with ease and safety.  The bay is a league and [a] half in breadth and runs inland about the same distance.  Vessels anchor in the bay in six fathoms of water at the entrance, and find shelter from south and west winds, in absolute security.  There is also shelter from north-west and south-east winds, but when these blow fiercely they are not secure.  Over all the remainder of the bay there are two fathoms of water.  At the further end of the bay is a bank of sand 200 toises in extent, that separates the bay from its barachois.  There are four feet of water at the foot of this bank at hightide.  No reefs or shoals are known to exist either in the bay or outside save only one, which lies a musket-shot outside Cap Percé, and which is not worth taking into account.  The barachois of Glace Bay is very extensive.  It extends inland to the west for at least a league, and has a breadth of half a league.  The lands are covered with mixed wood, fir being the chief.  The rest of the coast is not at all practicable.   The Baye de Mordienne is good only for raising cattle, and for the cod-fishery though so far no fishing has been done.  The bay is formed by a spur of Cap Percé and by Cap Mordienne, which are estimated as being a league apart.  These points lie north by south and the entrance to the bay lies east and west.  Vessels making the entrance tack in twelve fathoms of water, for a good quarter of a league, in nine, half a league, in four, and for one league, which is opposite to the present settlement in two and a half fathoms.  There is no channel throughout the whole distance the bottom being so level.  At a quarter of a league from the point opposite the present settlement there lies a sand bank that extends all across the bay, leaving only a narrow passage at each end, one to the south and the other the north, by which access can be had to the barachois.  On the barachois there is only a foot to a foot and a half of water at low tide, and from five to ... five and a half feet at high tide.  The entrance to the south, which contains ten feet of water is the more accessible, and after passing that one comes to the channel leading to Fausse Baye," today's Homeville River.  "One takes a boat to cross the barachois which is a good half league long by a quarter of a league broad.  All the lands in this district are covered with fir, with the exception of those to the north of the Baye de Mordienne which are common lands.  The settlers make nearly all their hay here and in Glace Bay."83 

At Baie-de-Mordienne, De La Roque found seven families, all of them peninsula Acadians with the usual kinship ties.  Many, in fact, were siblings from Grand-Pré:  Claude Teriau, or Thériot, age 56, ploughman, "native of la Cadie," actually Minas, lived with wife Marie Guérin, age 53, "native of the same place" and sister of Jean-Baptiste and Dominique at Poine-à-la-Jeunesse.  With Claude and Marie were nine children:  Madeleine, age 25; Théotiste, age 23; Mathieu, age 22; Marguerite, age 20; Françoise, age 18; Anne, age 14; Romain, age 12; Eleine, probably Hélène, age 9; and Ignace, age 6.  "They own in live stock:  one ox, five cows, two pigs, one horse and twelve fowls," De La Roque noted.  "On Michaelmas day next [September 29] they will have been two years in the colony, and they have been given rations for that time.  The land on which they are settled is on the west point of the Lake de Mordienne on the lands lying south of the bay.  The quality of the land does not seem to be at all suitable for the cultivation of wheat.  It is reddish, sandy and very light.  There is not more than a foot of soil to work, and under that is found a bed of rock.  They have cleared sufficient ground to sow three bushels of oats between three settlers, who are there by permission of Messieurs Desherbiers and Pévost."  Pierre Thériot, age 58, ploughman, "native of la Cadie" and Claude's older brother, lived with wife Marguerite Guérin, age 45, "native of the same place" and Marie's younger sister.  With them were nine children, "all natives of la Cadie":  Jean-Baptiste, age 24; Marguerite, age 20; Marie-Madeleine, age 19; Anne, age 17; Anselme, age 14; Françoise, age 12; Fabien, age 10; Brisset or Bricet, age 8; and Geneviève, age 4.  "In live stock, they own:  two oxen, four cows, one horse and six fowls," De La Roque noted.  Joseph Thériot, age 23, ploughman, "native of la Cadie," lived with wife Marie Godet, probably Gaudet, age 24, "native of the same place."  They had no children, but, De La Roque noted, "They have a cow with calf and two fowls."  Germain Thériot, age 47, "native of la Cadie" and Pierre and Claude's younger brother, lived with wife Catherine-Josèphe Benoit, age 40, "native of the same place" and daughter of Jean of Pointe-à-la-Jeunesse.  With Germain and Catherine-Josèphe were 10 children, "all natives of la Cadie":  Marie-Josèphe, age 19; Anne, age 17; Chrysostôme, age 16; Marie-Théodose, age 14; Hilaire, age 11; Ambroise and Victoire, age 9; Isabelle, age 7; Luc, age 5; and Françoise, age 3.  "They own the following live stock," De La Roque noted:  "three oxen, two cows, one calf, five pigs, two horses and a cock.  On Michaelmas next they will have been two years in the colony, and have received rations for that time.  The land on which they are settled was given them verbally by Messieurs Desherbiers and Prévost.  It is situated at Fausse baye but they have done scarcely any clearing."  Pierre Guérin, age 40, ploughman, "native of la Cadie," actually Minas, and Marie and Marguerite's younger brother, lived with wife Marie-Josèphe Bourg, age 39, "native of the same place," actually Port-Royal, and seven children:  Pierre, fils, age 17; Pélagie, age 15; Isidore, age 13; Louis, age 10; Luce, age 8; Gertrude, age 6; and Marie-Josèphe, age 3.  "They have been in the colony 18 months and have been granted rations for 21 months," De La Roque noted.  "They own in live stock:  two cows, two pigs, six sheep, and three fowls."  Marie-Josèphe Thériot, age 45, widow of Jean Benoit, fils and Pierre, Claude, and Germain's sister, lived with seven Benoit children:  Anne, age 23; Joseph, age 21; Isabelle and Osite, age 19; Baptiste, age 13; Jean-Louis, age 11; and Paul, age 9.  "She has been in the country and received rations like others above mentioned," De La Roque noted.  "One sow and two fowls are all her live stock."  François Thériot, age 49, "native of la Cadie," actually Minas, and Pierre, Claude, Germain, and Marie-Josèphe's brother, lived with wife Françoise Guérin, age 42, "native of the same place" and Marie, Marguerite, and Pierre's sister.  With them were 11 children:  Marie, age 22; Marguerite, age 20; Pierre, age 18; Madeleine, age 16; Isabelle, age 14; Perpétué, age 12; Théodose, age 10; Cyrille, age 8; Gertrude, age 6; Anne, age 4; and Joseph, age 2.  "They will have been in the colony one year at the beginning of August next," De La Roque noted, "and have been given rations for nine months.  Live stock:  seven oxen, nine cows, eleven sheep, one mare, three pigs and four fowls.  They have not made an inch of clearing where they are, not having had time through change from one place to another.  They are at Fausse Baye since the end of the month of September.  They cut the hay for feeding their animals on the banks of the Barachois de Mordienne and of Fausse Bay.  The quality of the land is similar to that at the Baye de Mordienne."  Of the community, De La Roque observed:  "The settlers will not be able to live unless given liberty to do what suits them best to preserve their subsistence."84 

"We left Fausse Baye on the 19th [actually the 9th] of the month of April," De La Roque continued, "and arrived the same day at the mouth of the river de Miré," today's Mira River.  "From Fausse Baye to the Bay of de Miré there is a bank of sand of about thirty to thirty-five toises in width to be crossed.  The true baye de Miré is formed by the Pointe Plate, lying to the north and by the Pointe de Catalogne to the south.  It is estimated that these points lie north-north-west by south-south-west, and that the distrance from one to the other is half a league, whilst from the said Pointe Plate to the river de Miré is three quarters of a league.  In this distance several small creeks are found, which are very suitable for debarcation of troops, without any risk of the movement being perceived from the site of the projected redoubt, which it is proposed to build on one of the points of the river de Miré.  A league from the river one strikes Pointe à Catalogne, at a point exactly opposite to the house of the Fathers of Charité.  In all this part there is only a bank of sand lying along the front of the said house of the Fathers of Charity, upon which it would be possible for an enemy to effect a landing, and it must be taken into consideration that any such attempt would be discovered from the projected redoubt, which is not only very near this place but stands on much higher ground.  The Bay de Miré is half a league in depth, with a good depth of water in almost every part.  Large vessels can anchor in twelve fathoms of water at only a short distance from land, whilst boats and schooners can find three and four fathoms only a hundred toises off the shore, and from a bar that lies before the mouth of the river.  Vessels can find shelter here from southerly to easterly winds, by lying under the land on the west and north sides, whilst as a rule there is good anchorage throughout the bay.  As above stated the Rivière de Miré lies between the points Plate and Catalogne.  It takes its rise eight or nine leagues inland, and runs east and west.  Vessels of the capacity of 15 or 16 cords of wood, can ascend loaded with the produce of the country, which consists up to the present only of wood, almost to the far end.  The name of Baye of Miré is applied indifferently to the whole coast lying between the Cap de Morienne on the north side and the Cap de Menadon," today's Main-à-dieu, or Hand of God, "on the south.  These two points lie north-north west and south-south-east, at an estimated distance of two and a half leagues, and giving a circuit of five leagues.  Fausse Bay is comprised in the stretch between the two capes; and is only a league distant from the Cap de Morienne.  So high and precipitous is the coast at the Cap de Mordienne that it is morally impossible for ships to approach it without incurring great danger of being cast away both crew and cargo; but as if to compensate for this, it is possible to make a very easy attack by way of the bank of sand at Fausse bay, which is at the dividing line of the two bays.  Fausse bay," or False Bay, "is so called because it is in sight both of the Bay de Miré and the bank of the sand.  It lies at a distance of a league and a half from Pointe Plate, and whilst the coast on this side is not nearly so high as on the other, it is almost as inasscessible owing to a chain of rocks extending along the front.  The true Baye de Miré is the barachois de Catalogne," near today's Catalone, "which runs inland to the west for a league, and has an estimated breadth of 200 to 250 toises.  It preserves the same width for half a league gradually widening towards the further end where it forms small isles and peninsulas.  At this end the Rivière à Durand flows in from the north-west.  Finally it is estimated that the distance from this barachois to Cap de Menadon is three quarters of a league.  Several places were found where troops could be landed at any time and without risk."

De La Roque had good reason to be concerned about military landing places in this area.  Here at Baie-de-Miré, the barachois de Catalogne, and other points down the coast, lay the northern approach to the French citadel at Louisbourg, only 10 miles due south of Rivière-de-Miré.104 

De La Roque found 22 families at Miré, most of them farmers from France or Spain, and most recent arrivals.  Atypically, the hand full of peninsula Acadians living there did not belong to a community kinship network:  Jean-Baptiste Villedieu, carpenter, age 58, "native of Grandville," diocese of Coutances, France, lived with third wife Catherine Grosset, age 45, "native of St.-Malo" and widow of Sr. Jean-Charles Cruchon dit Latour-Cruchon.  With them were four sons, "All natives of Louisbourg," the oldest from Jean-Baptiste's second wife Anne Hébert:  Nicolas, age 17; Laurent, age 8; François, age 7; and Louis, age 2.  Pierre-Martin Villedieu, age 26, coaster, "native of Petit Degra" and also Jean-Baptiste's son from Anne Hébert, lived with wife Marie-Perrine Cruchon, age 20, "native of St. Malo" and his stepsister.  They had no children, though Marie-Perrine likely was pregnant.  Also living with the family was Jacques Cruchon, age 17, Catherine's son from her first marriage and Marie-Perrine's brother.  De La Roque noted that "They," meaning the extended family," have been granted rations for 18 months.  They have in live stock one horse, three goats, and nine fowls.  The land on which they are settled was given them verbally by Messieurs Desherbiers and Prévost.  They have made a small clearing on it and would have made a larger if they had not been disturubed by a settler who had previously obtained it to mine coal."  Pierre Varenne, age 40, ploughman, "farmer for the Fathers of Charity, native of Léon," actually Le Roque-de-Saupoyen, bishopric of Puy, France, lived with wife Madeleine-Josèphe Labauve, age 26, "native of la Cadie," actually Minas, and three daughters:  Angélique, age 6; Marie, age 4; and Josèphe, age 2.  "In live stock they own two oxen, ten cows, three calves, nine sheep, three pigs, three ducks and twenty-one fowls."  De La Roque noted of the mission:  "The farm of the Fathers Charity was originally one league in extent, but they obtained from Messieurs de St. Ovide and de Mézy an addition of three leagues which makes a homestead of four leagues square and they had had their farmers make a clearing of about sufficient extent to allow of the sowing of three barrels of oats and a bushel of wheat.  They have their hay cut on the banks of the river."  Jean Guillaume, age 32, ploughman, "native of Laitoure, bishopric of Auch," France, lived with wife Marie Boila, age 31, "native of Busset, bishopric of Lerou," and their 6-year-old daughter Catherine.  Also with them was André Durocher, age 45, "their partner, native of Condon, bishopric of Auch."  De La Roque noted that "They have been in the colony since the surrender of the place by the English [July 1749] and have been given rations for three years.  In live stock, they own one cow, twelve fowls and three ducks.  The land on which they are settled was given to them verbally by Messieurs Desherbiers and Prévost. It is situated on the creek à Dion.  They have cleared land for sowing one bushel of oats.  Their pasturage is on the Pointe à Dion."  Laurent, actually Bernard, L'Hermite, age 37, ploughman, "native of Coutances," France, lived with wife Marie-Renée Bertrand, age 28, "native of la Baleine," Île Royale, and two sons:  François, age 7 years; and Pierre, age 15 months.  "He had been in the colony 22 years," De La Roque said of Bernard, "and has been given rations for two years."  The land he and Marie-Renée occupied "was given to them verbally by Messieurs Desherbiers and Prévost in 1750, and is situated on the Pointe au Razoir, where he has been promised twelve arpents fronting the river in consideration of land he had at Porte Dauphine which has been taken by the king.  He had not yet done any clearing."  Marie Le Borgne de Bélisle, no age given, but she would have been 51, "widow of the late Jean Bertrand" and Marie-Renée's mother, was "Hoping to settle on the river de Miré," De La Roque noted, so "she is wintering here with all her family."  Marie was a granddaughter of former Acadian governor Alexandre Le Borgne de Bélisle, who had married a daughter of former Acadian governor Charles de Saint-Étienne de La Tour.  Though Marie had been born in peninsula Acadia, she had married Jean Bertrand at Havre-la-Baleine, Île Royale, in April 1717, so she and her family had a long acquaintance with the big island.  Laurent Soly, age 33, ploughman, "native of Spain," lived with wife Jeanne Lécuyer, age 22, "native of Louisbourg," and two sons:  Antoine-Thomas, age 2; and Laurent, fils, age 4 months.  De La Roque noted that "They have been granted rations for three years which is about the time they have been in the colony.  The land they occupy was given them verbally by M. le Comte de Raymond at the time of his visit to Miré.  They have made no clearing, not having had time to work at it before snow fell.  They have been granted rations for three years."  Jean Tessé, age 53, coaster, native of Freel," actually Cap Fréhel, Brittany, lived with wife Marie-Josèphe Bodard, or Bodart, age 40, "native of la Cadie," actually Grand-Pré, and six children:  Pierre, age 23; Jean, age 15; Baptiste, age 14; Étienne, age 13; Marie, age 8; and Servant, age 4.  Their livestock consisted of "one cow with calf, four fowls," De La Roque noted.  They also owned a bateau.  "They have been given two years' rations.  The land on which they are settled was given to him verbally by Messieurs Desherbiers and Prevost.  It is situated near the Isle de la Conférance.  He has made a piece of fallow land of six or seven arpents in extent, and a small clearing for a garden."  Jean Mariadé, actually Jean-Baptiste Marcadet, age 52, ploughman, "native of La Chapelle," France, lived with wife Madeleine Benoit, age 44, "native of la Cadie," actually Cobeguit, daughter of Jean of Pointe-à-la-Jeunesse.  With Jean-Baptiste and Madeleine were 11 children, "all natives of la Cadie, with the exception of the last, who was born at St.-Pierre," probably Port-Toulouse:  Marie, age 24; Jean, fils, age 23; Pierre, age 17; François, age 13; Michel, age 11; Marie-Madeleine, age 10; Jean-Lucas, age 9; Anne-Blanche, age 8; Joseph, age 6; Judith, age 4; and Modeste, age 1.  "They have been given rations for two years," De La Roque noted.  "They have no dwelling and no live stock.  They are wintering in the house of one Tessé."  Mathurin La Faucheux, age 50, ploughman, "native of the parish of Jenelay, bishopric of Angers," lived with wife Geneviève Meran, age 54, "native of la Chevrotière," Canada, and two children:  Guillaume, age 16; and Marie-Louise-Angélique, age 12.  Living with them was Guillaume Fromant, age 14, "their nephew, native of La Flèche, bishopric of Angers."  Also in the household was Mathurin Charboneau, age 21, "engage for one year as a domestic, native of Trémontier, bishopric of Poitiers," who "intends settling in the colony."  De La Roque noted that the couple "own the following live stock:  four cows, three calves, two sheep, four lambs, three ducks, seven fowls, and one skiff.  He had been given two years rations.  The land he occupies was given to him by a deed of grant by Messieurs de St. Ovide and Le Normand in 1734.  The extent of the land is defined as being from the Isle de la Conférance to the creek of Charroy.  The land between these two places, north and south[,] belong to him for half a league in depth.  He had made a very large piece of fallow land and a clearing where he might sow at least eight bushels of seed corn if he had men and oxen to work with.  Before the war he always sowed a barrel of oats, which returned him a yearly average of twelve to one; a peck of buckwheat which returned him fifteen to one, but with wheat he has never succeeded well.  He had a meadow which was granted to him at the same time as his homestead, the title deed of which he lost in the last war.  It is situated to the north, quarter north-west of his land, and on it he can cut enough hay to feed eight head of cattle."  Jean-Pierre St. Gla, age 30, ploughman, "native of St. Fristre, bishopric of Castres," lived with wife Jeanne De la Bonne, age 30, "native of Begnac," and their 11-month-old daughter Catherine.  De La Roque noted that "The land on which they are settled was given them by M. le comte de Raymond at the time of his journey to Miré.  They made a large piece of fallow land during the winter, where they will sow oats.  It is situated on a point that juts far into the river forming a peninsula."  Joseph Gracia, perhaps Garcia, age 34, ploughman, "native of Lerocgue, bishopric of Bucaye," actually Biscaye, lived with wife Marie Depontigue, age 32, "native of Dourescan, bishopric of Bayonne."  They had no children.  De La Roque noted that "The land on which they are settled was given verbally to them by M. le comte de Raymond.  He has worked on it pretty well since he is on it.  They have been given rations for two years, which is the time they have been in the colony."   Luc Le Chené, age 34, ploughman, "native of Bordeaux, lived with wife Laurens, actually Laurence, Seigneux, age 35, "native of Dinan."  They had no children.  De La Roque noted that "He has been in the country two years and been given rations for eight months.  The land on which he is to build is situate on the Grande Pointe.  He has not wintered there to do any clearing."   Thérèse Gruneau, age 32, "native of Plandieu, bishopric of Dol," France, and "widow of the late Guillaume Brabel," lived alone.  De La Roque noted that "The land she occupies was given to her verbally by Messieurs Desherbiers and Prévost.  Her late husband made a small clearing on it.  She has one hen and two ducks."  Ignace Tallement, age 26, ploughman, "native of Pragues," lived with wife ____ Esperchy, age 22, "native of Bordeaux," and two daughters:  Marie, age 3; and Marie-Catherine, age 1.  De La Roque noted that Ignace "has been two years in the country and has been given rations for that time.  The land on which he is settled was given him verbally by Monsieur le comte de Raymond.  He has made a small clearing where he can sow small quantities of oats and turnips."  Julien Bourneuf, age 36, ploughman, "native of Médrillac, bishopric of St. Malo" and widower of Anne Hommette, lived with second wife Jeanne Guédry, age 27, "native of la Cadie," and her younger brother Joseph, age 17, also "native of la Cadie," actually Cobeguit.  (Jeanne and Joseph were siblings of Ursule Guédry of Baie-des-Espagnols.)  Jeanne had married Julien at Louisbourg the previous year.  Living with them were four of Julien's daughters by his first marriage:  Anne, age 12; Jeanne, age 9; Julienne, age 7; and Sophie, age 5.  With them also was Renée Guillaume, age 20, described as Julien's "sister, native of the parish of Argence."  De La Roque noted that Julien "owns in live stock:  one pig and three fowls.  He is in the colony three years, and has been given rations for that time.  The land on which he is settled is situated to the east of the dwelling place of Monsieur de la Borde, treasurer to the colony; it was given to him verbally by Messieurs Desherbiers and Prévost.  He had made a good clearing in which he can sow two pecks of oats."  Three farming families, along with several bachelors, all from France, worked the concession owned by the colonial treasurer:  Pierre Courtiau, age 31, ploughman, "native of the parish of Monmorency, bishopric of Dax," France, lived with wife Marie Cortien, age 38, "native of La Rochelle," and a 2-month-old son not yet named.  Also with them was Pierre la Cane, age 22, "native of Bordeaux," engaged for one year in their service, who intends settling in the colony."  De La Roque noted that Pierre and Marie "own in live stock one cow, one bull, one pig and six fowls.  The land in which he is settled belongs to Monsieur de la Borde.  He had only been there since last autumn, and has made a small piece of fallow land and a clearing for a garden.  He is in the colony two years, and has been given rations for the said two years."  He evidently was not part of the Courthiau family who had come to Île Royale from Newfoundland.  François Gouret, age 22, ploughman, "farmer for Monsieur de la Borde," was a "native of the Parish of Provezien, bishopric of Grenoble," France.  "He is not fit to enter the militia," De La Roque noted.  François lived with wife Toinette Eviard, age 23, "native of the same parish," and their 18-month-old daughter Thérèse.  Also with them was Jean Eu, age 50, "native of St. Malo," who was "engaged in the capacity of a domestic until the end of the month....  He is a fisherman by calling."  "They will have been in the colony two years at the end of August next," De La Roque further noted, "and have been given rations for the said time.  He has in all made a piece of fallow land and a clearing where he can sow a peck of oats."  François Chalot, age 49, ploughman, "native of Caen, bishopric of Bayeux," France, another "farmer for Monsieur de la Borde," lived with wife Marie Tanère, age 42, "native of Grandville, bishopric of Coutances," and their 22-year-old son Jean.  Pierre Comère, age 27, "native of Bayeux," a domestic servant "engaged for one year ... intends settling in the colony," De La Roque noted. (Pierre evidently was not kin to the Commère family that came to Île Royale from Newfoundland.)   Of François's efforts De La Roque also noted that "He has made a large piece of fallow land and a clearing of three arpents in extent, where he intends to sow all sorts of grains experimentally to see which answer best.  He is in the country three years and has been given rations for that time."  Jacques Guilant, age 52, ploughman, "native of the parish of Basse Mer, bishopric of Nantes," another "farmer for Monsieur de la Borde," evidently was unmarried.  De La Roque noted that "He is a partner with one named Sébastien Bourneuf, age 39, "native of Combourg," near St.-Malo, bachelor brother of Julien.  "They have four cows, one bull, three calves of this year," De La Roque continued.  "They have made a large piece of fallow land and a clearing to sow a barrel of wheat.  From three bushels of wheat they sowed last year they have havested one barrel and a half, with 24 bushels to the barrel; bringing a profic of eleven for one.  From two bushels of oats they have gathered a barrel and a half, a return of seventeen to one," which the Sieur de la Borde no doubt approved.  Mathurin Donin, or Douin, age 47, ploughman, native of St.-Nicolas Parish, Nantes, lived with wife Marie-Catherine Courté, age 37, "native of Daste, in Italy," and three children:  Mathieu, age 5; Christine, age 2; and Louis-Mathurin, age 4 months.  "They are in the colony two years," De La Roque noted, "and have been given rations for that time.  The land on which they are has been sold to them by widow Mathurin Germain.  They have made fallow land and a clearing of no great extent for a garden."  Jean Chapin, or Chapui, age 32, ploughman, "native of Amboise, bishopric of Tours," lived with wife Catherine Robert, actually Henry dit Robert, age 57, "native of la Cadie," sister of Madeleine of St.-Esprit and Antoine of Pointe-à-la-Jeunesse, and widow of Jean-Baptiste Guérard.  With Jean and Catherine were two of her daughters from her first marriage:  Jeanne Guérard, age 16; and Catherine Guérard, age 14.  "In live stock they own, three cows, one horse, two pigs and six fowls," De La Roque noted.  "In the month of August next, they will have been in the colony three years, and have received rations for two years.  The land on which they are settled was given to them by Messieurs Desherbiers and Prévost by a deed which has been lost.  They have made a clearing to sow cabbage and turnips."  Jacques Chemin, age 37, ploughman, "native of the parish of Dumeny Brion, bishopric of Sez," France, lived with wife Françoise Ange, or Auge, age 27, "native of St. Pierre d'Oléron," France, and their 6-month-old daughter Jeanne.  De La Roque noted that "The said Jacques Chemin intends settling settling on the river if the King will give him three years rations.  He has received his pardon as a deserter from the troops."105 

"We left the farther end of the Baye de Miré on the 9th April for Isle de Scatary," De La Roque continued, "arriving there the same day.  The channel of Menadon is formed by the west point of the Isle de Scatary, and by the Cap de Menadon.  It is navigated by several routes, the channel being the the one where the traveller has to decide which is to be taken.  Coasters of the country on leaving Louisbourg take the corrected course east-south-east until they have cleared the Cap de Portanove, which lies to the east quarter south-east of the entrance of the Port of Louisbourg.  Navigators familiar with these waters know that from the time they sight the channel of Ménadon, they steer for the Cap au Nord until the Pointe aux Chats is west.  This point lies in the harbour of Menadon, and is visible at a considerable distance as it stands boldly out into the bay.  When sailors sight this point they make a north-west course in order to make the channel of Menadon, and hold the same course until they double the two islets lying in the channel, and coasting that lying to the starboard, leaving the cape to the north-west.  This is the best channel.  That to larboard must not be taken as [it] is surrounded with shoals.  After having doubled the two islets, one must take a westerly course in order to enter the Bay de Miré, and a north-easterly one to double Cap de Mordienne."  De La Roque then related an anecdote that illustrated the difficulty of the Miré passage:  "On the 12th day of the month of October in the year 1750, a vessel, named the Grand Saint Esprit, owned by the Sr. Rodrigue, shipowner of La Rochelle, commanded by the Sr. Coinrdet, and chartered by the King, being unable to make the port of Louisbourg owing to contrary winds, was obliged to seek refuge in the bay of Miré.  On the 13th day of the month, the wind having veered to the north-east, anchors were weighed and top-sails set.  It was a question whether she could make the passge by the channel of Ménadon.  Not an officer on board was familiar with the coast.  The captain asked M. Dolabarras if he believed very great danger would be incurred in attempting the passage; and was told in reply that that gentleman had made the passage with vessels quite as large as the Grand Saint Esprit.  Upon this Sr. Coinrdet prepared to make the attempt.  He kept two men constantly heaving the lead, the one in the port and the other on the starboard, and had the lines thrown alternately so that there would always be one in the water.  At first he held to the east for a quarter of a league, finding twelve fathoms of water, and then they made to the south-east, but did so too soon to make the passage de Menadon.  This obliged them to hug the islet lying off the shore of Isle Royale too closely, but the vessel, drawing 13 to 14 feet of water, passed in three fathoms; instead of having as she might have in other places from seven to nine fathoms," or 45 to 57 1/2 feet.  "Those familiar with the locality know their whereabouts as soon as Cap de Mordienne lies to the north north-east, and it is then they they change their course to south-east certain of being in safe water."

De La Roque and his party then crossed to Scatarie Island, now a Canadian wilderness area.  In the spring of 1752, however, the island harbored three small fishing communities.  "The Isle of Scatary is suitable only for cod fishery," De La Roque noted.  "The situation is one of the best for trade, but, unfortunately, the ports and harbours are not safe.  It lies in the sea opposite to Menadon.  It is estimated to be two leagues in length, lying east and west with a breadth, north and south of half a league.  Generally speaking the island is a mere rock.  The nature of the ground varies, two kinds of soil being found.  The one is wet and tenacious, and the other partakes of the character of marl.  It is not by any means wooded, and there is no hard wood on it, neither is there fir or any description of pine suitable for the building of the platforms and scaffoldings, that are used on the island.  The settlers have to bring their wood from the lands on the river Miré, or from those of the barachois de Catalogne which are near them.  The great and little harbours of Scatary are but one, all the difference being that vessels anchor in the great harbour, whilst in the little not even a skiff could enter at low tide without risk of being cast away on the reefs and shoals which are strewn over the whole bottom of the harbour.  They are both formed by headlands to the north-east or by the islets of Scatary and the headlands of the south-west which front each other.  The habours lie north-east by south-west.  It is estimated that the headlands are a good league distant from each other, and that the harbour is a quarter of a league in depth.  In this area and in the same point of the compass at a distance of a quarter of a league from the easterly headland lies a small islet, some 500 or 550 toises in length called the Isle de la Tremblade or Isle aux Coucous.  This islet is 100 to 150 toises in width, and on it, long before the late war a number of people engaged in cod fishing.  They have now wholly abandoned it, and there are no other people offering to go there to settle.  It seems more suitable for fishing with vessels than with boats.  The portion which is called the great harbour is formed by the headlands to the north-east and the islets of Scatary; by the headland to the north-east of the Isle de la Tremblade, and by a third point formed by a huge bank of sand, lying to the north-west of the entrance 200 toises from the Isle de la Tremblade.  The entrance lies east and west, and has from 15 to 16 feet of water at high tide.  One is obliged to coast the point or islets on the north-east, in order to avoid running ashore on the coast of the islet which runs far out into the entrance.  Vessels having once passed the entrance run no risk, but can anchor in the harbour in four to five fathoms of water and sheltered from all winds.  In addition the anchorage is good.  The little harbour is formed by the headland on the south-west of the Isle de la Tremblade, by the point on the south-west of the harbour and by that on the north-west of the entrance of the great harbour on an alignment drawn from the headland on the south-west of the Ilse de la Tremblade to that on the south-west of the said harbour.  About equi-distant between these two points lies an islet visible at all states of the tide which may be about 20 to 25 toises in extent.  It is surrounded by a large number of reefs and shoals, so that in bad weather and even at high water, vessels dare not risk passing it.  They prefer to go around the isle, and take the main channel.  Before the last war ten homesteads had been granted in the neighbourhood of this harbour, part being granted by patent and part verbally.  These ten concessionaires have appropriated to their own use all the land around the harbour, under the pretext that their concessions were not delimited, and that their deeds prescribed no limits to their lands.  Meantime it is certain that when these concessions are delimited there will be sufficient land on which to locate ten other settlers with ground for the erection of sheds for drying the fish from five boats apiece."106 

Agriculture being impracticable on the rocky island, none of the settlers on Île Scatary were farmers from peninsula Acadia.  De La Roque counted three families and a middle-aged bachelor at "the Great Harbour of the Isle of Scatary," all, including the fishermen's wives, natives of Newfoundland or France:  Pierre-César-Alexandre Le Grand, age 70, "native of the coast of Plaisance," Newfoundland, lived with wife Madeleine Dihars, age 58, "native of Newfoundland," and five children:  Georges, age 26; Marie, age 22; Guy-Alexandre, age 21; Louis, age 19; and Louise, age 17.  Living with them was Mathurin Guillot, age 17, "native of Madrignac, bishopric of St. Brieux," "in the capacity of a domestic."  De La Roque noted that Pierre and Marguerite "have been in the colony since 1715, and have been given rations for two years," that the old fisherman "owns two boats and eight fowls," and that "The concesson of this fishery was given him by Messieurs de Costebelle and de Soubras in 1715, and includes ground on which to make drying sheds for the fish of six boats."  Julien Jourdan, or Jourdau, age 35, fisherman, native of St.-Servan, near St.-Malo, lived with wife Marie Phelipeau, probably Philippot, age 25, "native of the country," and three children:  Jean, age 5; Marie, age 3; and Julien, fils, age 1.  De La Foque noted that Julien "is in the colony 16 years," but said nothing of his land or livestock.  Guillaume Rubé, age 35, fisherman, native of St. Martin de Champs, bishopric of Avranches," evidently was a bachelor.  "He owns two boats, two cows, and seven fowls," De La Roque noted.  "The land on which he is settled is situated at the farther end of the great harbour, between the grounds of Pierre Le Grand and one Philipot.  It was granted before the war to the late Jean [probably Julien] Durand, whose heirs have never yet presented themselves to take possession of the land.  Monsieur Prévost," the colony's commissaire-ordonnateur, "has given it to him on condition that if the heirs of the deceased present themselves he will give them possesson."  Jean Philipot, or Philippot, age 50, fisherman, "native of Laide, bishopric of Coutances," France, was married to Julienne Bassin, or Bossin, age 35, "native of St. Michel des Loups, bishopric of Avraches," France.  Living with him were five sons:  Basile, age 24; Jean, age 22; Guillaume-Jean and Guy-Adrien, age 20; and Gabriel, 18.  De La Roque noted that Jean's "other two [children] are in France with their mother."  One suspects that Marie Phelipeau, wife of neighbor Julien Jourdan, also was Julien's child, from his first marriage to Agnès Borny, and that the five sons with him at Île Scatary were from his first marriage.  De La Roque noted that Jean "is in the colony 36 years" and that "He owns one skiff, one boat, and five fowls."107

De La Roque next surveyed the other side of the island.  "Ance Daranbourg lies on the north coast of the Isle of Scatary," he observed.  "It is formed by the Pointe Darambourg, on the east side, and by the Pointe des deux Cheminées on the west.  It is scarcely suitable for cod fishing, above all in vessels, which are not sheltered from any winds except for those that come over the land from the isle.  It is only large enough for two settlers," though he found many more of them there, all fishermen.  "The Ance de Bellefeuille is situated on the same coast of the Isle de Scatary as the preceding," De La Roque observed.  "It is much more exposed to the gales than that of Darambourg."108 

 De La Roque counted 10 families at Anse-Darembourg, all from France or Newfoundland, many of them related to one another:  Le Sr. Sylvain-Jean-Sémidon Gation, age 26, surgeon, native of St.-Servan, near St.-Malo, France, lived with wife Françoise Faye, age 32, "native of Bordeaux, of the parish of St. Loy."  They had no children, but, De La Roque noted, "They have three fowls.  The land on which they are settled is situated on the said Pointe Daranbourg.  They have made a small clearing on it."   Marie Borgne, probably Leborgne, age 54, "widow of the late Jean Nauguety," or Nanquety, was "native of the coast of Plaisance."  She lived with three Nanquety children:  Thomas, age 17; Gabriel, age 16; and Marie, age 14.  De La Roque noted that the widow "owns one boat and six fowls," but he said nothing of her land.  Thomas Poirée, age 33, fisherman, "native of Messy de Roya, bishopric of Coutances," France, lived with wife Marie Vincent dit Desmarets, age 25, "native of Scatary," and their 19-month-old daughter Marie.  Also with them were four "thirty-six months" fishermen:  Jean Rabié, age 20, "native of Ray"; Étienne Tutier, age 19, "native of Dompierre, en Annis"; ____ Bosseau, age 18, "who does not know where he is from"; and Jean Michel, age 21, "native of Rochefort."  De La Roque noted that "These men complete their time in the month of June next and are thinking of remaining in the country."  De La Roque also noted that Thomas "owns three boats and four fowls."  Charles Philbert, or Philibert, age 33, fisherman, "native of la Bellière, bishopric of Coutances," France, lived with wife Michelle Borny, age 26, "native of Scatary," and four children:  Jean, age 6; Pierre, age 4; Marie, age 2; and an unnamed 3-month-old.  Also living with the family were four of Michelle's unmarried siblings:  Joseph Borny, fils, age 30; Anne Borny, age 25; Nicolas, called Colas, Borny, age 19; and Thomas Borny, age 18.  Two "thirty-six months men" also were with them:  Guillaume Beurrier, age 17, "native of the bourg of Villedieu, bishopric of Coutances"; and François Beurrier, age 15, "his brother."  De La Roque noted that "These men are to remain in the colony" and that Charles "owns four boats, one yawl, two sheep and eight fowls."  Pierre Le Berteau dit Lyonnais, fils, age 48, fisherman, lived with wife Jeanne Borny, age 57, "native of the same place," that is, Île Scatary, and five children, the oldest from Jeanne's first marriage to Jean Sabot:  Charles Sabot, age 35; Barthélemy Sabot, age 25; Alexis Sabot, age 20; Anne Sabot, age 16; and Pierre Le Berteau III, age 12.  Also living with them was Pierre's mother Renée Carmel, age 102 (actually 80).  Also with them was Michel Chaineau, age 20, "native of Angoulème," "engaged in the capacity of a domestic.  He counts on remaining in the colony 3 to 4 years,"  De La Roque added.  He also noted that Pierre "owns one skiff of the capacity of ten cords of wood, one cow with calf, one ship and thirteen fowls."  Antoine Sabot, age 29, "native of Cap de Rey," Newfoundland, and Jeanne's son from her first marriage, lived with wife Jeanne Le Grand, age 23, "native of Scatary" and daughter of Pierre-César-Alexandre, who lived on the other side of the island  With Antoine and Jeanne was their 3-month-old daughter Jeanne.  De La Roque noted that Antoine "owns two boats and five fowls."  Guillaume Le Maréchal, age 40, fisherman, "native of Carolle, bishopric of Avranches," France, lived with wife Jeanne Sabot, age 30, "native of Cap Breton" and Jeanne Borny's oldest daughter.  With Guillaume and Jeanne were six children:  Jeanne, age 12; Anne, age 10; Madeleine, age 8; Guillaume, fils, age 7; Jean-Marc, age 3; and Marie, age 1.  De La Roque noted that Guillaume "owns one boat."  Jean Dubarbier, age 34, fisherman, "native of Bayonne," France, lived with wife Marie Sabot, age 24, and two children:  Marie-Jeanne, age 3; and Jean, age 6 months.  De La Roque noted that Jean "has one yawl to sell, and three fowls."  Sebastia Fond, age 40, fisherman, "native of St. Vincent de Piros, bishopric of D'Ax," France, lived with wife Guillemette Sabot, age 27, "native of Cap de Ré," Newfoundland, and three children:  Sebastia, fils, age 10; Antoine, age 3; and Guillemette, age 1.  De La Roque noted that Sebastia had been "in the colony 20 years," and owned six fowls."  He said nothing of a boat.  Louis Grandville, age 35, a fisherman, "native of Calais," France, lived with wife Michelle Sabot, age 24, "native of Cap de Ré," Newfoundland, and three sons:  Louison, age 4; Barthélemy, age 3; and Jean, age 1.  Also with the family was Pierre Trely, age 22, "native of the parish of la Bellière, bishopric of Coutances," France, who "lives with them in the capacity of a domestic.  He thinks of settling in the country."  De La Roque noted that Louis and Michelle "have one boat, one yawl, three sheep and four fowls."  De La Roque observed of the community:  "All these settlers are without dwelling places at the fishery with the exception of Poirée and Philbert who are settled on the Pointe Darambourg by verbal permission of Messieurs Desherbiers and Prevost.  The others hope to establish themselves on the harbour of Chetecamps [actually Chéticamp, on the upper shore of the island's west coast, facing the Gulf of St. Lawrence]; at present they make their home in the woods.  The settlers of Isle de Scatary in general have had rations for two years." 

De La Roque counted only a single family at storm-ridden Anse-de-Bellefeuille:  Jean-Nicolas de Malvillen, or Malvillain, age 48, fisherman, "native of St. Malo," France, lived with wife Madeleine Durand, age 37, "native of Scatary," and 11 children:  Élisabeth, age 19; Jean, age 18; Servant, age 15; Jeanne, age 12; Charles, age 11; Basile, age 10; Barthélemy, age 8; Adrien, age 5; Jeanette, age 4; Madeleine, age 2; and a seventh son not yet name. Pierre Brontin, age 22, "native of Prouvale, bishopric of St. Malo," was "engaged for 36 months and who has still two years to complete his time.  He thinks of settling in the colony."  De La Roque noted that Jean-Nicolas "has three fishery partners who neither know their names or where they are from.  He owns three boats and five fowls."109

De La Roque and his party then returned to the mainland, where they surveyed present-day Main-à-Dieu, the most easterly community in present-day Nova Scotia. "The harbour of Menadon is suitable for the cod fishery and the lands are fertile in pasture.  It is formed of the point by the north-east of Menadon and by the Pointe au Chats.  They lie north-west and south-east, and are estimated to be half a league distant from each other, the depth of the harbour running west-south-west and east-north-east being another half league.  In the farthest recess of the habour are several creeks.  From the said Pointe aux Chats running to the east-south-east extends a bar a good quarter of a league in length with a breadth of 100 to 150 toises.  Mariners distrust it much because it is so steep and there is little water in it.  The best anchorage in the harbour is between an inlet and the bar aux Chats.  This islet is situated nearly in the middle of [the] harbour and is seen at all states of the tide.  Vessels anchor off it in four and five fathoms of water and are sheltered from the winds generally; that most to be feared being from the north-east, and even this is broken by the north-east point of harbour."

Despite the potential for agriculture, De La Roque found only a single settler at Main-à-Dieu, a bachelor from France with no apparent ties to peninsula Acadia:  Rémy Bussac, age 39, ploughman, "native of Angoulème," owned "one ox, one cow with calf, and eight fowls,"  De La Roque also noted that Rémy "lives on land belonging to Madame Carrerot."110 

The surveying party then moved on.  "We left the harbour of Menadon on the 13th of April," De La Roque recorded, "and reached the harbour de la Baleine the same day.  On leaving the harbour of Menadon, and after doubling la pointe aux Chats, the creek of that name is reached.  This creek, as well as the creek aux Cannes which adjoins it, but runs further into the interior of l'Ile Royale, is formed by the Pointe aux Chats and the Cap de Portanavo[.]  These points lie north and south at an estimated distance from each other of two leagues.  It is found that the ance aux Chats is impracticable by sea, owing to the chains of rocks existing there, but on the other hand, the ance aux Cannes is well suited for effecting a landing, and for the anchorage of vessels.  These vessels lie under the lea of the Isle aux Cannes, sheltered from easterly and south-south-easterly winds.  The Isle aux Cannes lies in the middle of the creek of that name, and is estimated to be 200 to 300 toises in length and 150 to 200 toises in breadth.  The clear channel is on that on the north of this isle, that on the south side being impassable even for boats.  A large bank of sand, well adapted to the drying of codfish, lies across the further end of this harbour.  The creek is so situated as to be better suited to cod-fishing by means of vessels than by boats, though on the beach at the further end of the harbour of la Baleine, there is a road to an established length of about a quarter of a league, not altogher impracticable to foot passengers, but good for all kinds of beasts of burden.  The reason for this is that over the whole of this part of the country there is a layer of peat, in come places ten to fifteen feet in thickness, and in others so thick that it cannot be measured.  The distance between the Cap de Portanove, and the pointe à deux Doights, lying at the entrance to the harbour de la Baleine is places at one league.  The Cape and pointe lie south-east by north-west.  Between these points we found no creek, nor any place suitable for putting men ashore.  The coast is strewn with shoals and reefs.  A channel runs between Cap de Portanove and the land, but though it is a quarter of a league in length it is not considered safe for a boat to navigate."  Here, on this difficult coast, at the Harbor of the Whales, was the site of the Scottish Fort Rosemar, erected by Lord Ochiltree in 1629 and destroyed by the French privateer Charles Daniel of Dieppe only a few months later.  "The harbour of la Baleine," De La Roque continued, "is only suitable for the cod-fishing industry.  It is formed by the pointe à Deux Doights lying to the north, and the pointe à Marcoche lying to the south.  They lie west-north-west and east-south-east at an estimated distance of 400 toises, one from the other.  Two large rocks, which when seen from a distance resemble whales and were so named, lie immediately in the centre of the entrance.  These two whales are left to the larboard in entering, but they can be safety passed quite closely owing to their precipitous character, whilst between lies a safe channel for a boat.  Between the two whales and the pointe à Marcoche there is a channel good only for a boat, and in fine weather.  Only merchantmen of not more than 200 tons burden can enter the harbour de la Baleine.  The channel by which one enters turns to many points of the compass.  Vessels that enter have three feet of water in which to anchor, and can have the same depth even in the further end of the bay, and are sheltered from nearly every wind.  The habour runs north-east by south-west for a distance of some 800 toises inland."111 

De La Roque counted a half dozen families at the Harbor of the Whales, none of them peninsula Acadians, though one suspects that Marie Le Borgne de Bélisle, widow Bertrand, who De La Roque found "wintering ... with all her family" at Miré, still held property La Baleine.  Members of the families actually living at La Baleine were natives of France or Île Royale, with only one discernible tie to British Nova Scotia:  Louis Gascot, age 50, fisherman, "native of Vins, bishopric of Avranches," France, lived with wife Jeanne Desroches, age 30, "native of St. Qua, bishopric of St. Brieux," and their 9-month-old daughter Marie.  De La Roque noted that Louis and Jeanne "employ nine men for the fishing, and have five boats, one barque, three sheep with their lambs and ten fowls. The fishery concession that he occupies was sold him by the heirs of the late Georges Tasson for the sum of one hundred quintals of cod, and includes ninety toises," or 575 feet, "fronting the shore of the harbour; the depth is not defined."  Marie Ostando, or Ostendeau, age 60, "widow of the late Thomas Tompigue," actually Tompique, lived with four sons and two orphans:  André Tompique, age 32, "native of the place" and "widower of the late Cécile [daughter of Acadians Bernard Daigre and Angélique Richard of Minas] his wife [who had died the previous July]," and 9-month-old son Étienne-André; Étienne Tompique, age 30, "native of the country," lived with wife Marguerite-Jeanne Tesse, age 21, "native of St. Pierre," Newfoundland (they had married in February, so they had no children yet); Thomas-Pierre Tompique, age 24; Pierre-François Tompique, age 22; Pierre Bertrand, age 19, "unfit to bear arms"; and Catherine Bertrand, age 10--"all natives of la Baleine."  (Pierre and Catherine were children of Marie's oldest daughter Françoise Tompique, widow of Pierre Bertrand; Françoise had died at La Baleine in July 1749, so her mother raised the children.)   De La Roque noted that the family owned "a schooner of the capacity of eight cords of wood, and four fowls," and that "The land occupied by them was granted to them by patent of the court, dated the 24th June, 1718.  It contains 60 toises," or 384 feet, "front by 25 in depth.  There are on it beaches and scaffolding for drying the fish of three boats."  André Paris, age 40, fisherman, "native of the parish of Brouillant, bishopric of Auch," France, lived with wife Perrine Dupont, age 33, "native of Baleine," and five children:  Marie, age 14; André, fils, age 9; Jean-Baptiste, age 4; François, or Françoise, age 3; and François, or Françoise, age 6 months.  With them was Claude Rousset, age 24, "native of Bourges, France, a "thirty six months man who finished his time during the present month of April."  De La Roque noted that "Monsieur Imbert"--perhaps Pierre Imbert dit Hébert of Bayeux, Normandy, and Baleine, Newfoundland--"works his [André Paris's?] fishery with four boats of his own.  He [André?] must ascertain the names and numbers of his fishermen.  The land of their fishery concession, situated on a beach which lies in the harbour, is for the fish of six boats and was granted to them by Messieurs de St. Ovide and de Soubras in 1715.  It contains 100 toises," or 639 feet, "fronting the sea shore with a depth of thirteen toises.  There are on it two platforms, a beach and scaffolding for drying the fish of six boats.  He has but one yawl with which he followed the fishing last year.  They own:  one cow, one ewe, one boat and fourteen fowls.  He seeks a grant of an additional 50 toises frontage, which have never been granted to anyone and which he has improved."  Also with the family was Catherine Gosselin, age 30, "native of la Baleine" and "widow of the late Jean des Roches."  De La Roque noted that "She has left no children and lives with le Sr. Paris, her brother-in-law."  Jacques La Tourneur, age 70, fisherman, "native of St. Jean des Champs, bishopric of Coutances," France, lived with wife Catherine Roger, age 75, "native of Sirance, bishopric of Coutances," and their 9-year-old grandson Jean-Philippe Guigoit, age 9.  De La Roque observed that "They are settled in the colony since 1720."  Catherine had married in c1710, and her first husband did not die until May 1733, so she may have come to the colony before 1720.  She married Jacques in February 1734, when she was in her late 50s, so she gave him no children.  Grandson Jean-Philippe likely was the child of one of her daughters from her first marriage.  Also with them were nine employed fishermen, all natives of France:  ______, age 66, "native of the parish of Gétary, bishopric of Bayonne"; Julien Le Perchoix, age 56, "native of the parish of Roulont, bishopric of Avrances"; Pierre Le Maréchal, age 26, "native of the parish of Châteauneuf, bishopric of St. Malo";  Antoine Paris, age 38, "native of the parish of Neudenenry, bishopric of Coutances," probably not a kinsman of André Paris; François Auger, age 25, "native of the parish of St. Pierre de Lanzy, bishopric of Avranches"; Mathieu Arieux, age 54, "native of the parish of Gatary"; Martin Martigon, age 22, "native of the parish of St. Père"; Martin Chaud, age 21, "native of the parish of Gatary, bishopric of Bayonne"; and Pierre Desmalet, age 22, "native of the parish of St. Père."  De La Roque noted that Jacques "owns two boats and four fowls," that "The land in" his and Catherine's "homestead is situated on a creek at the farther end of their homestead.  It was granted to them by Messieurs de St. Ovide and Le Normand in 1733.  There are on it platforms, beaches and scaffoldings for drying the fish of four boats."  Le Sr. Pierre Le Cerf, age 37, "Master Surgeon," "native of Dinan, bishopric of St. Malo," lived with wife Thérèse Grandin, age 30, "native of L'Indienne," Île Royale, and four children:  Anne, age 12; Pierre, age 10; Clément, age 4; and Marie-Jeanne, age 18 months.  With them also was Julien Poulien, age 22, "native of the parish of St. Targot de Sena, bishopric of Avranches," France, a domestic, who "is going to follow the fishery this year at Madame Dupont's, of Lurenbec."  De La Roque noted that the surgeon "has been in the colony since 1730," that "He owns five fowls," and that "The land on which" he and his wife "are settled has never been granted to anyone.  It is situated at the farther end of the harbour behind the dwelling places.  They received verbal permission from Messieurs Desherbiers and Prevost.  He has built a house there and cleared a piece of ground for a small garden as well as a swamp in front for a meadow."  Le Sr. Dagueret, De La Roque noted, without providing more information on the sieur, "carried on the fishery here with six boats and thirty fishermen," but he did not name the fishermen.  De La Roque was referring to Michel, fils, son of Michel dit Miguel Daccarrette and his second wife Catherine de Gonillon.  Michel, fils was only 21 years old and still unmarried in April 1752.  His father had been a shaker and mover in the colony from its earliest days and had died in the siege of Louisbourg seven years earlier.  After returning to the colony in 1749 from a five-year exile in France, Michel, fils, his father's only surviving son, inherited the family's fishing operation.112

"We left the Harbour de la Baleine on the 15th of the month of April," De La Roque continued, "taking road for the harbour of Laurenbec," or Lorembec, today's Little Lorraine, "and arrived there the same day.  The distance between the pointe à Marcoche lying to the south and point Bordieu lying to the south-east of the harbour of Laurenbec is placed at a quarter of a league, wherein there is only one large creek which can be ascended by boats and barges.  This creek is strewn with reefs and shoals visibe at all tides, whilst the remainder of the coast is impracticable in every respect.  This harbour," Little Laurenbec, as De La Roque called it, "is scarcely suitable for the cod fishery.  It runs inland a quarter of a league in a north-north-westerly direction.  The harbour is in the form of a river.  The breadth is irregular but is averaged at 60 toises.  It is formed by a point to the south-east of the harbour, and by that of Michel Vallet lying to the west-north-west.  The distance between these points is placed at not more than 100 toises at most.  A large rock visible at all states of the tide lies almost in the middle of the channel.  It is left to starboard in entering, and vessels hug the shore of the pointe de Michel Vallet.  The entrance lies north and south, and the heaviest vessels that can enter the harbour are merchantmen of a capacity of 200 tons at most."113

At Lorembec, only a few miles up the coast from Louisbourg, De La Roque counted 18 families.  Family heads, including several widows, were natives of France, Newfoundland, or Île Royale, and most were long-time residents of the community.  Five of the community's residents, however, including two sets of siblings, possessed kinship ties to peninsula Acadia:  Pierre Le Tourneur, age 41, fisherman, "native of the parish of St. Aubin des Préaux, bishopric of Coutances," France, lived with wife Marie Le Prieur, age 31, "native of St. Malo," and six daughters, the three oldest from Marie's first marriage to Guillaume Valet:  Guillemette Valet, age 16; Marie Valet, age 14; Perrine Valet, age 10; Geneviève Le Tourneur, age 8; Jeanne Le Tourneur, age 6; and Perrine Le Tourneur, age 18 months.  Also with them were 11 hired fishermen, most of them born in France:  Julien Gasseau, age 40, "native of Vins, bishoprics of Avranches"; Louis Panear, age 35, "native of St. Brieux"; Servant Le Prieur, age 24, "native of l'Isle Royale," Marie's brother; Jean Le Noir, age 25, "native of Charvé, bishopric of Dol"; Jean Lapinet, age 45; "native of Avranches"; René Le Loquet, age 22, "native of St. Aubin, bishopric of Coutances"; François Gourdon, age 50; "native of Limoges."  De La Roque noted that "None of these men have a fixed residence with the exception of Servant Le Prieur."  De La Roque further noted that Pierre "also hires" Jean-Baptiste D'Arnault, no age given, "native of St. Pierre de la Martinique"; and Barthélemy Chapereau, no age given, "native of Brive, bishopric of Saintes, in the capacity of thirty-six months man."  Pierre also employed Louis Gaultier, age 20, "native of Dole"; and François Collet, no age given, "native of Hénaut, bishopric of St. Brieux, also a 36 months man.  These men have two years and a half to finish their time, and are thinking of settling in the country."  De La Roque noted that Pierre "settled in this country for twenty years," that "He owns three boats and a half boat; eight fowls and two sheep," and that "his dwelling place was granted to him by a a grant in form by Messieurs de Saint-Ovide and Le Normand de Mézy, dated May 15, 1736.  It contains 72 toises fronting on the harbour by 90 toises in depth.  On it are platforms, beaches and scaffolding for drying the fish of three boats."  Perrine DesRoches, age 40, "native of the coast of Plaisance" and "widow of François Dupont, fisherman," lived with four children:  Françoise, age 23; François, fils, age 22; Perrine, age 19; and Pierre, age 16--"all natives of Laurenbec."  "In her service," De La Roque noted, "are three, thirty-six months men, who finish their time at the end of the month":  Pierre-Louis Viellard, age 30, "native of Vailly, bishopric of Soissons"; Jean Sonier, age 21, "native of Tremuzon, bishopric of St. Brieux"; and Mathieu Deniseau, age 19, "native of Lion, bishopric of St. Malo."  De La Roque also noted that "He," meaning Perrine's dead husband," owns two boats and ten fowls.  They dwelling they occupy was granted in the name of François Dupont in 1733 by Messieurs de St. Ovide and Le Normand.  It carried 70 toises of front on the harbour.  With regard to the depth it is defined by two lines of separation.  There are upon it one platform[,] one beach and scaffoldings for the drying of fish of four boats."  Simon Gaultier, or Gauthier, age 46, "native of the parish of Vins, bishopric of Avranches," France, lived with second wife Catherine Doight, also called Jacqueline Dohier, age 32, "native of Lancieux, bishopric of St. Malo," who he had married the previous August.  (Simon's first wife, Françoise Dubordieu, was a niece of his neighbors Perrine and Antoine DesRoches.)  Simon and Catherine had no children.  Living with them were "six fishermen, three of whom are at Louisbourg.  Those who are with him at present are":  François Le Bessot, age 40, "native of Vins, bishopric of Avranches"; Louis Le Bessot, age 33, probably François's brother; and René Le Sellier, no age given, "native of the same parish."  De La Roque noted that "There are also two thirty-six months men, who have thirty months to finish their time":  Jacques Dupont, age 22; and Étienne Dupont, age 22, "both natives of Vins."  De La Roche also noted that Simon and Catherine "are settled in the colony since 1722" (he probably meant Simon, since Catherine would have been born in c1720).  "The land he occupies," De La Roque said of Simon, "was sold to him under a deed in the year 1738 by the late Jean Durand, fisherman, for the sum of 465 livres.  It contains 14 toises 4 feet facing the harbour and 66 toises 3 feet in depth.  There are upon it a platform, beach and scaffolding for the drying of the fish of two boats and a small garden."  Antoine DesRoches, age 32, fisherman, "native of the place" and Perrine's brother, lived with wife Jeanne Simon dit Boucher, no age given, native of Petit Degra," and five children:  Jean, age 14; Jeanne, age 8; Antoinette, called Toinette, age 6; Antoine, fils, age 4; and Perrine, age 1 month.  De La Roque noted that Antoine "has three partners in the fishery, one workman who dries the cod on the beach and one thirty-six-months man."   The partners were :  Jean Lallemand, age 24, "native of Lourendecus, bishopric of Coutances"; Jean Poulard de Rennes, age 22; and Jean Galles, age 21, "native of Gennes, bishopric of Genois."  "They are thinking of remaining in the country," De La Roque noted.  "The fishermen are:--":  Joseph Dechery, perhaps D'Etcheverry, age 45, "native of Sibour, bishopric of St. Jean de Luz"; Bernard Claverie, age 30, "native of Sard, bishopric of Bayonne"; and Bertrand Le Gue, age 50, "native of St. Pierre de Vins, Bishopric of Avranches."  De La Roque added:  "They are married in France."  He also noted that Antoine "has two boats.  The dwelling place which they have improved was sold to them by Pierre Noblet for the sum of 450 livres and a ____ of Messieurs Desherbiers and Prevost.  It has 30 toises of front on the harbour, and 9 to 10 of depth.  There are on it platforms, beach and scaffolding for the drying of the fish of two boats."  Charles Yvon, age 55, fisherman, "native of the parish of St. Jean des Champs, bishopric of Coutances," lived with second wife Mathurine Dohiels, or Dohier, age 36, "native of the parish of Lancieux, bishopric of St. Malo," and six of his children, the oldest from his first wife, Louise DesRoches, Antoine's sister:  Étienne, age 17; Guillaume, age 15; François, age 13; Louis, age 11; Pierre, age 3 (or perhaps 9); and Jeanne, age 5 months.  De La Roque noted that Charles and Mathurine "employ one fisherman":  Jean Henry, age 46, "native of Vignac, bishopric of St. Malo"; "and two thirty-six months men.  One finishes his time in the commencement of the month of May, and the other his in the month of September":  François Colant, no age given, "native of Canté, bishopric of St. Malo"; and Jean Pras, age 20, "native of Quesencé, bishopric of Treguier."  De La Roque also noted that Charles "has three boats of which he lets two, following the fishery with the third; and three fowls.  His dwelling place was granted to him by Messieurs de St. Ovide and Le Normand, in 1733.  It contains 23 toises front on the sea in the harbour and 90 in depth.  There are a platform, beach and scaffold for the drying of fish of four boats."  Monsieur Didion, De La Roque recorded, "is engaged in the fishery here with two boats.  He will give the name of his fishermen to Pierre Lorent; he stays at Louisbourg.  Marguerite DesRoches, age 38, "native of St. Pierre," Newfoundland, and Perrine' and Antoine's sister.  Marguerite was widow of Julien Banet, or Bannet, her second husband, and lived with three Bannet children:  Marie, age 17; Pierre, age 14; and Jean-Pierre, age 12.  Also with them was a 36-month man, Jean-Nicolas Camus, age 20, "native of the parish of Dinan," France.  "He finishes his time at the end of the month of May," De La Roque noted, "and is thinking of remaining in the country.  The dwelling place" occupied by Marguerite and her children "was granted to them by Messieurs de St. Ovide and Le Normand by a concession in form of the date of 25th May, 1733.  It contains 35 toises fronting the sea shore in the harbour by 90 in depth.  It has on it a platform, three cabins, beach and scaffolding for drying the fish for four boats belonging to Monsieur Delort le Jeune [Guillaume Delort, a merchant, marguillier, and counselor at Louisbourg].  She has let her dwelling to him, as she is not capable of improving it by herself or to find fishermen by other means.  She has seven fowls."  Jacques Cousin, age 26, fisherman, "native of St. Martin de Condé, bishopric of Bayeux," France, lived with wife Marie Grossin, age 29, "native of St. Servan," near St.-Malo, France, and "widow of the late Algrain."  With them were three children, all Jacques's:  Marie-Hauze, age 5; Pierre, age 2; and Julien, age 4 months.  Also with the family was Mathurin Briaud, age unrecorded, "native of St. May, bishopric of St. Malo, a thirty-six months man, who finishes this time on the 27th May next.  They have three fowls," De La Roque noted.  "The land on which he is settled was given to him verbally by Messieurs Desherbiers and Prevost.  He has made a clearing on it of about one arpent in extent, and built a beach and scaffolding for the drying of the fish of two boats.  He has no boat but hopes to hire one."  Françoise DesRoches, age 48, "native of Plaisance" and Perrine, Antoine, and Marguerite's oldsest sister, was widow of Jean Dubordieu.  Living with her were four of her Dubordieu children:  Félix, age 24; François, age 22; Simon, age 20; and Marie, age 17.  Also with them was Françoise's niece Josette DesRoches, age 11.  De La Roque noted that t he widow "has working for her four thirty-six months men who finish their time in the month of July":  Yvon de Kemaire, age 28, "native of Treverant, bishopric of Tréguier"; François Henry, age 22, "native of Boco, bishopric of Tréguier"; Pierre Bellet, age 26, "native of Painvenant, bishopric of Tréguier"; and Jacques Le Neveu, age 19, "native of Morlais.."  "They are to remain in the country for some time.  The concession which they"--Françoise and her sons-- "have improved was previously in the possession of a man named Le Corps [probably Jean Le Cor of La Baleine].  It was granted her by Messieurs Desherbiers and Prevost, on the condition that in case the heirs, or anyone on behalf of the heirs, should appear to improved the concession her claim would cease; but the time having passed without any claimant appearing the said widow prays Messieurs le Comte [Raymond] and Prevost to deliver her a grant in form that she may be guaranteed the work she and her children have done.  There are on the concession a platform, beach, scaffolding and cabins for the drying of the fish of two boats.  She has one boat and one half-boat for the fishery.  She has twelve fowls."  Joseph Mirande, fils, age 32, fisherman, "native of L'Indienne, whose father was born at Chignecto, lived with wife Marie-Barbe-Élie Le Grand, age 24, "native of Labrasdor," probably Île Scatary, and two children:  Jean-Baptiste, age 3; and Josette, age 8 months.  De La Roque noted that "The land on which they are settled was given to the late Joseph Mirande their father, [but] they could not tell me by whom, nor its extent.  They have three fowls."  Georges Chauvin, age 52, fisherman, "native of the parish of Bassily, diocese of Avranches," France, lived with wife Marie Mirande, age 39, "native of L'Indienne" and Joseph, fils's sister.  With Georges and Marie were two sons:  Joseph, age 20; and Pierre, age 12.  De La Roque noted that Georges "is in the colony since 1719," that he "employs three fishermen: --" Pierre Poussin, age 48, "native of Dinan, bishopric of St. Malo"; François Norber, age 23, "native of La Rochelle"; and Gabriel Lemarié, age 23, "native of Vins, bishopric of Avranches.  They have no settled residence in the colony."  Georges also employed Guillaume Bresset, age 18, "native of St. Brieux," a "domestic."  De La Roque noted that Georges "owns one boat and eight fowls," that "The land of the concession was granted in 1733 by Messieurs de St. Ovide and Le Normand to one named Pierre Allain and his wife," Thérèse Bornic, "and sold to said Georges Chauvin for 70 quintals of merchantable codfish, in 1738.  It contains 38 toises frontage on the harbour, the depth not being defined.  There are upon it a platform, beach and scaffolding for the drying the fish of his boat."   Le Sr. Duplessis, actually Jacques Le Barbier du Plessis, age 43, master surgeon, "native of Grandville," France, lived with wife Marie-Françoise Ferté, age 38, "native of St. Malo" and "widow of the late Bealieu Collet," actually Pierre-Françoise Beaulieu.  The master surgeon and his wife lived with six children, all from her first marriage:  Anne and Françoise Beaulieu, age 18; Gillette Beaulieu, age 16; Thomas Beaulieu, age 12; Jeanne Beaulieu, age 9; and Charlotte Beaulieu, age 7.  Also with them was Josseline de Rioguain, also Deregazen, age 60, "native of St. Malo," Marie-Françoise's mother.  Louis Arnault, age 20, assistant surgeon, "native of Orleans," France, also lived with the family.  "He is not thinking of remaining in the colony," De La Roque noted.  "The land on which they are settled is situated to the west of the dwelling of Monsieur [Pierre-Jérôme] Boucher, Engineer to the King.  They have no grant in form, only a verbal permission from M. le Comte de Raymond and M. Prevost.  They have one house on it and are building another.  They have a garden and fifteen fowls."  Jacques Perrain, age 30, "native of the parish of Plené, bishopric of St. Brieux," lived with wife Marie-Jeanne Dupont, actually Duport, age 28, "native of the same parish," and two children:  Julien-François, age 12; and Marie-Anne, age 8.  "He has six fowls," De La Roque noted.  "Their homestead has been sold to them by M. Boucher for the sum of ____.  On it they grow hay and garden produce."  François Mallé, age 45, fisherman, "native of Bouillon, bishopric of Avranches," France, lived with wife Anne-Marie Le Large, age 45, "native of Grandville," France, and three sons:  François, fils, age 11; Pierre, age 6; and Louis, age 3.  With them were five hired fishermen:  François Le Moine, age 35; "native of Saint-Jean des Champs, bishopric of Coutances"; Jean Richard, age 17, "native of Kintenay, bishopric of St. Brieux"; Louis Chauvin, age 23, "native of Bassile, bishopric of Avranches"; François Bretet, age 20, "native of Berepied, bishopric of Avranches"; and Justin Megray, age 31, "native of Gipé, bishopric of Rennes."  "They are all without any fixed residence," De La Roque noted.  "He owns two boats.  The land they occupy was sold to them by the Sr. [Jacques] Perrain for the sume of 300 livres and so small was the amount of land that le Sr. Perrain would tell them that they would not know where to dry the fish from two boats.  The contract is not legally completed, but they have placed the purchase money in the the hand of M. [Julien] Fizel [merchant at Louisbourg] as guarantee to le Sr. Perrain.  They hoped their land would extend from one stream to another according to the final agreement, but when the Sr. Perrain saw that the Sr. François Mallé could not withdraw because the season was so far advanced he would only let them have half the piece of ground between the said two streams.  They have made a platform[,] beach and scaffolding for drying the fish of two boats."  Jean La Chou or de La Choux, age 55, fisherman, "native of Prouvillain, bishopric of St. Malo," lived with wife Marie-Anne Bourhis, age 31, "native of Louisbourg," whose mother, Marie-Josèphe Martin, was an Acadian from Grand-Pré.  With Jean and Marie-Anne was their 4-year-old daughter Marie-Josèphe.  Also with the family were five hired fishermen: Jean Albane, age 20, "native of St. Jean de Luz"; Pierre Amelin, age 50, "native of Montiville," married in France; Jacques Canivet, age 28, "native of Normandy"; and Julien Chapelle, no age given, "native of Normandy."  "They are going to their homes at the close of the next fishing season, "De La Roque noted.  The fifth fisherman, François Danosa, age 26, "native of Preiscalet, bishopric of Quimper," Brittany, "is a thirty six months man and will finish his time in two years.  He will remain in the colony.  M. La Chou," De La Roque also noted, "owns one boat and three fowls.  The dwelling in which they are settled was granted to them by Messrs. Desherbiers and Prevost.  It belonged previously to one named Jean Le Bessot.  He died in the English prison.  The heirs have not presented themselves to claim their inheritance, there being a good many debts against the property; neither have the creditors.  A house has been built on the property and a beach and scaffolding for the drying of the fish of one boat built."  Jean Le Chau or Chaux, age 42, fisherman, "native of Lasserne, bishopric of Avranches," France, lived with his second wife Marie-Madeleine, called Madeleine, Coroporn, age 36, "native of Louisbourg," whose parents had come to the island from British Nova Scotia.  Jean's first wife had been Isabelle Bourhis, sister of neighbor Marie-Anne Bourhis.  Madeleine's first husband had been Jean Bourhis, widower of Marie-Josèphe Martin, so Madeleine was second husband Jean Le Chaux's first wife's stepmother as well as the stepmother of their neighbor's wife.  With Jean and Madeleine was Jean's 2-year-old son Jean, fils, from Jean's first wife  Also with the family were 15 hired fisherman, "of whom eight have been boarded by the family by him all winter, the remaining seven wintering with other private persons":  Louis Pepin, age 22, "native of Sartilly, bihopric of Avranches"; Louis Noblé, age 32, "native of Sartilly, bishopric of Avranches"; Jean-Charles Corporon, age 30, "native of Île Royale" and Madeleine's bachelor brother; Jean Baudry, père, age 33, "native of Marenne, bishopric of La Rochelle," a former Protestant; Michel Le Roy, age 20, "native of Nantes"; François Riché, age 14, "native of l'Ile Royale"; Jean Baudry, fils, age 11, "native of Marenne, bishopric of La Rochelle."  "All these fishermen," De La Roque observed, "are to remain in the country."  Ther also were:  Thomas Cousin, age 17; "native of Gené, bishopric of Avranches"; Jean Benoist, age 42, "native of the parish of La Rochelle, bishopric of Avranches"; Herné Brindecamp, age 25, "native of Cau, bishopric of St. Malo"; Guy Hernand, age 25, "native of Laucalu, bishopric of Dol"; Jacques Cacu, age 60, "native of Plau, bishopric of Avranches"; Charles Cacu, age 22, probably Jacques's son; René Hernand, age 44; "native of Dinan"; and Mathurin Renouve or Renauve, age 28, "native of Dinan, bishopric of St. Malo."  "The land they occupy," De La Roque noted of Jean and Madeleine, "was granted to them by Messieurs de St. Ovide and Le Normand in 1733.  It contains frontage on the shore of the harbour of, ____ by ____ of depth.  There are on it two platforms, a beach and scaffolding for the drying of fish from three boats and a smack, which he actually owns."  Jude Rode, age 60 years, smith, "native of the parish of Lolif Rode, archbishopric of Avranches," France, lived with wife Angélique Aller, age unrecorded, "native of the parish of St. Servant, bishopric of St. Malo," and their two sons:  Louis, age 33; and Louis-Joseph, age 10 months.  De La Roque noted that Jude and Angélique "have been in the colony since 1720," that "They have no hired fishermen yet," but "They are awaiting the arrival of two crews from France.  He owns two boats and two half boats; one ewe with her young and five fowls."  De La Roque noted that Jude "has working for him three thirty-six months men":  Jean Heu, age 45, "native of St. Helen, bishopric of Dol"; Joseph Malivet, age 22, "native of the parish of Derignac, bishopric of Saint Malo"; and Julien Le Moine, age 20; "native of Plené, bishopric of St. Malo."  "Living with them"--Jude and Angélique? the 36-month-men?--was Marguerite Baudry, age 10, "native of Marenne, bishopric of La Rochelle," France, "their god-daughter."  De La Roque further noted that "The land on which they are was granted to them by Messieurs de St. Ovide and Le Normand in 1733.  It extends from the place of the heirs of the late Rene [probably René Perré] to that of Desroches.  There are on it a platform, beach and scaffolding for the drying of fish of three boats."  Adam Perré, age 36, fisherman, "native of the coast of Plaisance," Newfoundland, and René's oldest surviving son, lived with wife Marie-Hyacinthe, called Jacinthe, Grandin, age 25, "native of l'Indienne," and two sons:  Thomas, age 18 months; and Pierre, age 1 month.  With them were two hired fishermen:  Jean Nalet, age 31, "native of Canada"; and Martin Maurice, age 36, "native of the parish of Tenac, bishopric of St. Malo."   The family also employed "two domestics engaged until St. Michel's Day [September 29]":  Jacques Amelin, age 19, "native of Saint Jean des Champs, bishopric of Coutances"; and Guillaume Berry, age 55, "native of the parish of Vignac, bishopric of Saint Malo."  De La Roque noted that Adam "owns two fishing boats and six fowls," that Ther land was granted to them [actually to Adam's father, René] by Messieurs de Saint Ovide and LeNormand in 1733.  It contains 45 toises fronting on the sea in the harbour, by 90 in depth.  There are on it platforms, beach and scaffolding for drying the fish of two boats."  Gabrielle Le Manquet, age 70, "native of the coast of Plaisance" and widow of Étienne DesRoches, lived with bachelor son Guillaume DesRoches, age 27, "native of Lorenbec," and two 36-month men:  Herne Herbert, age 19, "native of Carfanitin, bishopric of Dol," and Guillaume Guiton, age 18, "native of Montigu, bishopric of Avranches," France.  De La Roque noted that "he--likely Guillaume DesRoches--"has eleven men hired for the fishery and three boats.  He had made use of the homestead of one named Adam Perré having no dwelling place of his own, that on which he built his house belonging to several brothers and sisters who refused to assist him to improve it, telling him that he could work on it himself if he chose.  He very humbly supplicated the authorities to give him a written permit to work on said homestead so that if, after he had improved the property, the heirs desired to enter upon it they should be obliged to make good to him what expense he had been at for the improvements.  They lost the title deed during the war; a copy is with the clerk of the Conseil Superieur."  Guillaume's hired fishermen were:  Jean Gause, age 28, "native of the parish of Roulan, bishopric of Coutances"; Pierre Bourg, age 58, "native of the parish of Pleumondat, bishopric of St. Malo"; François Loiselle, age 50, "native of St. Servant"; François Boulier, age 47, "native of Vignac, bishopric of St. Malo"; Jean Valleé, age 50, "native of the parish of St. Servant, bishopric of St. Malo"; Jean Le Pejoux, age 49, "native of the parish of Brou, bishopric of St. Malo"; Pierre Goulier, age 27, "native of the parish of Modet, bishopric of St. Malo"; Nicolas Le Chenechal, age 24, "native of the parish of Vezant, bishopric of Avranches"; Raymond de Chegarey, age 32, "native of the parish of Bidart, bishopric of Bayonne"; Betrie Choubecte, age 36, "native of Sarre, bishopric of Bayonne"; and Joseph Darostegay," age 36, "native of the parish of Durogne, bishopric of Bayonne."114

After two and a half months of effort, De La Roque and his companions completed their circuit of Île Royale.  They were not tasked with counting the hundreds of merchants, fishermen, soldiers, and sailors living in the colonial capital, but even a cursory knowlege of the French citadel could lead one to the conclusion:  Louisbourg was so populous relative to the rest of the island that Acadian immigrants, even if they had gone there in any numbers, would have been a miniscule part of the town's population.  However, De La Roque's survey revealed that another large concentration of settlers in the colony--the Port-Toulouse/Île Madame area, including Rivière-aux-Habitants--had been perceptibly increased by Acadian refugees.  Not so Niganiche, today's Ingonish, far up the Atlantic coast.  This northern region was devoted entirely to the off-shore fishery, in which relatively few Acadians participated.  Nor did many--if any--Acadian refugees settle on the island's "empty" west coast by 1752.  De La Roque found concentrations of Acadian habitants at Pointe-a-la-Jeunesse in the interior and especially at Baie-des-Espagnols north of Louisbourg, but these communities soon broke up.  Andrew Hill Clark insists that "Only with the arrival of Acadian refugees from Baie Verte and Tatamagouche" in response to the mass deportations in British Nova Scotia during the autumn of 1755, "and the attempts to establish discharged soldiers and a few Germans along the Mira, was a major effort made at agricultural settlement" on Île Royale.  "If it be argued that there was not enough time before 1758 to test these attempts," Clark observes, "it is also true that many of the 'acclimatized' Acadians gave up after two or three years and the 'veterans' settlement was apparently a failure...."  Nevertheless, after the fall of Louisbourg in July 1758, six years after De La Roque's survey, enough Acadian immigrants remained on Île Royale to fill a deportation transport or two.17  

.

That August, De La Roque counted 2,223 people on Île St.-Jean, most of them recent refugees from the chaos in Nova Scotia.  Peninsula Acadians or their spouses living on the island bore the names Allain, Apart, Arcement, Arseneau, Aubin, Aucoin, Babin, Barrieau, Belliveau, Benoit, Bertrand, Bertaud dit Montaury, Beurit, Billeray, Blanchard, Blanchard dit Gentilhomme, Boisseau, Bonnevie, Bonnière, Bouchard, Boudrot, Bourg, Bourgeois, Brassaud, Brasseur, Breau, Broussard, Bugeaud, Caissie, Carret, Cellier, Cerié, Chauvet dit LaGerne, Chenel, Chênet, Chiasson, Clémenceau, Clément, Closquinet, ComeauCorporon, Daigre, Darois, Deschamps dit Cloche, De Glain, Deveau, Dingle, Doiron, Doucet, Dugas, Duguay, Duplessis, Dupuis, Duval, Forest, Gallon, Gaudet, Gauthier dit Bellair, Gautrot, Gentil, Girard dit Crespin, Girouard, Granger, Guédry, Guérin, Guillot, Haché dit Gallant, Hango dit Choicy, Hébert, Hélie, Henry, Hent, Impérisse, Jaquemin, Join, Labauve, Landry, Langlois, Lapierre, LaVache, Lavergne, LeBlanc, Léger, Lejeune, LeJuge, Le Marquis dit Clermont, LePrieur dit Dubois, Leprince, Longuépée, Lucas, Martin, Martin dit Barnabé, Mazerolle, Mazière, Melanson, Michel, Mius, Naquin, Nogues, Nuirat, Olivier, Oudy, Périal, Philippe dit LaRoche, Pichard, Pinet, Pitre, Poirier, Poitevin, Pothier, Prétieux, Quimine, Rassicot, Raymond, Richard, Renaud, Robichaud, Roussin, Roy, Rullier dit Le Cadien, Saulnier, Savary, Savoie, Ségoillot dit Sans Chagrin, Simon, Sire, Thériot, Thibodeau, Tillard, Trahan, Tureaud, Valet dit Langevin, Vécot, Viger, and Vincent.  De La Roque found Acadians on the island at Port-La-Joye, Rivière-du-Nord, Rivière-des-Blancs, Anse-à-Dubuisson, Anse-aux-Morts, Petite-Ascension, Anse-aux-Pirogues, Anse-au-Comte-St.-Pierre, Pointe-au-Boulleau, Anse-de-la-Boullotière, Havre-de-la-Fortune, Pointe-de-L'Est, Havre-St.-Pierre and nearby Nigeagant, Étang-St.-Pierre, Havre-aux-Sauvages, Tracadie, L'Étang-des-Berges, Malpèque, La Traverse, Rivière-des-Blonds, Rivière-aux-Crapauds, Anse-du-Nord-Ouest, and Anse-au-Sanglier.  Refugees from Nova Scotia were especially numerous at Rivière-de-l'Ouest, Rivière-du-Nord-Est, Rivière-de-Peugiguit, Rivière-du-Moulin-à-Scie, Anse-au-Matelot, Grande-Anse, Grande-Ascension, Pointe-Prime, Anse-à-Pinnet, and Bédec.  As De La Roque's "tour of inspection" reveals, the island's new commandant, Major Claude-Élisabeth Denys de Bonnaventure, was kept busy issuing land permits to hundreds of new arrivals.18

Here, in the heat of summer, at the center of Acadian life in the French Maritimes, the military engineer conducted as thorough a survey as he had done on Île Royale earlier in the year.  He began his efforts, appropriately, at Port-La-Joye, today's Rocky Point, where he described the surrounding countryside in the usual detail:  "The creek of Port La Joye, known also under the name of Ance à la Pointe Prime, is formed by the point of that name lying to the south-south east of the entrance to Port La Joye, and by the headland to the north-west of the lands on the north-west quarter north of the entrance of Port La Joye.  These points lie south-east and north-west, at a distance from each other estimated at two leagues and a half in a direct line, by seven leagues around the bay, and two in depth.  The channels lies north a quarter north-east by south a quarter south-west to Port La Joye.  It is a quarter of a league in breadth and has an average depth of five, six, seven, eight and nine fathoms of water at low tide.  The most experienced sailors in the country hold that when in five fathoms of water they are not in the best channel, and no matter which way they are going, must luff up till they find it.  The Isle du Governeur is left to the starboard on entering, in order to avoid the shoals which stretch out to sea and which are composed of rocks.  The island is of a round shape, being a league and a half in circumference, and half a league across.  It lies low, and is wooded with all kinds of timber."  De La Roque was describing a small island lying in the bay halfway between Pointe-Prime to the south and the entrance to harbor at Port-La-Joye, today's Governors Island.  He goes on:  "The Isle de Compte Saint-Pierre, today's St. Peters Island, "lies to the larboard on entering.  One can sail much closer to this island than the other owing to the fact that the shoals are more perpendicular.  The island is a good quarter of a league long by four hundred and fifty toises in width, and wooded with pine, white spruce, fir, and hemlock with but little of the last.  At low tide, one may walk dry shod from the head land on the north-west to the Isle du Compte Sainte Pierre.  There is a bar that is uncovered at low tide."  He found no settlers on either of these small islands.

Port-La-Joye he found "situated on the farther end of the creek of that name, fives leagues," or 14 1/2 miles, "from Pointe Prime, making the circuit from headland to headland and two leagues from the north-east headland.  It is formed by Point à la Framboise lying to the east, and that of la Flame lying to the west.  It is estimated that these points lie east quarter north-east by west quarter south-west; that the distance between them is five hundred toises," 3,195 feet, or 0.6 miles, "tthat the channel lies equi-distant from both points, and that for a bare three hundred toises there are at low tide but eight fathoms of water in the channel.  The roadstead is about a quarter of a league from the entrance.  It lies between the points à Pierrot and à Margueritte.  The distance between these points is seven (hundred) toises," 4,473 feet, or 0.85 miles.  "In the harbour there is good anchorage in a muddy bottom, where three rivers, one from the west, the second from the north, and the third from the north-east discharge their waters.  The mouth of river du Ouest," today's West River, "is formed by Pointe à Pierrot, lying on the larboard going up the river, and the headland to the north of the river.  The distance between these points is placed at a quarter of a league, and they lay north by south.  The river runs west for four leagues perserving an almost uniform breadth.  In this stretch there are sixteen settlers cultivating the land on its banks.  The river then runs north, north-west for three leagues to where it makes its rise in fresh water."  He was describing, of course, the river's ascent.  "Its banks are covered with all kinds of timber, but hard wood is the chief.  The land is clayey in its nature and affords fairly abundant pasturage.  The mouth of the river de Nord is formed by the point to the north of the Rivière du Ouest, and by the point on the east of the rivre du Nord," where today's Charlottetown lies.  "The distance between these two points is seven (hundred) toises.  They lie east and west.  The river runs four leagues inland to the northward.  Seven families are settled on its banks, and engaged in agriculture.  The lands on its banks are equal in quality to those of the river du Ouest, and the woods are also similar.  The mouth of the river du Nord-Est is formed by Pointe à Margueritte lying to the starboard and by Pointe à la _____," today's Charlottetown, "lying to the larboard.  It is estimated that these points are eight hundred toises," just short of a mile, "apart.  The river runs nine leagues," or 26 miles, "inland; in a north-easterly direction for three leagues; to the east north-east for two leagues, to the north north-east for one league, and to the east for half a league, being navigable to this point by vessels of 50 tons burden, it then runs north-east for a league and a half where it is navigable for boats carrying ten cords of wood.  At this point the place called la Grande Source is reached."170 

At Port-La-Joye, De La Roque found nine families who were a combination of recent arrivals from France, Canada, and British Nova Scotia.  Oddly, at this first community on Île St.-Jean where peninsula Acadians had settled, there were no Acadians who had lived there longer than three years:  Jean Henry dit Maillardé, age 26, a master tailor and farmer from Orbin, Switzerland, not kin to the other Henrys of the area, lived wife Anne Barbe, age 32, "native of the town of Bienne, Switzerland," and their 17-day-old son Louis-Gervais.  De La Roque noted that the master tailor "has been in the country two months, having deserted Chibouctou," now Halifax.  Jean likely was one of the Foreign Protestants the British had brought into Nova Scotia soon after the founding of Halifax in 1749.  Unlike the majority of his fellow immigrants, however, Jean chose to live among the Catholic French.  Also living with Jean and his wife was Abraham Louis, age 20, "bachelor, workman in cotton print, native of Lideau, in Switzerland," probably another Foreign-Protestant refugee.  "The land on which they are settled is situated on the road from the wood," De La Roque noted, "and was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonaventure."  Jacques Nicolas, age 37, "master sugar refiner, native of the dependency of the bishopric of Beauvais in Picardy," lived with wife Marie Quilien, age 19, "native of the town of Neis, in Ireland."  De La Roque noted that the couple "has been one month in the country," so one suspects that the Frenchman, perhaps a Huguenot, and his Irish wife also may have been refugees from Halifax.  "The land on which they are settled is situated on the road by which they go from Port La Joye to the wood, and was given to them verbally by M. de Bonaventure."  Marguerite Mius d'Azy, age 36, "native of Cap de Sable" and widow of Michel Hébert, who had died at Port-Lajoie the previous year, lived with seven Hébert children:  Cyprien, age 15; Joseph-Nicodème, age 13; Ferdinand, age 11; Madeleine-Barbe, age 9; Grégoire and Geneviève, age 7; and Magloire, age 5.  She "has been two years in the country," De La Roque noted.  "In live stock she owns one sow and ten fowls.  The land on which she is settled was granted to her by Messieurs Bonaventure and Degoutin, and she has made a clearing for a garden."  Germain Henry, age 66, "native of l'Acadie," brother of Madeleine of St.-Esprit, Antoine of Pointe-à-la-Jeunesse, and Catherine of Rivière-de-Miré, Île Royale, no kin to master tailor Jean dit Maillardé, lived with wife Cécile Deveau, age unrecorded but she was 51, "native of l'Acadie," probably Chignecto.  With Germain and Cécile were six children:  Jean-Baptiste, age 25; Pierre, age 18; Rosalie, age 14; Joseph, age 11; Madeleine, age 9; and Amand, age 7.  Also with them was Jean Cayssy, actually Caissie, age 27, "orphan, native of L'Acadie," and probably Cécile's kinsman since three of her siblings had married into that family.  Germain had "been two years in the country," De La Roque noted.  "They have in live stock, one bull, one mare, three sows, four pigs, five geese and eight fowls.  They own no land."  François Seriés, age 38, ploughman, "native of the parish of D'Albourg, bishopric of Cahors," France, lived with wife Anne Edon, age 37, "native of the parish of la Franche, bishopric of Grenoble," France, and their 10-month-old daughter Rose.  De La Roque noted that "It is 22 months since he arrived from l'Acadie," that "They have in live stock, one ewe, one lamb, one pig, two geese and thirty fowls and chickens," and that "The land on which they are settled was given them under rental from the minors of Jean Baptiste Mazierre.  They have made a large clearing on it for a garden."  Joseph Benet, age 30, ploughman, "native of Albiac, bishopric of Cahors," lived with wife Jeanne, called Jennie, Diollet, or Douillet, age 35, "native of Cognac, bishopric of Cahors," and two children:  Paul, age 5 1/2; and Rose, age 5 months.  De La Roque noted that Joseph and Jennie have been "in the country 22 months," that "They have one pig and eight fowls," and that "The land on which they are settled was given them as above and on it they have made a clearing for a large garden."  Le Sr. Louis Jonisseaux, or Juneau, age 30, merchant, "native of the parish of Balergant, bishopric of Québec," Canada, lived with wife Marie-Thérèse Dauphin, age 37, "native of the town of Québec," and their 2-year-old son Louis-Marie.  De La Roque noted that the merchant "has been in the country 35 months," that They have in live stock one horse, one cow, one heifer, one pig and thirty fowls," that "They hold the land by virtue of the following purchases, namely:  One of two arpents front and forty in depth, from Charles Haché Galland and Geneviève Lavergne his wife," then living on the southside of Rivière-du-Nord-Est, "and another of two arpents five perches front with a depth extending to the bank of the Barachois or Ance aux Sauvages," on the north shore of the island, "from Louis la Bauve and Marie Landry his wife," then living at Petite-Ascension, not far up Rivière-du-Nord-Est from Port-Lajoie.  Jean-Baptiste Périal, age 25, "corporal of the company formerly of Bonaventure" and "native of Franche Comté," lived with wife Rosalie Comeau, age 32, "native of l'Acadie" and second wife and widow of Michel Caissie dit Roger of Chignecto, who had died the year before.  Jean-Baptiste and Rosalie had married on June 19, so they had no children of their own.  Living with them, however, was her son Joseph Caissie, age 8.  Also with them was orphan Anne Caissie, age 15.  De La Roque noted that the former corporal "has been in the country three years," that he and his wife "have in live stock one sow, one pig and twenty fowls," and that "They hold their land under rental from the children of the deceased Jean Baptiste Mazierre.  The said land has three arpents of front with a depth of forty."  Jean-Baptiste, called Jean, Roussin, age 38, navigator, "native of the parish of St. Thomas de la Pointe à la Caille, bishopric of Québec," lived with wife Françoise Boudrot, age 21, "native of l'Acadie," actually Ste.-Famille, Pigiguit, and younger half-sister of Marguerite of Baie-des-Espagnols, Île Royale.  Jean had married Françoise at Port-Lajoie in April.  De La Roque noted that he was "for four months a settler in the country," and that he and Françoise "have one cow" but "no children and no land."171 

Along Rivière-de-l'Ouest, which De La Roque called Rivière-du-Ouest, today's West River; Rivière-du-Nord, today's North Creek; and especially in the valley of Rivière-du-Nord-Est, today's Hillsborough River, De La Roque found 127 families, a total of 136 counting the families at Port-La-Joye--the largest concentration of settlement on the island. 

On Rivière-de-l'Ouest, De La Roque found 19 families, all of them recent arrivals from British Nova Scotia.  More typically than the Acadians at Port-La-Joye, most of the West River families were related by blood or marriage:  Jean-Baptiste, called Jean, Bourg, age 69, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Port-Royal, lived with second wife Françoise Aucoin, age 64, "native of l'Acadie," probably Minas, and four unmarried children:  Françoise, age 28; Anne, age 26; Marie-Josèphe or -Madeleine, age 23; and François, age 20.  De La Roque noted that Jean "has been fifteen months in the country," that "They have in live stock four cows, one calf, one sow, four pigs and eight fowls or chickens," and that "The land on which they are settled is situated on the south side of the said Rivière du Ouest and was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  They have made a clearing on which they have sown three bushels of grain."  Charles Bourg, age 32, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and Jean and Françoise's oldest son, lived with wife Madeleine-Marguerite Blanchard, age 25, "native of l'Acadie," and three children:  Joseph, age 5; Ludivine, age 3; and Marguerite-Josèphe, 1 day.  They have "been fourteen months in the country," De La Roque noted.  "They have in live stock one cow, one calf, one mare, one sheep, two sows and two pigs.  The tenure of their land and its location are as in the preceding case," on the south side of the river.  "They have made a clearing for the sowing of two bushels of wheat."  Joseph Braud, or Breau, age 40, ploughman, of Cobeguit, "a native of l'Acadie," lived with wife Ursule Bourg, age 38, "native of l'Acadie" and Jean's daughter by his first wife Marie-Catherine Barrieau.  With Joseph and Ursule were 10 daughters:  Marguerite-Josèphe, age 16; Marie-Josèphe, age 15; Ursule, age 12; Perpétué, age 10; Élisabeth-Françoise, age 8; Luce, age 6; Anne-Josèphe, age 5; Angélique, age 4; Marie-Jeanne, age 3; and Rosalie, age 1.  Also living with them was Joseph's bachelor brother Charles Breau, age 26, "native of l'Acadie."  De La Roque noted that Joseph "has been in the country two years," that "In live stock" he and Ursule "have two oxen, one cow, two heifers, one bull, one ewe, two sows and two pigs.  The land on which they are settled is situated on the north side of the said river du Ouest and was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  They have made a clearing on it for the sowing of about four bushels of wheat."  Louis Henry, age 30, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," lived with wife Madeleine Pitre, age 25, "native of l'Acadie," and two daughers:  Marguerite-Josèphe, age 2; and Hélène, age 2 months.  Louis "has been in the country two years," De La Roque noted.  "In live stock they have two oxen, one cow, two heifers, three ewes, one sow and two pigs.  The land on which they are settled is situated as the preceding case," on the north side of the river," and was given to them, under similar conditions, and on it they have made a clearing where they can sow four bushels of grain."  Joseph Pitre, age 53, "native of l'Acadie" and brother of Cécile and Françoise of Baie-des-Espagnols, lived with wife Élisabeth Boudrot, age 51, "native of l'Acadie," and four sons:  Pierre, age 27; Joseph, fils, age 18; Paul, age 16; and Jean-Baptiste, age 14.  De La Roque noted that Joseph "has been in the country fourteen months," that he and Élisabeth "have in live stock three oxen, one cow, one calf, one ewe, two sows and four pigs," that "The land on which they are settled is situated on the north side of the said river du Ouest, and was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure," and "on it they have made a clearing for sowing about four bushels of wheat."  Jean Henry dit Le Neveu, age 48, "native of l'Acadie" and brother of Cécile and Martin of Pointe-à-la-Jeunesse, Île Royale, lived with wife Marie-Madeleine, called Madeleine, Thériot, age 48, "native of l'Acadie" and sister of five of the settlers at Baie-de-Mordienne on Île Royale.  With Jean dit Le Neveu and Madeleine were five children:  Marie, age 22; Pierre, age 18; Charles, age 16; Laurent, age 11; and François, age 6.  The Nephew "has been in the country two years," De La Roque noted.  "In live stock they have three oxen, one calf, two sheep, two sows and one pig.  The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case," on the north bank of the river, "and was given to them under similar conditions.  They have made a clearing for the sowing of about twelve bushels of wheat."  François Pitre, age 25, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," lived with wife Rosalie Henry, age 23, "native of l'Acadie," and 18-month-old daughter Victoire.  De La Roque noted that François "has been two years in the country," that "In live stock they have two oxen, one cow, one calf, one wether, one ewe and four sows.  The land on which they are settled is situated on the north side of the river du Ouest, and was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for the sowing of about four bushels of wheat."  Charles Guérin, age 27, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and brother of Jean-Baptiste and Dominique at Poine-à-la-Jeunesse, and Marie, Marguerite, Françoise, and Pierre at Baie-de-Mordienne, Île Royale, lived with wife Marguerite Henry, age 27, "native of l'Acadie," and two children:  Tersille, age 5; and Marin, age 2.  Also with them was Charles's mother, Élisabeth Aucoin, age 74, "native of l'Acadie," actually Chignecto, widow of Jérôme Guérin of Cobeguit and Françoise's sister.  Charles "has been two years in the country," De La Roque noted.  "In live stock they have two oxen, one wether, one ewe, two sows, one pig and fourteen fowls or chickens.  The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case," on the north bank of the river, "and was given to them under similar conditions.  They have made a clearing for the sowing of about four bushels of wheat."  Jean Henry dit Le Neveu, fils, age 21, "native of l'Acadie," lived with wife Marie Pitre, age 21, "native of l'Acadie" and Joseph's daughter.  She and Jean, fils had married in January, so they had no children.  De La Roque noted that Jean, fils "has been in the country two years" and counted "one pig" for the family's livestock.  "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case," on the north side of the river, "and was given to them under similar conditions, and they have made a clearing for the sowing of about four bushels of seed[sic]."  Charles Pitre, age 23, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," Joseph's son and Marie's brother, lived with wife Anne Henry, age 21, "native of l'Acadie," who he had married in February.  De La Roque noted that Charles "has been in the country fifteen months," that "In live stock they have one cow, two pigs and one sheep.  The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case," on the north side of the river, "and was given to them under similar circumstances.  They have made a clearing for the sowing of four bushels of wheat."  Charles dit Charlie Thibodeau, age 29, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," lived with wife Madeleine Henry, age 26, "native of l'Acadie" and Anne's sister.  With Charlie and Madeleine was their 7-month-old daughter Hélène.  De La Roque noted that Charlie "has been in the country two years," that "In live stock they have one cow, one calf, one horse, one ewe, one sow and one pig.  The land on which they are settled is situated on the north side of the Rivière du Ouest, and was given to him verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  They have made a clearing for the sowing of about two bushels of wheat."  Jean Henry dit le Vieux, age 68, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," brother of Madeleine of St.-Esprit, Antoine of Pointe-à-la-Jeunesse, and Catherine of Rivière-de-Miré, Île Royale, and Germain of Port-Lajoie, lived with wife Marie Hébert, age 55, "native of l'Acadie" and sister of the late Michel Hébert of Port-Lajoie.  With Le Vieux and Marie were five children:  Marie-Josèphe, age 29; Simon, age 23; Françoise, age 19; Charles, age 15; and François, age 12.  Le Vieux and Marie also were the parents of Anne and Madeleine.  De La Roque noted that Le Vieux "has been in the country two years," that he and his family "In live stock have five oxen, two cows, one calf, three sheep, three sows and three pigs.  The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case," on the north side of the river, "and has been given to them under similar conditions.  They have made a clearing for the sowing of about ten bushels of wheat."  Joseph Thériot, age 53, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," lived with wife Françoise Melanson, age 44, "native of l'Acadie," actually Grand-Pré, and seven children:  Étienne, age 21; Jacques, age 15; Marguerite-Suzanne, age 12; Thomas, age 9; Marie-Madeleine, age 7; Ambroise, age 4; and Paul, age 1.  De La Roque noted that Joseph "has been in the country two years," that he and his family "have in live stock two oxen, two cows, one heifer, one calf, two sows and one pig," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case," on the north side of the river, "and was given to them under similar conditions.  They would be able next spring to sow about four bushels of wheat, but he leaves this locality to go to Bedecq to live, and Charles Henry, his son-in-law[,] is coming to live on this lot."  Alexis Henry, age 30 1/2, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," lived with wife Marguerite Hébert, age 23, "native of l'Acadie," and 26-month-old daughter Victoire.  De La Roque noted that Alexis "has been in the country nine months," that he and Marguerite "have in live stock one cow, one ewe, one sow, three pigs and two fowls.  They have no dwelling and are going to live near Bedecq," on the southwest shore of the island.  Joseph Henry dit le Petit Homme, age 45, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and Le Vieux's younger brother, lived with wife Christine dite Catherine Pitre, age 40, "native of l'Acadie" and Joseph's younger sister.  With the Little Man and Catherine were eight children:  Marie, age 19, perhaps only 9; Joseph, fils, age 17; Sephorose, age 14; Anne and Basile, age 13; Jean-Baptiste, age 6; Marguerite-Modeste, age 2; and Marguerite-Josèphe, age 3 months.  De La Roque noted that Petit Homme "has been in the country two years and nine months," that "In live stock" he and his family "have four oxen, one cow, one sheep, three sows and two pigs.  The land on which they are settled is situated on the north side, of the said Rivière de Ouest and was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  They have a clearing on which they have sown two bushels of wheat and one bushel of oats."  Charles Henry, age 20, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and son of Petite Homme, lived with wife Françoise-Joseph Thériot, age 19, "native of l'Acadie" and Joseph's daughter.  De La Roque noted that Charles "has been in the country nine months," that his and his wife's "live stock all told consists of two pigs," that "The land on which they are settled is that of Joseph Terriaud, their father and father-in-law," and "They have sown a bushel of wheat and hope to sow four more next spring."  Jean Pitre, age 55, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," likely Cap-Sable, and Joseph's older brother, lived with wife Marguerite Thériot, age 51, "native of l'Acadie" and Joseph's sister.  With Jean and Marguerite were six children:  Marie, age 30; Élisabeth, age 28, probably closer to 24; Jean, fils, age 20; Pierre, age 18; Anne, age 15; and Anselme, age 14.  De La Roque noted that Jean "has been in the country fourteen months," that he and his family "have the following live stock:  two oxen, two calves, one wether, three ewes, one sow and four pigs," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case," on the north side of the river, "and was given to them verbally.  They have made a garden on it."  Jean-Baptiste-Olivier Henry, called Baptiste Olivier, age 24, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," lived with wife Susanne Pitre, age 22, "native of l'Acadie" and Jean's daughter.  With Baptiste and Susanne were three daughters:  Marie, age 31 months; Marguerite-Josèphe, age 18 months; and Madeleine, age 15 days.  De La Roque noted that Baptiste "has been in the country, fifteen months," that his and Susanne's livestock consisted of "two oxen, one cow, four heifers, one bull, one ewe, one sow, two pigs and one horse," that "The land on which they are settled is situated on the north side of the Rivière du Ouest, and was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonaventure.  They have made a clearing on it for a garden only."  Jean Henry, fils of Chignecto, age 24, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and Le Vieux's son, lived with wife Marie Carret, age 30, "native of l'Acadie," and six daughters:  Marguerite-Josèphe, age 9; Marie-Rose, age 8; Marie, age 6; Marguerite, age 4; Osite, age 33 months; and Anastasie, age 4 months.  De La Roque noted that Jean, fils "has been in the country two years," that he and Marie "have in live stock, two oxen, one wether, three sheep, two pigs, two sows and nine fowls," and "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case," on the north side of the river, "and has been given to them under similiar conditions.  On it they have made a clearing for the sowing of four bushels of wheat next spring."172

On Rivière-du-Nord, De La Roque counted the seven families he had mentioned in his report, all recent arrivals related by blood or marriage:  François Landry, age 34 (actually 36), ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Annapolis Royal, lived with wife Marie-Josèphe Babin, age 32, "native of l'Acadie," and six children:  Joseph, age 16; Jean-Charles, age 14; Germain, age 12; Marie-Josèphe, age 10; François, fils, age 6; and Claude-Raphael, age 5 weeks.  De La Roque noted that François, "has been in the country two years," that the family's "live stock is as follows:  Three oxen, five cows, three calves, one horse, two ewes, one sow, one pig and twenty-four fowls or chickens," that "The land on which they are settled was given them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure, Commandant for the King at Isle Saint-Jean.  It is situated on the north side of the river of that name.  They have made on it a clearing for the sowing of about sixteen bushels of wheat the coming spring."  Benjamin Landry, age 54, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and François's first cousin, lived with wife Marguerite Rabin, actually Babin, age 45, "native of l'Acadie" and Marie-Josèphe's oldest sister.  With Benjamin and Marguerite were six children:  Jean, age 19; Mathieu, age 16; Madeleine, age 13; Marie, age 11; Joseph, age 8; and Geneviève, age 4.  Also with them was Benjamin's mother, Cécile Melanson, age 86 (actually 84), "native of l'Acadie"; Daniel Lejeune, age 30, "native of l'Acadie," probably a nephew; Rose Landry, age 18, "native of l'Acadie," "their niece"; and Madeleine Dingle, age 18, "native of Niganiche" on Île Royale, another niece.  De La Roque noted that Benjamin "has been in the country two years," that he and Marguerite "have the following live stock:  Two oxen, two cows, two heifers, one bull, one calf, one ewe, one sow, three pigs and twenty-one fowls or chickens," that "The land on which they are settled was given them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  They have made a clearing on it for the sowing of eight bushels of wheat next spring."  Augustin Landry, age 26, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and Benjamin's son, lived with wife Marguerite Granger, age 23, "native of l'Acadie," and two children:  Benjamin, age 18 months; and Marguerite, age 3 months.  De La Roque noted that Augustin "has been in the country two years," that he and Marguerite "have the following live stock, two oxen, two cows, one bull, two ewes, two sows, one pig and fifteen fowls or chickens," that "The land on which they are settled was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure," and "They have made a clearing on it for the sowing of  two bushels of wheat next spring."  Charles Landry, age 21, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and another of Benjamin's sons, lived with wife Marie-Josèphe Granger, age 19, "native of la Cadie," and their six-day-old son Pierre.  De La Roque noted that Charles "has been in the country two years," that he and Marie "have in live stock:--one ox, two cows, one ewe and eight fowls or chickens," that "The land on which they are settled was given them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure," and "They have made no clearing, having been but a short time on their land."  Amand Daigre, age 40, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and brother of Pierre of Port-Toulouse, Île Royale, lived with wife Élisabeth Vincent, age 34, "native of l'Acadie," and six children:  Simon, age 15; Marguerite, age 10; Madeleine, age 8; Osite, age 6; Pierre, age 4; and Marie-Josèphe, age 10 months.  De La Roque noted that Amand "has been in the country two years," that he and Élisabeth "have the following live stock:  one cow, two calves, one sow and four pigs," that "The land on which they are settled was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure," and "They have made a clearing on it for the sowing of four bushels of wheat."  Charles Daigre, age 38, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and Amand's nephew, lived with wife Cécile Landry, age 36, "native of l'Acadie," and two daughters:  Marguerite-Cécile, age 2; and Marie, age 9 months.  Also living with them were Rémy Daigre, age 25, "native of l'Acadie" and Charles's brother; and Marie-Josèphe Daigre, age 10, their sister.  De La Roque noted that Charles "has been in the country two years," that he and his family "have the following live stock:  four oxen, three cows, one bull, two calves, one heifer, three sows, five pigs and twenty-two fowls or chickens," that "The land on which they are settled was given them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure," and that "They have made a clearing on it for the sowing of six bushels of wheat."  Alexandre Daigre, age 22, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and Charles and Rémy's brother, lived with wife Élisabeth Granger, age 20, "native of l'Acadie," and their 3-month-old son Charles-François.  De La Roque noted that Alexandre "has been in the country one year," that "In live stock" he and Élisabeth "have:  one ox, one cow and one sow," that "The land on which they are settled was given to them verbally by M. de Bonnaventure," and "They have made no clearing, having been there only a short time."173 

On Rivière-du-Nord-Est, first along its north bank, where he counted 34 families, and then along its south bank, where he counted 10 more, De La Roque found a substantial concentration of Fundy Acadians--a combination of recent arrivals and long-time settlers displaying the usual complex kinship patterns. 

Along the north bank of Rivière-du-Nord-Est he found:  Anselme Boudrot, age 33, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," lived with wife Geneviève Girouard, age 31, "native of l'Acadie," and three children:  Anselme, fils, age 7; Marie-Henriette, called Henriette, age 7; and Simon, age 1.  De La Roque noted that Anselme "has been in the country two years," that he and Geneviève's "live stock consists of four oxen, four cows, four ewes, and two pigs," that "The land on which they are settled is situated on the north side of the said river, and was given verbally by M. de Bonnaventure.  They have made a clearing on it for the sowing of  twenty bushels of wheat next spring."  Denis Boudrot, age 75 (actually 62), ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Minas, lived with wife Anne Vincent, age 60, "native of l'Acadie," actually St.-Famille, Pigiguit.  They were Anselme's parents.  De La Roque noted that Denis "has been in the country two years," that he and Anne "have the following live stock:  three oxen, two cows, two pigs, one sow and two fowls," that "The land on which they are settled was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  They have made a clearing on it for sowing 29 bushels of wheat."  Isidore Daigre, age 27, "native of l'Acadie," lived with wife Agathe Barrieau, age 21, "native of l'Acadie," actually Pigiguit, and their year-old-son Firmin.  De La Roque noted that Isidore "has been in the country two years," that he and Agathe's "live stock is as follows:  two oxen, two cows, one mare, three ewes, two sows, three pigs and four fowls or chickens," that "The land on which they are settled was given them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure, and upon it they have made a clearing for the sowing of six bushels of wheat."  Marie-Josèphe Boudrot, age 36, widow of Pierre-Toussaint Richard, "very poor, native of l'Acadie" and Denis's oldest daughter, lived with six Richard children:  Pierre, fils, age 19; Paul, age 17; Marie-Blanche, age 15; Joseph, age 13; Honoré, age 10; and Thomas, age 6.  De La Roque noted that the poor widow "has been in the country two years," that she and her children "have no live stock," that "The land on which she is settled is situated on the north bank of the said Rivière du Nord-Est.  It was given to her verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure and he resumes possession as they have made no improvements."  Marie-Madeleine Pitre, age 39, "native of l'Acadie," actually Annapolis Royal, was the widow of Pierre Gaudet, who had died only a few days earlier.  She lived with nine Gaudet children:  Étienne and Pierre, fils, age 23; Dominique, age 19; Doratte, age 16; François, age 14; Cyprien and Marie, age 12; Anne, age 9; and Joseph, age 6.  De La Roque noted that Marie-Madleine was "poor," that she "has been in the country two years," that of "Live stock:  she has two oxen, one cow, one ewe, one sow and one hen," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case," on the north bank of the river," and was given to them verbally by M. de Bonnaventure.  They have made a clearing for sowing thirty-two bushels of wheats."  Jean-Baptiste Blanchard, age 40, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," lived with Anne Bourg, age 30, "native of l'Acadie," probably Minas, and three children:  Jean-Grégoire, age 7; Anne, age 5; and Cécile, age 18 months.  De La Roque noted that Jean "has been in the country 14 months," that he and Anne "have live stock as follows:  four oxen, one heifer, five sheep, one sow, four pigs, and three fowls," that "The land on which they are settled was given to them by M. de Bonneventure," and "They have made a garden on it."  Joseph Bourg, age 41 1/2, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and son of Jean of Rivière-de-l'Ouest, lived with wife Françoise Dugas, age 29 (actually 38), and eight children:  Joseph, fils, age 16; Agnès, age 14; Isabelle, age 12; Bernard, age 10; Marie-Françoise, age 8; Marguerite-Josèphe, age 6; François, age 40 months; and Jean-Baptiste, age 3 months.  De La Roque noted that Joseph "has been in the country one year," that he and Françoise "have live stock as follows:  four oxen, one cow, one calf, two sows and three pigs," that "The land on which they are settled was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a garden."  Paul Doiron dit le Grand Paul, age 42, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," lived with wife Marguerite Michel, age 45, "native of l'Acadie," and nine children:  Marguerite-Josèphe, age 17; Anne-Appoline, age 15; Pierre-Paul, age 12; Blanche, age 10; Jean-Baptiste, age 8; Osite, age 6; Joseph, age 4; Rose, age 2; and Hélène, age 8 months.  De La Roque noted that Grand Paul "has been in the country two years," that "His live stock consists of four bulls, three cows, two heifers, two sows, two pigs and twenty-five fowls or chickens," that "The land on which they are settled was given to them verbally by M. de Bonnaventure.  They have made a clearing on it where they hope to sow eight bushels of wheat next spring."  Claude Dugas, age 40, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and Françoise's older brother, lived with wife Marie-Josèphe Aucoin, age 43, "native of l'Acadie," and eight children:  Joseph, age 16; Jean-Baptiste, age 14; Marie, age 9; Victor, age 8; Angélique, age 7; Théodore, age 6; Anne, age 5; and Paul, age 4.  De La Roque noted that Claude "has been in the country twelve months," that "His live stock consists of two oxen, two cows, two heifers, three sows, four pigs and twelve fowls or chickens," that the land on which he Marie-Josèphe "settled was given to them by M. de Bonnaventure.  They have made a clearing on it for sowing two bushels of wheat."  Paul Aucoin, age 41, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and Marie-Josèphe's younger brother, lived with wife Marie LeBlanc, age 37, "native of l'Acadie," and brother of François of Pointe-à-la-Jeunesse, Île Royale.  With Paul and Marie were four children:  Marie-Josèphe, age 8; Marguerite-Suzanne, age 6; Joseph, age 4; and Tarsille, age 2.  De La Roque noted that Paul "has been 13 months in the country," that he and Marie "have the following live stock:--One ox, one cow, one wether, one sow, four pigs and seven fowls or chickens," that "The land on which they are settled was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure, and they have made a clearing on it for sowing a bushel of wheat."  Michel Aucoin, age 75, "native of l'Acadie" and brother of Isabelle and Françoise of Rivière-du-Ouest, lived with wife Jeanne Bourg, age 69, "native of l'Acadie."  Michel and Jeanne were Marie-Josèphe and Paul's parents.  De La Roque noted that "They have no children with them.  They have in live stock:  one cow and one sow.  They have no land but are settled on the land of Paul Aucoin and Claude Dugast their son and son-in-law."  Le Sr. Louis-Amand, called Amand, Bugeaud, père, age 51, merchant and navigator, "native of l'Acadie," lived with his second wife Dame Claire Dousetts, actually Doucet, age 37 (actually 40), "native of l'Acadie," and his mother-in-law, Françoise Blanchard, no age given (she was 80), widow of Jean Doucet and Jean-Baptiste Blanchard's older half-sister.  De La Roque noted that Sr. Amand "has been in the country four years," that he and Claire "have no children," that "They have the following live stock:  six oxen, four bulls, nine cows, six calves, one horse, one sow, three pigs, five sheep and twenty-five fowls; and a vessel of twenty-five tons," that "The land on which they are settled was granted to them by Messieurs Bonnaventure and de Goutin, comprising ___ arpents of front and forty of depth.  They have made a clearing of which they hope to sow twelve bushels of wheat next spring."  Le Sr. Pierre Gautier, or Gauthier, age 24, navigator, "native of l'Acadie," actually Bellaire on haute rivière, Annapolis Royal, lived with wife Jeanne La Forest, "age 18, "native of Louisbourg," who he had married on Île Royale in late June.  De La Roque noted that Sr. Pierre "has been in the country three years" that "He has in live stock, two oxen and six sheep," that the land on which he and Jeanne "are settled is situated on the north side of the said Rivière du Nord-Est, and was given them verbally by M. Bonnaventure," and that "he has made no clearing."  Le Sr. Jean Bugeaud, age 24, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie"and Amand's nephew, lived with wife Anne Douville, age 26, "native of the harbour of Saint-Pierre, in the north of this island."  Anne's father, Nicolas, was the first European settler on the island.  De La Roque noted that she and Sr. Jean "have no children.  In live stock they have two oxen, three cows, one horse, two wethers, three ewes, one sow, three pigs, seven geese, seven turkeys and thirty fowls or chickens," that "The land on which they are settled was given to them by the Sr. Joseph Bugeaud, their father and father-in-law, on which the said Jean Bugeaud has made a clearing where he has sowed four bushels of wheat and five bushels of oats, and he hopes next spring to sow sixteen bushels."  Le Sr. Joseph Bugeaud, age 53, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and Amand's older brother, lived with wife Marie-Josèphe Landry, age 48, "native of l'Acadie," and eight children:  Charles, age 21; Élisabeth, age 19; Marie-Rose, age 17; François-Placide, age 16; Anne, age 15; Marie, age 11; Mathurin, age 10; and Félicité, age 6.  De La Roque noted that Sr. Joseph "has been three years in the country," that he and Marie-Josèphe "have the following live stock:  two oxen, two cows, one calf, two ewes and their young, one sow, two pigs and three fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated on the north side of the said Rivière du Nord-Est, like the preceding, and was given to them by permit from Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing where they have sown six bushels of wheat and a half bushel of peas, and they hope next spring to sow twelve bushels more."  Joseph Gautier, or Gauthier, age 35, navigator, "native of l'Acadie" and Pierre's older brother, lived with wife Demoiselle Marguerite Bugeaud, age 24, "native of l'Acadie" and Sr. Joseph's daughter.  They had two children:  Joseph, fils, age 3; and Élisabeth, age 11 months.  Also living with them was Baptiste Allain, age 12, "native of l'Acadie" and one of Joseph's kinsmen.  De La Roque noted that Joseph "has been in the country three years," that "In live stock" he and Marguerite "have three oxen, five cows, two heifers, one horse, four calves, four ewes, three sows, three pigs, eight geese, thirty fowls, and one vessel of 45 to 50 tons," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case," on the north side of the river," and was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  They have made a clearing on which they have sown six bushels of wheat, and hope to sow twelve bushels next spring."  Paul Broussard dit Courtiche, age 25, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," lived with wife Madeleine Landry, age 23 1/2, "native of l'Acadie," and their 2-year-old son Jean-Baptiste.  De La Roque noted that Courtiche "has been in the country 26 months," that "In live stock," he and Madeleine "have four oxen, one cow, three bulls, one horse, three ewes, four pigs and three fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is as in the preceding," on the north side of the river, "and was given to them verbally by M. de Bonnaventure.  They have made a clearing on it where they have sown eleven bushels of wheat and six of peas, and they hope to sow twenty-five bushels next spring."  Le Sr. Louis-Amand Bugeaud, fils, age 23, navigator, "native of l'Acadie," was Louis-Amand's son by his first wife Catherine Granger.  The young sieur was still a bachelor in August 1752.  Living with him as domestics were Antoine-Amand Gautrot, age 20, "native of l'Acadie," and his brother Charles, age 17, also "native of l'Acadie."  De La Roque noted that Louis-Amand, fils "has been in the country for four years," that "His live stock consist of eleven cows, four calves, one sow, four pigs, one wether, ten ewes and 25 fowls," that "The land on which he is settled is situated on the north side of the said Rivière du Nord-Est, and was granted him under permit from Monsieur Benoist, dated 1749, comprising seven arpents frontage by forty in depth.  This land is called 'la source à Bellair."  Nearby stood one of the island's four churches.  At Source-à-Bellair, De La Roque noted, was "a clearing on which" the young sieur and his domestics "have sown three bushels of wheat, two bushels of oats and three bushels of peas, and ploughed land for sowing ten bushels of wheat."  Dame Marie Allain, age 58, was the widow of Sr. Joseph-Nicolas Gauthier dit Bellair, "merchant," who had died the previous April 10--the navigator-turned-Acadian resistance-leader who once had been the wealthiest man in British Nova Scotia.  Marie was the mother of Pierre and Joseph Gauthier and lived with four younger Gauthier children:  A second Joseph, age 19; Élisabeth, age 15; Marie, age 12; and Jean, age 11.  "In her employ" was Guillaume Lagneau, age 55, "of Indian nationality, native of Baston."  De La Roque noted that Dame Marie "has been three years in the country," that "She has the following live stock:--six oxen, four cows, three heifers, two bulls, three calves, two wethers, two ewes and 80 fowls," that "The land on which" she and her children "are settled is situated on the north side of the Rivière du Nord-Est at Source à Bellair and was given them by permit from Monsieur Benoist dated 24th January, 1749.  It comprises seven arpents frontage by forty arpents in depth.  They have made a clearing and have sowed there seven bushels of wheat and one bushel of oats."  Jacques Langlois dit Jacqui, age 36, carpenter and ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and son of François of Île Madame, lived with his second wife Marie-Josèphe Darembourg, age 25, "native of l'Acadie," and three children:  Cécile, age 6; Aimable, age 4 1/2; and Jacques-Mathieu, age 20 months.  De La Roque noted that Jacques "has been nine years in the country," that he and Marie-Josèphe "have in live stock two oxen, two cows, one calf, three ewes, two sows, five pigs, and twelve fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case," on the north side of the river," and was granted to them verbally by Monsieur Duchambon.  They have made a clearing and sowed on it ten bushels and a half of wheat, one bushel of oats, two bushels of peas, and ploughed land for sowing two bushels besides."  Joseph Michel, age 24, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," lived with wife Geneviève Darembourg, age 19, "native of Port St. Pierre, in the north of the island" and Marie-Josèphe's younger sister.  With Joseph and Geneviève was their 3-month-old daughter Marie-Josèphe.  De La Roque noted that Joseph "has been 18 months in the country," that his and Geneviève's "stock is as follows:  one cow, two ewes, one sow, one pig and six fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case," on the north side of the river, "and was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  They have made a clearing on it where they have sown three bushels and a half of wheat and a half bushel of peas."  Étienne-Charles Philippe dit LaRoche, age 37, "native of Paris," lived with wife Marie Mazerolle, no age given but she would have been 44, "native of l'Acadie," widow of Pierre Darembourg and Marie-Josèphe and Geneviève's mother.  With them were six sons, two by Marie's first husband, four by her second:  Jean-Baptiste Darembourg, age 15; Jacques Darembourg, age 13; Louis-Joseph Philippe, age 9; Charles Philippe, age 8; Joseph Philippe, age 5; and Jean-Pierre Philippe, age 3.  De La Roque noted that Étienne-Charles "has been in the country ___ years," that "Of live stock," he and Marie "have two oxen, one cow, one calf, three ewes, one sow, two pigs and ten fowl," that "The land on which they are settled is situated on the north side of the Rivière du Nord-Est, and was granted to them by Messieurs de Pensens and Dubuisson.  They have made on it a clearing for sowing thirty-two bushels of grain and this year they have sown on it sixteen bushels of wheat, one of oats and two of peas."  Jean Hélie, age 46, mastor tailor, "native of the town of Poitiers, in Poitou," lived with second wife Françoise Bonnevie, age 50, "native of l'Acadie."  With them was Jean-Baptiste Olivier, age 19, Françoise's son by her first marriage to Pierre Olivier.  Also living with them was Jeanne ____, age 30, "native of l'Acadie," perhaps a domestic servant.  De La Roque noted that Jean "has been in the country three years," that he and Françoise's "live stock consist of two cows, two oxen, one bull, two heifers, eight pigs and one cow in calf," that "The land on which they are settled, is situated as in the preceding case," on the north side of the river, "and was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  They have sown on it four bushels and a half of wheat, and have besides fallow land sufficient for the sowing of another eight bushels."174 

Continuing up the north bank of Rivière-du-Nord-Est to La Grande-Source, De La Roque found a number of families, interspersed with recent arrivals, who had lived on the island for decades.  Two of these families, in fact, had helped pioneer settlement on Île St.-Jean:  François Duguay, age 50, ploughman, "native of the parish of Pluvigné, bishopric of Vannes in Brittany," lived with wife Marie Bonnevie, age 48, "native of l'Acadie" and Françoise's younger sister.  With François and Marie were six children:  Charles, age 14; Jean-Baptiste, age 13; Marguerite, age 10; Olivier, age 6; Jacques, age 4; and Marie-Josèphe, age 19 months.  De La Roque noted that François "has been in the country 36 years"; he was, in fact, one of the pioneer European settlers of the island.  De La Roque also noted that François and Marie's "live stock consist of two oxen, one horse, one ewe, one sow, four pigs and ten fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case," on the north bank of Rivière-du-Nord-Est.  "They have made a clearing for the sowing of five bushels of wheat in the coming spring."  François Haché dit Gallant l'aîné, age 45, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Chignecto, lived with wife Anne Boudrot, age 33, "native of l'Acadie," and eight children:  François-Sylvestre, age 16; Louis, age 14; Jacques-Ange, age 13; Jean-François, age 11; René, age 9; Marie-Rose, age 5; Joseph, age 4; and Charles, age 4 months.  De La Roque noted that François "has been 28 years in the country," that he and Anne "have the following live stock:  four oxen, four cows, three heifers, two bulls, four sows, two pigs, three fowls:  Also, a corn mill made of coarse stone, which is used at the most only half the year.  The land on which they are settled is situated on the North side of the Rivière du Nord-Est, and was given to them by grant from Monsieur Duvivier, under date of the first July, 1745.  It comprises four arpents frontage by forty arpents in depth.  They have sown ten bushels of wheat and two of peas and have fallow land sufficient for the sowing of sixteen bushels more."  Joseph Prétieux, age 63, ploughman, "native of La Rochelle," lived with wife Anne Haché dit Gallant, age 48, "native of l'Acadie" and François l'aîné's older sister.  With Joseph and Anne were four children:  Louise-Marguerite, age 18; Pierre, age 15; Joseph, fils, age 13; and Louis, age 11.  De La Roque noted that Joseph "has been 28 years on the country," that "Of live stock" he and Anne "have four oxen, two heifers, one wether, five ewes, one sow and six pigs and two cows with four calves," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case," on the north side of the river, "and is held by them under grant by Monsieur Duvivier, dated the first July, 1745.  It is four arpents in depth.  They have made a clearing and have sown seven bushels of wheat, two bushels of rye and have sufficient fallow land for sowing eighteen bushels more."  Augustin Doucet dit Justice, age 29 (actually 33), ploughman, "native of Québec" but an Acadian, lived with second wife Anne-Marie, actually Marie-Anne, Prétieux, age 20, "native of Port La Joye, of this island" and Joseph's daughter, who Justice had married in February.  With them were two sons by Justice's first marriage to Cécile Mius d'Azy:  Joachim, age 9; and Joseph, age 7.  De La Roque noted that Justice "has been in the country eighteen years," though he may have meant 18 months.  "In live stock," Justice and Marie-Anne "have: one bull, one heifer, one ewe and one sow.  The land on which they are settled is situated on the north shore of the Rivière du Nord-Est, and was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  No clearing had been made, permission having been given them to go on the land only in the month of June."  François Haché dit Gallant le jeune, age 25, ploughman, "native of Louisbourg," "son of Marie Genty," actually Anne-Marie Gentil, and nephew of François l'aîné, lived with wife Françoise Olivier, age 20, "native of l'Acadie," and their 17-month-old daughter Marie-Osite.  De La Roque noted that François le jeune "has been in the country two years," that "in live stock" he and Françoise "have two oxen, two cows, one ewe, nine fowls, and one cow in calf," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case," on the north side of the river, "and was given to them by Monsieur Duvivier.  They have made a clearing on it where they have sown seven bushels of wheat and they have fallow land besides for the sowing of fifteen bushels."  Jean-Baptiste Haché dit Gallant, fils, age 32, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and François le jeune's older brother, lived with wife Anne Olivier, age 33, "native of l'Acadie" and Françoise's sister.  With Jean-Baptiste and Anne were two children:  Anne-Marie, age 22 months; and Pierre-Paul, age 4 months.  De La Roque noted that Jean-Baptiste "has been 29 years in the country," that he and Anne "have in live stock:  four oxen, one cow, one horse, one wether, three ewes, one sow, one pig, and five fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case," on the north side of the river, "and is held under a grant accorded to them by Monsieur Duvivier.  They have made a clearing for the sowing of seventeen bushels of seed on which they have sown seven bushels of wheat."   Marie Genty, actually Anne-Marie or Marie-Anne Gentil, age 48, "native of l'Acadie," actually Port-Royal, was the widow of Jean-Baptiste Haché dit Gallant, père of Chignecto, older brother of Anne and François l'aîné and father of Jean-Baptiste, fils and François le jeune.  De La Roque described his widow as "very poor."  She lived with seven Haché children:  Marie-Josèphe, age 25; Marguerite-Louise, age 23; Antonine, actually Antoine, age 18; Michel, age 16; Joseph, age 14; Louis, age 11; and Georges, age 10.  De La Roque noted that Marie "has been 29 years in the country," that "Of live stock" she and her children "have two oxen, one cow, one horse, one wether, two ewes, two sows, four pigs, five geese and ten fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case," on the north side of the river.  "They hold it by grant from Monsieur Duvivier.  They have made a clearing for the sowing of thirty two bushels, but have only sown seven not having been able to procure more owing to their poverty."  Michel Deveau, age 33, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Chignecto, lived with wife Marie Poirier, age 25, "native of l'Acadie," and three children:  Marie, age 5; Michel, fils, age 3; and Louise, age 10 months.  De La Roque noted that Michel "has been in the country twenty years," that "In live stock," he and Marie "have two oxen, one cow, one horse, one wether, four ewes, five sows, four pigs and nine fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case," on the north side of the river, "and was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  No clearing has been made on said land owing to its not being good for cultivation.  They have made their clearing on land situated at the harbour Au Sauvage," on the island's north shore, "where they have sown six bushels of wheat, one bushel of oats, and one bushel and a half of peas and have fallow land for the sowing of then bushels.  They hold this land verbally as they do the other."  Charles dit Charlit Haché dit Gallant, age 27, ploughman, "native of Port La Joye," Anne and François l'aîné's nephew, lived with wife Anne Deveau, age 18, "native of the harbour Au Sauvage" and Michel's sister.  Charlit and Anne had no children.  De La Roque noted that "They have in live stock two oxen, one cow, one heifer, one calf, two wethers, three ewes, two sows, one pig and seven fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated on the north shore of the Rivière du Nord-Est, at the part called La Grande Source," that "It was granted to them by Monsieur Dupont Duvivier.  They made no clearing, finding the soil was poor in quality.  They have made a clearing on the Crown lands where they have sown eight bushels of wheat."  Pierre Deveau, age 29, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and Michel and Anne's brother, lived with wife Marie Haché dit Gallant, age 28, "native of l'Acadie" and Charlit's older sister.  With Pierreand Marie were three children:  Blaise, age 5; Marie-Modeste, age 2; and Charles, age 5 months.  Also living with them was Marie and Charlit's bachelor brother François Haché, age 21, "native of l'Acadie."  De La Roque noted that Pierre "has been in the country 24 years," that "In live stock" he and Marie "have two oxen, two bulls, one heifer, two mares, one wether, four ewes, one sow, three pigs and seven fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case," on the north side of the river, "and was granted to them by Monsieur Dupont Duvivier.  They have made a clearing for it for the sowing of sixteen bushels and have sown eight."  Charles Poitier, actually Pothier, age 27, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Île St.-Jean, and maternal uncle of the Deveau siblings, lived with wife Marie-Blanche Caissie, age 26, "native of l'Acadie," actually Chignecto, and older sister of Jeanne of Port-Toulouse, Île Royale.  With Charles and Marie-Blanche was their 3-year-old daughter Modeste.  Also living with them was Marie-Blanche's sister Rosalie, age 19, "native of l'Acadie."  De La Roque noted that Charles "has been in the country for three years," which likely referred to the land he was holding since he had been born on the island in January 1725.  "In live stock," De La Roque noted, Charles and Marie-Blanche "have two oxen, two bulls, one cow, one wether, two ewes, one sow, three pigs and seven fowl," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case," on the north side of the river, "and was given them by Monsieur Benoist.  They have made no clearing for it for similar reasons to those already given in other cases.  They have made a clearing in the Crown lands for sowing eight bushels of seed."175

Ten families De La Roque found along the south bank of upper Rivière-du-Nord-Est were, with only two exceptions, long-time residents of the island:  Nicolas Bouchard, age 29, ploughman, "native of St. Thomas, bishopric of Québec," lived with wife Marie-Anne Chiasson, age 29, "native of l'Acadie," and two children:  Nicolas, fils, age 4; and Marie, age 2.  De La Roque noted that Nicolas "has been three years in the country," that his and Marie's "live stock consists of two oxen, two cows, two heifers, two bulls, two calves, four wethers, three ewes, three sows, one pig and ten fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated on the south side of the Rivière du Nord-Est, and was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing in which they have sown five bushels of wheat, and fallow land for the sowing of another five bushels."  Pierre Haché dit Gallant, age 27, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and younger brother of Jean-Baptiste, fils and François le jeune, lived with wife Marie Doiron, age 22, "native of l'Acadie."  They had no children.  De La Roque noted that Pierre "has been in the country 16 years," that "Of live stock" he and Marie "have two oxen, one bull, one mare, two ewes, one sow and five fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case," on the south side of the river, "and is held under grant, dated third January, 1745, from Monsieur Duvivier.  It comprises four arpents of frontage by forty in depth.  They have made no clearing having been only a short time on the land."  François Vescot, or Vécot, age 37, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," probably Chignecto, lived with wife Anne-Marie Arseneau, age 26, "native of l'Acadie," probably Chignecto, and three children:  François, fils, age 7; Michel, age 4; and Marie, age 2.  De La Roque noted that François "has been in the country 34 years," that he and Anne-Marie's livestock "consists of four oxen, four cows, four bulls, one heifer, one calf, one mare, eight wethers, three ewes, four sows, four pigs and twelve fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated on the south side of the river Rivière du Nord-Est.  They hold it by grant from Monsieur Benoist.  They have made a clearing on which they have sown fourteen bushels of wheat, two bushels of oats, and one bushel and a half of peas."  Charles Haché dit Gallant, age 53, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Chignecto, brother of Jean-Baptiste, père, Anne, and François l'aîné, lived with wife Geneviève Lavergne, age 42, "native of l'Acadie," actually Port-Royal, and five children:  Louise-Geneviève, age 22; Anne, age 15; another Anne, age 12; Joseph, age 8; and Jean-Baptiste, age 2.  Also living with them was Demoiselle Louise-Marguerite Poitiers Dubuisson, age 42, "native of Montréal, bishopric of Québec," a spinster from a distinguished Canadian family; the demoiselle was unrelated to either Charles or Geneviève, so one wonders why she was counted with this couple.  De La Roque noted that Charles "has been in the country 30 years," that his and Geneviève's livestock "is as follows:  Five oxen, five cows, two heifers, three bulls, one calf, eight wethers, fourteen ewes, four sows, six pigs and five fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case," on the south side of the river, "and was granted as follows, to wit:  One piece of land granted by Monsieur Duvivier in 1745 under the date the first of July, comprising five arpents, five perches of frontage and forty arpents in length; and another piece of land that the said Charles Haché has purchased from Joseph Haché, his brother, granted to said Joseph Haché by Monsieur Duvivier under date sixth July, 1745, comprising four arpents of frontage and forty arpents in depth, the two pieces of land lying contiguous to each other and forming one estate of nine arpents five perches frontage by forty arpents in depth.  They have sown on it twenty-four bushels of wheat, three bushels of oats and three bushels of peas."  Pierre Haché dit Gallant, age 51, ploughman and navigator, "native of l'Acadie," actually Chignecto, and brother of Charles et al., was widower of Cécile Lavergne, Geneviève's sister.  Pierre lived with eight children:  Louis, age 25; Pierre, fils, age 23; Geneviève, age 21; Marie-Anne, age 19; Jean-Baptiste, age 17; Louise, age 15; Anne, age 13; and Marie-Josèphe, age 8.  De La Roque noted that Pierre "has been 30 years in the country," that "In live stock" he and his children "have six oxen, four cows, two bulls, two calves, two mares, five wethers, eleven ewes, seven sows, two pigs and twenty-three fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated on the south side of the Rivière du Nord-Est of Port La Joye.  They hold it by grant, and have made a clearing on which they have sown thirty-two bushels of wheat, one bushel of oats, and have made fallow land for the sewing of sixteen bushels."  Pierre Duval, age 48, blacksmith and ploughman, "native of the parish of Sougeal, bishopric of Rennes," Brittany, lived with wife Marie-Madeleine Haché dit Gallant, age 42, "native of l'Acadie," actually Chignecto, and sister of Charles et al.  With Pierre and Marie-Madeleine were six children:  Marie-Josèphe, age 17; Anne, age 15; Jean-Pierre, age 10; Marguerite, age 7; Osite, age 5; and Charles, age 6 months.  Also living with the family was orphan Jean-François, called François, Mazièrre, or Mazière, age 6, "native of this island."  (François's maternal grandmother was Marie Haché, Marie-Madeleine's late older sister, so the boy was Marie-Madeleine's grand nephew.)   De La Roque noted that Pierre "has been 22 years in the country," that he and Marie-Madeleine "have in live stock, four oxen, four cows, two heifers, one bull, two calves, one mare with young, four wethers, ten ewes, two sows, five pigs, and fifty fowls or chickens," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case," on the south side of the river, "and was granted them by Messieurs Duvivier and Degoutin.  On it they have made a clearing where they have sown sixteen bushels of wheat and eight bushels of oats, and made fallow land sufficient for the sowing of seventeen bushels more."   Charles Martin, age 40 (actually 43), ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Port-Royal, lived with wife Françoise Carret, age 30 (actually 31), "native of l'Acadie," actually Chignecto, and sister of Marie of Rivière-du-Ouest.  Charles and Françoise had no children.  De La Roque noted that he "has been in the country 30 years," that his and Françoise's "live stock consists of four oxen, five cows, one calf, one mare, five wethers, two sows, fourteen pigs and sixteen fowls or chickenks; and a boat," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case," on the south side of the river.  "They hold it under grant from Messieurs Duvivier and Degoutin.  On it they have made a clearing where they have sown ten bushels of wheat, four bushels of oats, and two bushels of peas."  Bathélemy Martin, age 42 (actually 48), ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and Charles's older brother, lived with wife Madeleine Carret, age 39, "native of l'Acadie" and Marie and Françoise's sister.  With Barthélemy and Madeleine were 10 children:  Pierre-Paul, age 20; Charles-Michel, age 18; François, age 16; Jacques-Christophe, age 14; Marie-Josèphe, age 13; Joseph, age 12; Euphrosine, age 9; another Marie-Josèphe, age 7; Jeanne, age 3; and Jean-Félix, age 1.  De La Roque noted that Barthélemy "has been in the country 30 years," that he and Madeleine "have the following live stock:  four oxen, four cows, four heifers, nine wethers, eleven ewes, five pigs, nine fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case," on the south side of the river, "and was given to them by Messieurs Duvivier and Degoutin.  They have made a clearing on it where they have sown forty bushels of wheat, fifteen bushels of oats, and half a bushel of peas, and made fallow land for the sowing of twenty bushels more."  Joseph Martin, age 50 (actually 55), ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Port-Royal, and elder brother of Charles and Barthélemy, lived with wife Élisabeth Carret, age 32, "native of l'Acadie," actually Chignecto, widow of Joseph Doucet and sister of Marie, Françoise, and Madeleine.  Joseph Martin had married Élisabeth at Port-Lajoie in April 1750, when he was age 53; oddly, this was his first marriage.  They lived with six children, four from her first marriage, two from their marriage:  Marguerite Doucet, age 13; Joseph Doucet, age 12; Pierre Doucet, age 9; Rose Doucet, age 6; Marie-Josèphe Martin, age 17 months; and Anne Martin, age 4 months.  De La Roque noted that Joseph "has been in the country 30 years," that he and Élisabeth's "live stock consists of five oxen, one cow, two calves, two wethers, three ewes, two sows, four pigs, and ten fowls or chickens," but he said nothing of their land.  Honoré Bourgeois, age 52 (actually 50), ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Chignecto, lived with second wife Marie-Madeleine Pichard, age 48, "native of the parish of Saint-Léger, bishopric of Chartres" and widow of Henri L'Hôtellier.  Honoré had remarried to her only recently.  With them were two children by his first wife, Marie-Jeanne Richard:  Marguerite, age 17; and François, age 15.  De La Roque noted that Honoré "has been two years in the country," so he must have married ...  Marie-Madeleine soon after he came to the island; a native of Chartres, France, she had married her first husband at St.-Pierre-du-Nord in July 1744, so she had been on the island at least since that time.  De La Roque also noted that "In live stock" Honoré and Marie-Madeleine "have four oxen, four cows, four calves, one horse, six wethers, twelve ewes, two sows, four pigs and twelve fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated on the south side of the Rivière du Nord-Est of Port La Joye, and they acquired it from Charles Haché as guardian and curator of the children, minor and major, of the late" René Rassicot, second husband of Charles's older sister Marie Haché.  De La Roque concluded:  "They," Honoré and Marie-Madeleine, "have made a clearing for the sowing of forty bushels of seed where they have sown twelve bushels of wheat, one bushel of barley, one bushel of sprat[sic], four bushels of oats and six bushels of peas."176 

On upper Rivière-du-Nord-Est, De La Roque found 13 families on both sides of Rivière-de-Peugiguit, today's Pisquid River, a tributary flowing into the larger river from the south, not far below its source.  Most of these families also had lived on the island for decades.

On the east side of the tributary, he found:  Jean-Baptiste Rassicot dit Ratier, age unrecorded, but he was 22, ploughman, "native of Port La Joie" and elder son of Marie Haché by her second husband, was still a bachelor.  De La Roque noted that he had, in the way of livestock, "one ox, one sow and one pig.  The land on which he is settled is situated on the east side of the Rivière de Peugiguit.  It was given to him under grant from Monsieur Benoist, and on it he has made a clearing sufficient for sowing ten bushels of seed of which he has sown four."  Pierre Galloa, or Gallon, age 42, ploughman, "native of the parish of St. Pierre Langers," bishopric of Avranches, France, lived with wife Marguerite Bertaud dit Montaury, age 33, "native of Port Toulouse," Île Royale," and five children:  Marie-Françoise, age 13; Henriette, age 11; Félix, age 7; Jean-Baptiste, age 5; and Joseph, age 2.  De La Roque noted that Pierre "has been in the country 30 years," that his and Marguerite's "live stock consists of two oxen, two cows, two calves, one wether, six ewes, three pigs and one hen," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case," on the east side of the river, "and was granted to them by Monsieur Benoist.  They have made a clearing on it sufficient for the sowing of nine bushels of which they have sown three bushels of wheat and one of peas."  Paul Olivier, age 25, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Annapolis Royal, lived with wife Marguerite Poirier, age 27, "native of l'Acadie," actually Chignecto, and two children:  Jean-Baptiste, age 2; and Marie-Madeleine, age 11.  De La Roque noted that Paul "has been in the country three years," that "Of live stock" he and Marguerite "have two oxen, one cow, seven pigs and five fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case," on the east side of the river, "and they hold it by permission of Monsieur Duchambon and M. Degoutin.  They have made a clearing where they have sown eight bushels of wheat, and half a bushel of peas and have fallow land sufficient for seven bushels more."  Mathieu dit Cadet Glin, actually de Glain, age 58, fisherman and ploughman, "native of the town of Bayonne," France, lived with wife Marie Martin, age 54 (actually 57), "native of l'Acadie," actually Port-Royal, Joseph, Barthélemy, and Charles's older sister, and Marguerite Bertaud dit Montaury's mother.  Mathieu and Marie lived with four children, three from her first marriage to Pierre Bertaud dit Montaury, and one of their own:  Anne-Agathe Bertaud dit Montaury, age 27; Jean-François Bertaud dit Montaury, age 25; Marie-Josèphe Bertaud dit Montaury, age 19; and Marie-Louise de Glain, age 16.  De La Roque noted that Mathieu "has been in the country 34 years," that his and Marie's "live stock consists of four oxen, three cows, three calves, four wethers, three ewes, five sows, one pig and two fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case," on the east side of the river.  "It was given to them by Monsieur Benoist.  They have made a clearing where they have sown ten bushels of wheat, one bushel of peas and have fallow land for the sowing of six bushels besides."  Pierre-Mathurin Girard dit Saint-Crispin, age 31, "native of the parish of St. Coulombin, bishopric of Nantes," and "soldier of the former company of Monsieur de Bonnaventure," lived with wife Marie-Marguerite Closquinet, age 25, "native of the country."  They had no children.  De La Roque noted that the soldier-turned-farmer "has been in the colony three years," that he and Marie's "live stock consists of two oxen, three cows, two calves, three wethers, three ewes, three sows, three pigs and eight fowls.  The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case," on the east side of the river, "and was granted by Messieurs Duvivier and Degoutin.  They have made a clearing for the sowing of twelve bushels of wheat next spring."  Jacques Haché dit Gallant, age 25, ploughman, "native of the country," lived with wife Anne Boudrot, age 25, "native of Port Toulouse," and three children:  Pierre, age 4; Marie, age 30 months; and Geneviève, age 10.  Also living with them was kinsman Louis Racicot, or Rassicot, age 13, "native of the island" and Jean-Baptiste dit Ratier's younger brother.  De La Roque noted that Jacques and Anne's "live stock consists of the following:  two oxen, five cows, four calves, six ewes, one wether, two sows and twelve fowls or chickens.  The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case," on the east side of the river, "and was granted to them by Monsieur Duvivier.  On it they have made a clearing and have sown ten bushels of wheat and one bushel of peas, and have fallow land for fourteen bushels in addition."  Joseph Poirier, age 31, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," lived with wife Ursule Renaud, age 30, "native of l'Acadie," and daughter Marie, age 2.  Also living with them were his mother-in-law Marie-Madeleine Lapierre dit Laroche, no age given but she was 56, widow of Louis Renaud dit Provençal, who had come to the island from Minas in the 1740s.  With the mother-in-law were four of Joseph's siblings-in-law:  Pierre Renaud, age 18, "native of l'Acadie; Judith Renaud, age 16, "native of the same"; Anne Renaud, age 13; and Anselme Renaud, age 8.  De La Roque noted that Joseph "has been in the country one year," that "In live stock" he and Ursule "have one cow with calf, two sows, one pig and seven fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case," on the east side of the river.  "It was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  They have made on it a clearing sufficient for the sowing of twelve bushels of seed the coming spring."177 

De La Roque crossed to the west side of Rivière-de-Peugiguit and counted seven more families:  François Dousset, probably Doucet, age 26, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," lived with wife Marguerite-Catherine Jacquemin, age 26, "native of Louisbourg."  They had no children.  De La Roque noted that François "has been in the country 12 years," that "In live stock" he and Marguerite "have one bull, one cow, one calf, one wether, seven ewes, and one sow.  The land on which they are settled is situated on the west side of the Rivière de Peugiguit.  It was given to them by a grant from Monsieur Duvivier.  They have made a clearing on it which they sowed eight bushels of wheat, and have fallow land for 12 bushels more."  Pierre Closquinet, age 27, ploughman, "native of Louisbourg" and Marie-Marguerite's brother, lived with wife Marie-Josèphe Boudrot, age 20, "native of l'Acadie," who he had married in January 1751.  They also had no children.  De La Roque noted that Pierre and Marie-Josèphe "have the following live stock, two oxen, two cows, one calf, two wethers, nine ewes, two sows, seven pigs and six fowls.  The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case," on the west side of the river.  "It was given to them by a grant from Messieurs Duvivier and Degoutin.  On it they have made a clearing where they have sown sixteen bushels of wheat, six bushels of peas, six bushels of oats, and have fallow land for sixteen bushels additional."  Louis Closquinet dit Desmoulins, age 66, ploughman, native of Reims, France, lived with wife Marguerite Longuépée, age 52, "native of l'Acadie" and sister of the Longuépées of Île Royale.  She and Louis were Marie-Marguerite and Pierre's parents.  The elderly couple lived with five of their younger children:  Louis, fils, age 22; Joseph and Jean-Baptiste, age 19; Louise-Geneviève, age 17; and Aimable, age 13.  De La Roque noted that Louis dit Desmoulins "has been in the country 25 years," that he and Marguerite's "live stock consists of the following:  nine oxen, six cows, four heifers, one bull, one horse, one mare with colt, eight wethers, fifteen ewes, fourteen pigs, eight sows and twenty fowls or chickens.  The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case," on the west side of the river.  "It was given to them by grant from Messieurs Duvivier and Degoutin.  They have made a clearing on it for sowing sixty-four bushels of grain, where they have sowed thirty-two bushels of wheat, fourteen bushels of peas and ten bushels of oats."  Robert Hengo or Hango dit Choicy, age 36, ploughman, "native of the parish of Carolle, bishopric of Avranche," France, lived with wife Marguerite Haché dit Gallant, widow of Pierre Jacquemin dit Lorraine; she also was the sister of Charles et al. on Rivière-du-Nord-Est and the mother of Marguerite-Catherine.  With Robert and Marguerite were five children, two younger ones from her first marriage and three from her second:  Marianne Jacquemin, age 18; Marie-Louise Jacquemin, age 16; Madeleine Hango, age 11; Jean-François Hango, age 9; and Michel Hango, age 7.  De La Roque noted that Robert "has been 18 years in the country," that his and Marguerite's "live stock consists of four oxen, four cows, three calves, one horse, twelve wethers, twelve ewes, three sows, seven pigs and ten fowls.  The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case," on the west side of the river.  "It was given to him by grant from Monsieur Duvivier.  He has made a clearing sufficient for sowing thirty-two bushels of grain, of which he has sown five in wheat and three in peas."  Louis Valet dit Langevin, age 47, "extremely poor, soldier formerly of the company of Monsieur Dangeac, native of the town of Angers," France, lived with wife Marie-Brigitte, called Brigitte, Pinet, age 33, "native of Canada," and five children:  Marie-Marguerite, called Marguerite, age 17, probably 11; Marguerite-Louise, called Louise, age 9; Rose, age 7; Marie, age 5; and Louis, fils, age 18 months.  De La Roque noted that Louis "has been 19 years in the country," that "The land on which" he and Brigitte "are settled is situated as in the preceding case," on the west side of the river.  "They acquired it for the sum of 70 livres from Michel Hébert.  They have made a clearing on it where they have sown six bushels of wheat and two bushels of peas, and have fallow land sufficent for the sowing of thirty bushels this coming spring.  In live stock they have fix oxen, one cow, one calf, one mare with colt, three wethers, eight ewes, three sows, four pigs and ten fowls or chickens."  (Noting the number of their livestock, one wonders why De La Roque insisted that the former soldier and his family were "extremely poor.")  Jean Lucas dit Bergerac, no age given but he was 43, "soldier of the company of Montalembert" and native of Doué Parish, bishopric of Saintes, Saintonge, France, lived alone, "his wife," Anne-Marie Doucet of Grand-Pré, who he had married in May 1738, "having left him.  The land on which he is settled," De La Roque noted, "was given by grant from Monsieur Duvivier.  He has made a clearing on it for sowing thirty-two bushels of seed of which he has sown five in wheat and three in peas."  Jacques dit Petit Jacques LeBlanc, age 57, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Grand-Pré, older brother of resistance leader Joseph dit Le Maigre, now at Port-Toulouse, Île Royale, lived with wife Cécile Dupuis, age 55, "native of l'Acadie," actually Grand-Pré, and six of their children:  Françoise, age 26; Jean-Pierre, age 25; Joseph, age 23; Dominique, age 21; Casimir, age 19; and Marguerite, age 16.  De La Roque noted that Petit Jacques "has been four years in the country," that he and Cécile's "live stock consists of eight oxen, six cows, one heifer, three calves, two bulls, two horses, five ewes, three pigs and twenty-five fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated on the south side of Rivier du Nord-Est; it was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On said land they have made a clearing of six arpents in extent, where they have sown on it ten bushels of wheat, one bushel of oats and seven bushels of peas, and they have fallow land sufficient to sow twelve bushels of seed; they also have a saw mill."  One wonders if Petit Jacques also had been a part of the Acadian resistance during King George's War and had fled to Île St.-Jean to escape persecution.  Abraham dit Chaques Landry, age 52 (actually 55), native of Port-Royal, widower of Marie-Isabelle Blanchard, and "inhabitant of l'Acadie," lived with two unmarried sons:  Charles, age 22; and Joseph, age 18.  De La Roque noted that Chaques "has been four years in the country," that he and his sons "have in live stock:  two oxen, one cow, three bulls, one sow, four pigs and eight fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case," on the south side of Rivière-du-Nord-Est, that it "was given to him verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure," that he and his sons have "made a clearing of three arpents in extent, where they have sown five bushels of wheat and three bushels of peas, and have fallow land for the sowing of six bushels of wheat."  De La Roque also located this family at Rivière-du-Moulin-à-Scie, probably near its confluence with the larger river.178 

Lower down Rivière-du-Nord-Est, half way back to Port-La-Joye, De La Roque found 42 more families on the south side of the river.  With only a single exception, all were recent arrivals.  De La Roque described them as "the settlers of Rivière-du-Moulin-à-Scie," today's Glenfinnan River, which, like Rivière-de-Peugiguit, flowed into Rivière-du-Nord-Est from the south. 

Evidently 19 of these families, all recent arrivals, lived on the south side of the larger river near its confluence with Rivière-du-Moulin-à-Scie, and perhaps along that tributary as well:  Étienne Thériot, age 26, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Grand-Pré, lived with wife Hélène Landry, age 28, "native of l'Acadie" and Abraham dit Chaques's daughter.  With Étienne and Hélène were two children:  Joseph, age 4; and Françoise, age 10 months.  (Three years later, in c1755, Hélène would give birth to son Olivier, who would loom large in Acadian history.)  De La Roque noted that Étienne "has been two years on the island," that his and Hélène's "live stock consists of two oxen, two bulls, two heifers, five ewes, five sows, four pigs and seven fowl," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case," along the south side of Rivière-du-Nord-Est.  This land "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonaventure. They have made a clearing on it three arpents in extent and have sown four bushels of wheat and four bushels of peas."  Anselme Landry, age 34, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," lived with wife Marie-Madeleine LeBlanc, age 32, "native of l'Acadie," actually Grand-Pré, daughter of Petit Jacques.  With Anselme and Marie-Madeleine was their 9-month-old son Jean-Pierre.  De La Roque noted that Anselme "has been two years in the country," that his and Marie-Madeleine's "live stock consists of six oxen, five cows, two bulls, one horse, three ewes, four sows, four pigs and fifteen fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases; it was given verbally to them by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  They have made a clearing of three arpents and a half in extent on it where they have sown five bushels of wheat and four bushels of peas."  Prosper Thibodeau, age 27, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," lived with wife Hélène Barrieau, age 26, "native of l'Acadie," and three daughters:  Doratte, age 6; Marguerite, age 4, and Osite, 18 months.  De La Roque noted that Prosper "has been in this country 22 months," that his and Hélène's "live stock consists of four oxen, one cow with calf, two sows, four pigs and thirty fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated on the south side of the Rivière dur Nord-Est; it was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On this land they have made a clearing of four arpents in extent."  Joseph Thibodeau, age 53, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually L'Assomption, Pigiguit, lived with wife Marie-Josèphe Bourgeois, age 50, "native of l'Acadie," actually Port-Royal.  They were Prosper's parents.  With Joseph and Marie-Josèphe were six younger children:  Olivier, age 23; Eustache, age 20; Joseph, fils, age 18; Charles, age 15; Firmin, age 10; and Rose, age 8.  De La Roque noted that Joseph "has been in this island 22 months," that his and Marie-Josèphe's livestock consisted of "four oxen, one sow and five pigs," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case; and it was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  They have made on it a clearing of six arpents in extent."  Antoine Thibodeau, age 56 (actually 54), ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually L'Assomption, Pigiguit, Joseph's older brother, lived with wife Susanne Comeau, age 47, "native of l'Acadie," actually Port-Royal, and 10 children:  Ambroise, age 26; Blaise, age 23; Simon, age 20; Sylvain, age 18; Bonaventure, age 15; Marie-Susanne, age 13; Élisabeth, age 10; Marguerite, age 8; Anne, age 6; and Doratte, age 2.  De La Roque noted that Antoine "has been on this island only two months," that "The land on which" he and Susanne "are settled is situated as in the preceding one; and it was given them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure."  Jacques dit Norman Sellier, or Cellier, age 55, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Grand-Pré, lived with wife Marie-Blanche, called Blanche, Hébert, age 25, "native of l'Acadie," actually Annapolis Royal, and four sons:  Pierre, age 7; Noël, age 5; Jacques, fils, age 4; and Jean, age 18 months.  De La Roque noted that Jacques ""has only been in the country two years," that "Two oxen are all there[sic] live stock," and that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases; and it was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  They have not made any clearing."  Claude Gautrot, fils, age 35 (actually 38), ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," lived with wife Geneviève-Salomé Hébert, age 35 (actually 39), "native of l'Acadie" and Blanche Hébert's paternal aunt.  With Claude and Geneviève were five children:  Anastasie, age 13; Jean-Baptiste, age 7; Joseph, age 5; Marie, age 3; and Michel, age 9 months.  De La Roque noted that Claude "has been in the country two years," that he and Geneviève "have in live stock, two oxen, two cows, two calves, three pigs and fifteen fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases; and it was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing of four arpents in extent."  Jean Hébert, age 30; ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," lived with wife Marie Lebert dit Jolicoeur, age 20, "native of l'Acadie," and two children:  Marie, age 5; and Jean-Baptiste, age 3 months.  De La Roque noted that Jean "has been three years in the country," said nothing of livestock, and noted that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases; it was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  They have not made any clearing."  Louis Hébert dit Baguette, age 58 (actually 60), ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Port-Royal, and Geneviève-Salomé's older brother, lived with wife Anne-Marie, called Marie, Labauve, age 60, "native of l'Acadie," actually Minas.  They were Marie-Blanche's parents.  With Louis and Marie were three of their younger children:  Jean, age 22; Théotiste, age 18; and Modeste, age 15.  De La Roque noted that Baguette "has been in the country three years," he and Marie "have one horse," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases," and that "it was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing of two arpents in extent."  Alain Bugeaud, fils, age 24, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," lived with wife Marie-Madeleine Granger, age 21, "native of l'Acadie," and their 9-month-old son whose name De La Roque did not record (probably Simon).  De La Roque noted that Allain "has only been on the island one month," that "In live stock," he and Marie "own four oxen, one heifer and one calf," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure."  Alain Bugeaud, père, age 48, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," and younger brother of Srs. Joseph and Louis-Amand of Rivière-du-Nord-Est, lived with wife Madeleine Boudrot, age 47, "native of l'Acadie" and younger sister of Denis of Rivière-du-Nord-Est.  Living with Alain, père and Madeleine were nine of their younger children:  Élisabeth, age 21; Pierre, age 19; Marguerite, age 17; Anne, age 15; Simon, age 11; Marie, age 9; Joseph, age 7; Ursule, age 5; and Osite, age 5 months.  De La Roque noted that Alain, père "has been in the colony one year," that he and Madeleine's "live stock consists of:  two oxen, two cows, two heifers, two horses, one sow, four ducks and twenty fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing of six arpents in extent."  Joseph Sellier, or Cellier, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Grand-Pré, and Jacques dit Normand's younger brother, lived with wife Anne Hébert, age 32, "native of l'Acadie," actually Annapolis Royal, another of Louis's daughters.  With Joseph and Anne were five children:  Marie, age 12; Élisabeth, age 10; Amand, age 8; Abraham, age 6; and Marguerite, age 3.  De La Roque noted that Joseph "has been three years in the country," that "Of live stock," he and Anne "have: one ox, four cows, three heifers, four calves, one pig and nineteen fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case," and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  They have made a clearing on it of three arpents in extent."  Michel Aucoin, age 48, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and older brother of Marie-Josèphe and Paul of Rivière-du-Nord-Est, lived with wife Marie-Josèphe Henry, age 41, "native of l'Acadie" and sister of Cécile and Martin of Pointe-à-la-Jeunesse, Île Royale, and Jean dit Neveu of Rivière-de-l'Ouest.  With Michel and Marie-Josèphe were six daughters:  Marie-Josèphe, age 22; Marguerite, age 18; Madeleine, age 15; Geneviève, age 11; Élisabeth, age 8; and Osite, age 5.  De La Roque noted that Michel "has been on the island one year," that he and Marie-Josèphe had for live stock "five sheep, six pigs and nine fowls," that "They have not yet fixed the extent of land on which to settle."  Michel Caissie, age 38, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and older brother of Jeanne of Port-Toulouse, Île Royale, and Marie-Blanche and Rosalie of Rivière-du-Nord-Est, lived with wife Marguerite Henry, age 21, "native of l'Acadie" and daughter of Germain of Port-Lajoie.  With Michel and Marguerite were two daughters:  Marie, age 3; and Marie-Geneviève, age 1.  De La Roque noted that Michel "had been in this country two years," that his and Marguerite's "live stock consists of one heifer, one sow, three pigs and one hen," that "The land on which they are settled is situated on the south shore of the Rivière du Nord-Est, and was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  They have made a clearing on it of two arpents in extent where they have sown two bushels and a half of wheat and three bushels and a half of peas."  Pierre Boisseau, age 30, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," lived with wife Madeleine Boudrot, age 28, "native of l'Acadie" and daughter of Denis of Rivière-du-Nord-Est.  With Pierre and Madeleine were two children:  Marie, age 3; and Pierre, fils, age 11 months.  With them also was Félix ____, age 29, "a relative, native of l'Acadie," actually Félix Boudrot, Madeleine's older brother, who soon would marry Jeanne Boisseau, Pierre's younger sister.  De La Roque noted that Pierre "has been in the country two years," that Pierre and Madeleine "have in live stock:  two oxen, one heifer, two ewes, two pigs and twelve fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case, and was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  They have made a clearing on it two arpents in extent and sown eight bushels of wheat."  Thomas Doiron, age 53, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," lived with wife Anne Girouard, age 48, "native of l'Acadie" and sister of Claude of Île Madame and Marie of Baie-des-Espagnols on Île Royale.  With Thomas and Anne were 10 children:  Rose, age 22; Paul, age 21; Madeleine, age 18; Charles, age 14; Alexandre, age 12; Jacques, age 10; Anne, age 8; Marie-Marthe, age 6; Élisabeth, age 5; and Marguerite, age 3.  De La Roque noted that Thomas "has been in the country two years," that "In live stock" he and Anne "have one ox, one heifer, two sows, one pig and thirty-three fowls," that "The land on whic they are settled is situated on the south side of the Rivière du Nord-Est, and was given to them by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing of two arpents in extent and have sown two bushels of wheat."  Bénoni Doiron, age 27, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and Thomas and Anne's older son, lived with wife Marguerite dit Blondin Boisseau, age 26, "native of l'Acadie" and Pierre's younger sister.  With Bénoni and Marguerite were three sons:  Simon-Grégoire, age unrecorded; Pierre, age 34 months; and Ignace, age 6 weeks.  Also living with them were François dit Blondin Boisseau, père, age 66, "native of Paris," Marguerite's father, and Jeanne Boisseau, age 21, Marguerite's younger sister.  De La Roque noted that Bénoni "has been in the country 2 years," that his and Marguerite's "live stock consists of four oxen, one cow, one heifer, one calf, one sow, one pig and twenty-five fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case" and "was given to them by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On the said land they have made a clearing of three arpents in extent where they have sown two bushels and a half of wheat and a bushel of oats."  Michel Hébert, age 50, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," lived with second wife Claire Boisseau, age 39, "native of l'Acadie" and another of François, père's daughter.  With them were nine children, six from Michel's first marriage to Marguerite Gautrot, and four from his current marriage:  Joseph, age 22; Claude, age 19; Pierre, age 15; Benoît, age 14; Amable, age 13; Jean, age 10; François, age 2; Marie-Anne, age 18 months; and a second Joseph, age 7 months.  De La Roque noted that Michel "has been on this island three years," that he and Claire "have in live stock four oxen, two cows, two heifers, three ewes, four sows, three pigs and thirty fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case.  It was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On the said land they have made a clearing of eleven arpents in extent where they have sown thirty-six bushels of wheat and one bushel and a half of peas."179 

Lingering on the south side of Rivière-du-Nord-Est, De La Roque found four more families, all recent arrivals, at Rivière-des-Blancs, today's Johnstons River:   Paul dit Petit Paul Boudrot, age 49 (actually 45), ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Grand-Pré, lived with wife Marie-Josèphe, actually Madeleine-Josèphe, Doiron, age 40, "native of l'Acadie," and five children:  Marguerite, age 17; Françoise, age 14; Jean-Charles, age 12; Anne, age 7; and Basile, age 4.  Also living with them was Charles Doiron, age 90 (actually 78), "their father, native of l'Acadie," actually Port-Royal, "infirm," and his wife Françoise Gaudet, age 85 (actually 79), "native of l'Acadie," actually Port-Royal.  They were Madeleine-Josèphe's parents.   De La Roque noted that Petit Paul "has been two years in the colony," that he and Madeleine-Josèphe have "in live stock five oxen, four cows, one sow and four pigs," that "The land on which they are settled is situated on the Rivière des Blancs" and "has been given to verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  They have made a clearing on it of five arpents in extent where they have sown seven bushels of wheat and eight bushels of oats."  Pierre Barrieau, age 45, "native of l'Acadie," brother of Nicolas, fils of Port-Toulouse, Île Royale, and Jacques of Île Madame, lived with wife Véronique Girouard, age 44 (actually 40), "native of l'Acadie," younger half-sister of Claude of Île Madame and Marie of Baie-des-Espagnols on Île Royale and sister of Anne of Rivière-du-Moulin-à-Scie.  With Pierre and Véronique were nine children:  Jean-Baptiste, age 19; Marie-Blanche, age 17; Olivier, age 15; Anne, age 13; Anastasie, age 11; Pélagie, age 9; Euphrosine, called Frosine, age 7; Marie, age 5; and Hélène, age 1.  De La Roque noted that Pierre "had been in the country two years," that "in live stock" he and Véronique owned "four oxen, one cow, one calf, one wether, five ewes, two sows, five pigs and twenty-five fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case," on Rivière-des-Blancs," and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  They have made on it a clearing of eight arpents in extent where they have sown seven bushels of wheat and seven bushels of oats."  Pierre Boudrot, age 40, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Grand-Pré, and Petit Paul's brother, lived with wife Marie Doiron, age 35, "native of l'Acadie," and 10 children:  Marie-Blanche, age 18; Anne, age 16; Marie, age 14; Madeleine, age 12; another Marie, age 10; Anastasie, age 8; Firmin, age 7; Euphrosine, age 6; Jacques, age 4; and Judith, age 12 days.  De La Roque noted that Pierre "has been two years in the country," that "in live stock" he and Marie owned "four oxen, three cows, three heifers, five ewes, two calves, one sow, six pigs and ten fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated on the Rivière des Blancs" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing of eight arpents in extent and have sown five bushels of wheat, eight bushels of oats and one bushel of peas."  Jean Daigre, age 54, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and brother of Pierre of Port-Toulouse, Île Royale, and Amand of Rivière-du-Nord, lived with second wife Marie-Anne Breau, age 46, "native of l'Acadie," and 12 children:  Françoise, age 24; Catherine, age 23; Jean, fils, age 22; Charles, age 19; Félicité, age 18; Rose, age 16; Marie, age 13; Paul, age 11; Ursule, age 9; Marie-Marguerite, called Marguerite, age 8; Jeanne- or Anne-Josèphe, age 4; and Élisabeth, age 3.  De La Roque noted that Jean "has been one year in the country," that "In live stock" he and Marie-Anne owned "two oxen, five cows, one calf and two pigs," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing of eight arpents in extent and have sown five bushels of wheat, eight bushels of oats and one of peas."180 

Still on the southside of Rivière-du-Nord-Est but farther down, De La Roque found eight more families, all but one of them recent arrivals, at Anse-à-Dubuisson, today's Curry's Cove:  Paul dit Petit Paul Doiron, age 39 (actually 36), ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and Charles's son, lived with wife Marie Richard, age 40 (actually 34), "native of l'Acadie," and five children:  Marie-Josèphe, age 15; Paul-Michel, age 12; Marguerite-Modeste, age 8; Élisabeth, age 5; and Judith, age 7 months.  De La Roque noted that Petit Paul "has been in the country two years," that "in live stock" he and Marie owned one pig and six fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated on the creek à Dubuisson" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure; on which said land they have made a clearing of two arpents in extent."  Antoine Barrieau, fils, age 26, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," lived with wife Marie-Blanche Doucet, age 19, "native of l'Acadie," and no children.  De La Roque noted that Antoine, fils "has been in the country two years," that he and his wife "have in live stock, two oxen, on pig and one hen," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure, and on the said land they have made a clearing of one arpent and a half in extent."  Antoine Barrieau, père, age 55, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and Pierre's brother, lived with wife Angélique Thibodeau, age 48, "native of l'Acadie" and sister of Antoine and Joseph of Rivière-du-Moulin-à-Scie.  With Antoine and Angélique were seven younger children:  Félicité, age 24; Simeon, age 21; Marie, age 19; Jean-Charles, age 16; Eustache, age 14; Marie-Blanche, age 12; and Marguerite-Josèphe, age 10.  De La Roque noted that Antoine, père, "has been two years in the country," that "in live stock" he and Angélique owned "two oxen, two calves and one sow," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case" and "was given verbally to them by Monsieur de Bonnaventure, on which said land they have made a clearing of three arpents in extent on which they have sown five bushels of wheat."  Pierre Vincent dit Clément, age 30, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and younger brother of Madeleine of Île Madame, lived with second wife Rosalie dite Rose Barrieau, age 30, "native of l'Acadie" and Antoine, père's daughter, who Pierre had married in May.  With Pierre and Rose were two children from his first marriage to Blanche Michel:  Anne, age 8; and Isidore, age 4.  De La Roque noted that Pierre dit Clément "has been 22 years in the country," but said nothing of his livestock.  He noted that "The land on which" Pierre and Rose "are settled is situated in the preceding cases," and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure, on which said land they have made a clearing of two arpents in extent."  Joseph Savary, age 33, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Grand-Pré, lived with wife Françoise Barrieau, age 27, "native of l'Acadie" and another daughter of Antoine, père.  With Joseph and Françoise were two children:  Joseph, fils, age 4; and Marie, age 2.  De La Roque noted that Joseph "has been two years in the country," that he and Françoise had "in live stock, two oxen and four fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure, on which said land they made a clearing of three arpents in extent."  Jean-Baptiste Doiron, age 27, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and brother of Charles III of Île Madame, Marguerite of Petit-Dégrat, and Marie of Rivière-du-Nord-Est, lived with wife Élisabeth Boudrot, age 27, "native of l'Acadie," and three children:  Marguerite, age 4; François, age 3; and Geneviève, age 4 months.  De La Roque noted that Jean-Baptiste "had been in the country two years," that "in live stock" he and Élisabeth owned four oxen and one horse," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure, on which said land they have made a clearing of three arpents in extent."  Jean-Baptiste, called Jean, Barrieau, age 22, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" another son of Antoine, père, lived with wife Marguerite Doiron, age 20, "native of l'Acadie," and 21-day-old daughter Marie.  De La Roque noted that Jean "has been two years in the country," that "All their live stock consists of one pig," that "The land on which" he and Marguerite "are settled is situated as in the preceding cases" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure, on which said land they have made a clearing of three arpents."  Charles Boudrot, age 27, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Grand-Pré, and youngest brother of Petit Paul and and Pierre of Rivière-des-Blancs, lived with wife Marie-Josèphe Doucet, age 28, "native of l'Acadie," and three daughters:  Marie, age 4; Marguerite, age 3; and Anastasie, age 18 months.  De La Roque noted that Charles "has been two years in the country," that "in live stock" he and Marie-Josèphe owned "two oxen and three fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure, and on it they have made a clearing of two arpents in extent."181 

Still on the southside of Rivière-du-Nord-Est but farther down, De La Roque found two more families, both recent arrivals, at Anse-aux-Morts, today's Mermaid Cove:  Charles Thériot, age 60, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Minas, and oldest brother of the five Thériots of Baie-de-Mordienne, Île Royale, lived with wife Angélique Doiron, no age given, "native of l'Acadie" and daughter of Charles of Rivière-des-Blancs.  With Charles and Angélique were six children:  Anne, age 25; Honoré and Charles, fils, age 22; Marie, age 18; Jean, age 15; and Joseph, age 12.  De La Roque noted that Charles "has been two years in the country," that "In live stock" he and Angélique "own four oxen, two heifers, one sow and one pig," that "The land on which they are settled is situated on the Creek aux Morts" and was "given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure, and on it they have made a clearing of six arpents in extent and have there sown eleven bushels of wheat."  Honoré Doiron, age 38, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and older brother of Jean-Baptiste of Anse-à-Dubuisson, lived with second wife Marie-Bonne, called Bonne, Savary, age 27, "native of l'Acadie" and sister of Joseph of Anse-à-Dubuisson.  She and Honoré had married in January.  With Honoré and Bonne were six children, all from his first marriage to Françoise Boudrot:  Marguerite-Josèphe, age 19; Joseph, age 16; Alexis, age 14; Théodore, age 12; Cécile, age 10; and Marie-Josèphe, age 8.  Also living with them were Honoré's youngest brother Claude Doiron, age 25; and Bonne's younger sister Marguerite-Marie-Josèphe Savary, age 23 (actually 21).  De La Roque noted that Honoré "has been two years in the country," said nothing of his livestock, and related that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure, and on it they have made a clearing of six arpents."182

Still on the southside of Rivière-du-Nord-Est but farther down, De La Roque found four more families, all recent arrivals, at Petite-Ascension, today's Fullerton Creek:  François Poirier, age 33, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Chignecto, lived with wife Cécile Labauve, age 35, "native of l'Acadie," actually Chignecto, and five children:  Marie, age 6; Clotilde, age 4; Marie-Madeleine, age 3; Pierre, age 20 months; and Anne-Modeste, age 5 months.  De La Roque noted that François "has been two years in the country," that "in live stock" he and Cécile owned "four oxen, three cows, one heifer, one calf, one sow, five pigs, nine ewes and seven fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated in la Petitte Ascension.  They acquired it by purchase for 300 livres from François Haché Galland," one of Cécile's kinsmen, "and have made on it a clearing of five arpents in extent."  Louis Labauve, age 38, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Chignecto, and Cécile's brother, lived with wife Marie Landry, age 35, "native of l'Acadie," and five children:  Madeleine, age 19; Amand, age 11; Basile, age 8; Hélène, age 6; and Étienne, age 18 months.  De La Roque noted that Louis "has been two years in the country," that "in live stock" he and Marie owned "two oxen, one cow, one ewe, one sow and four pigs," that "They are settled on the same lot as that of François Poirier is.  They have also made a clearing on it of five arpents in extent."  Olivier Daigre, age 21, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," lived with wife Ursule Landry, age 28, "native of l'Acadie," and their 6-month-old son Louis.  De La Roque noted that Olivier "has been two years in the country," that "In live stock" he and Ursule had "two oxen, one calf, one horse, one wether, four ewes and eight fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated on the south side of Petitte Ascension.  They have acquired it by purchase for the sum of 300 livres from François Haché Galland, and have made on it a clearing of four arpents in extent."  Bernard Savary, age 40, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and brother Joseph et al. of Anse-à-Dubuisson and Anse-aux-Morts, lived with wife Marie Michel dit La Ruine, age 35, "native of l'Acadie" and sister of Marguerite of Rivière-du-Nord-Est.  With Bernard and Marie were seven children:  André lejeune, age 17; Jean-Baptiste, age 14; Agnès, age 10; Isaac, age 9; Rose, age 7; Charles, age 3; and Louis, age 13 months.  Also living with them was Bernard's widowed father André Savary, age 60 (actually 62), "native of l'Acadie," actually Port-Royal, and six of his unmarried children:  Charles, age 25; Marguerite, age 23; Marguerite-Josèphe, age 21; Jean-Baptiste, age 20; Françoise-Anastasie, age 18; and Charles-Olivier, age 13.  De La Roque noted that Bernard "has been two years in the country," that he and Marie "have in live stock:  two oxen, two cows, two pigs, and eight fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  They have made a clearing on it of three arpents in extent."183 

Still on the southside of Rivière-du-Nord-Est but farther down, De La Roque found five more families, all recent arrivals, at Anse-aux-Pirogues, today's Stewarts Cove:  Pierre Hébert, age 35, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," De La Roque described as "imbecile."  Pierre lived with wife Marie Michel, age 32, "native of l'Acadie," and four children:  Théotiste, age 17; François, age 10; Louis, age 8; and Marguerite, age 6 months.  De La Roque noted that Pierre "has been three years in the country," said nothing of his and Marie's livestock, noted that "The land on which they are settled is situated on the Anse aux Piroques" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for the sowing of six bushels of wheat."  Jean-Baptiste Le Marquis dit Clermont, age 50, ploughman, "native of Saint-Malo," lived with second wife Marie-Josèphe Vincent dit Clément, age 45, "native of l'Acadie," sister of Pierre of Anse-à-Dubuisson, and widow of Paul Michel dit La Ruine.  Jean-Baptiste's first wife had died in May 1751, and he remarried to Marie in May.  With them were eight children, three from his previous marriage to Anne Lapierre, and five from hers:  Jean-Baptiste Marquis, age 20; Marie-Josèphe Marquis, age 18; Paul Marquis, age 16; Jean Michel dit La Ruine, age 18; Pierre Michel dit La Ruine, age 16; Anne-Marguerite Michel dit La Ruine; Judith Michel dit La Ruine, age 10; and Rose Michel dit La Ruine, age 7.  De La Roque said nothing of Jean-Baptiste's time in the country (he had married his first wife probably at Minas in c1730) or of his and Marie-Josèphe's livestock.  De La Roque did note, however, that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing of two arpents in extent."  Paul-Michel Hébert, age 27, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," lived with wife Rose Hébert, age 22, "native of l'Acadie," and their 10-year-old daughter Rose.  With them also was Paul-Michel's brother Jean-Michel Hébert, age 19.  De La Roque noted that Paul-Michel "has been two years in the country," said nothing of his and Rose's livestock, and noted that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case.  It was given them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On the said land, they have made a clearing for the sowing of eight bushels of wheat."  Jean Vincent dit Clément, age 40, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Annapolis Royal, and brother of Pierre and Marie-Josèphe, lived with second wife Marguerite Hébert, age 25, "native of l'Acadie," and eight children, seven from his first marriage to Isabelle Michel, and one from his marriage to Marguerite:  Marguerite, age 20; Jean, age 18; Blanche, age 15; Jérôme, age 13; Marie-Josèphe, age 10; Anastasie, age 9; Élisabeth, age 6; and Joseph, age 2.  De La Roque noted that Jean "has been in the country two years," that "in live stock" he and Marguerite owned "two pigs and eight fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On the said land, they have made a clearing for the sowing of eight bushels of wheat."  Charles Hébert, age 60, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Minas, and brother of Marie of Rivière-du-Ouest, lived with wife Catherine Saulnier, age 40, "native of l'Acadie."  They were Marguerite's parents.  With Charles and Catherine were seven younger children:  Marie, age 20; Joseph, age 19; Ursule, age 18; Simon, age 15; Jean, age 13; Pierre, age 7; and François, age 3.  De La Roque noted that Charles "has been two years in the country," that "In live stock" he and Catherine owned "two oxen and three fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing two arpents in extent."187

Back at the mouth of the tri-river complex, across the channel from Port-La-Joye, De La Roque found four families, all recent arrivals, at Anse-au-Comte-St.-Pierre, today's Keppoch.  They were, in fact, with one exception, a large extended family:  François Gautrot, age 67, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," lived with wife Marie Vincent, age 62, "native of l'Acadie," actually Ste.-Famille, Pigiguit, and sister of Agnès of Rivière-du-Nord-Est.  François and Marie were the parents of Ursule Gautrot of Port-Toulouse, Île Royale.  With them were six of their younger children:  Madeleine, age 30; François, fils, age 28, a widower; Marie-Josèphe, age 26; Marguerite, age 24; Charles, age 22; and Pierre-Mathurin, age 18.  De La Roque noted that François "has been in the colony two years," that his and Marie's "live stock consists of:  one ox, two cows, one horse, five pigs and three fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated on the Anse au Comte St. Pierre" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing three arpents in extent."  Jean Gautrot, age 43 (actually 41), ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Grand-Pré, and François and Marie's oldest son, lived with wife Élisabeth Sire, or Cyr, age 34, "native of l'Acadie," and five children:  Marie-Josèphe, age 15; Anne, age 13; Marguerite-Tarsile, age 8; Françoise, age 6; and Charles, age 2.  De La Roque noted that Jean "has been in the country one year," that his and Élisabeth's "live stock consists of three pigs and ten fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for the sowing of three bushels of wheat."  Jean Sire, or Cyr, age 36, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Grand-Pré, and Élisabeth's brother, lived with wife Marie-Josèphe Gautrot, age 40, "native of l'Acadie," actually Grand-Pré, and François and Marie's oldest daughter.  With Jean and Marie-Josèphe were four sons:  Jean, fils, age 13; Pierre, age 11; Joseph, age 4; and Charles, age 3.  De La Roque noted that Jean "has been in the country two years," that "In live stock" he and Marie-Josèphe" owned one horse, two pigs and four fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  They have made a clearing on it of one arpent."  Joseph-Nicolas Deschamps dit Cloche, age 42, was not "native of l'Acadie," as De La Roque insisted, but of St.-Martin-de-Ré, diocese of La Rochelle, France.  He lived with wife Judith Doiron, age 32, "native of l'Acadie," and eight children:  Euphrosine, age 18; Philippe, age 16; Louis, age 14; Augustin, age 12; Jean-Baptiste, age 6; Françoise, age 4; Élisabeth, age 18 months; and La Blanche, age 8 months.  De La Roque noted that Joseph "has been in the country three years," that his and Judith's "live stock consists of:  eight pigs and twenty fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for the sowing of three bushels of wheat."188 

De La Roque and his survey party then moved down and around the island's southeast coast, working their way up to Pointe-de-l'Est.  Along this shore they found 93 families facing Mer Rouge and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. 

At Anse-au-Matelot, today's Alexandra Bay, east of Port-La-Joye, De La Roque found two dozen families, all of them recent arrivals:  Honoré LaVache, age 26, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," lived with wife Madeleine Daigre, age 27, "native of l'Acadie," and two children:  Jean-Baptiste, age 5; and Marie-Modeste, age 2.  De La Roque noted that Honoré "has been in the country two years," said nothing of his live stock, and noted that "The land on which they are settled is situated on Anse au Matelost" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  They have made a clearing on it for the sowing of two bushels of grain."  Louis Sire, or Cyr, age 60 (actually 67), ploughman, was not "native of l'Acadie," as De La Roque insisted, but of Dunkerque, France.  Moreover, he most likely was not kin to the many descendants of Pierre Cyr of Chignecto, including Jean Cyr of nearby Anse-au-Comte-St.-Pierre.  Louis lived with wife Marie-Josèphe Michel, age 50, "native of l'Acadie" and oldest sister of Marguerite of Rivière-du-Nord-Est and Marie of Petite-Ascension.  Louis and Marie-Josèphe were the parents of Jean and Élisabeth Cyr of nearby Anse-au-Comte-St.-Pierre.  With the older couple were five of their younger children:  Marie-Josèphe, age 28; Charles, age 26; Marguerite, age 25; and Paul, age 21.  Also living with them was Marie-Madeleine Prince, age 30, "native of l'Acadie" and a spinster.  De La Roque noted that Louis "has been on the island three years," that "In live stock" he and Marie-Josèphe owned "one heifer, two sows and twenty fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for a garden."  Joseph Vincent dit Clément, age 38, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and brother of Jean and Marie-Josèphe of Anse-aux-Pirogues, lived with wife Marguerite Hébert, age 36, native of l'Acadie" and sister of Marie of Rivière-de-l'Ouest and Charles of Anse-aux-Pirogues.  With Joseph and Marguerite were six children:  Joseph, fils, age 11; Marguerite, age 10; Alexis, age 8; François, age 6; Agathe, age 4; and Anne-Geneviève, age 20 months.  De La Roque noted that Joseph "has been on the island two years," that "in stock" he and Marguerite owned one horse, three pigs and three fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for the sowing of eight bushels of wheat."  François Vincent dit Clément, age 27, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and Joseph's youngest brother, lived with wife Marie-Josèphe Doiron, age 29, "native of l'Acadie," and two children:  Amand-George, age 4; and Marie, age 18 months.  De La Roque noted that François "has been in the country two years," that "In stock" he and Marie-Josèphe owned "one pig and three fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  They have made a clearing on it for a garden."  Jean Doiron, age 23, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," lived with wife Anne-Marguerite Cerié, or Cellier, age 17, "native of l'Acadie," who he had married in February.  They had no children.  De La Roque noted that Jean "has been in the country one year," that he and Anne's "live stock consists of one pig and one hen," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonaventure.  They have made a clearing on it for a garden."  Philippe Doiron, fils, age 32, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and Jean's older brother, lived with wife Marie-Ursule, called Ursule, Lejeune, age 33, "native of l'Acadie," and five children:  Marie-Josèphe, age 10; Gertrude, age 8; Firmin-Joseph, age 6; Madeleine, age 4; and Marguerite, age 15 months.  De La Roque noted that Philippe "has been in the country two years," that "In stock" he and Ursule owned "two cows, three pigs and one horse," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing of one arpent in extent."  Claude-Joseph, called Joseph, Billerois, or Billeray, age 26, ploughman, "native of Verny Fontaine, bishopric of Besançon," lived with wife Brigitte Forest, age 23, "native of l'Acadie," actually St.-Famille, Pigiguit, who he had married in June.  They had no children.  De La Roque noted that Joseph "has been in the country three months," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for the sowing of two bushels of wheat."  François Rullier dit La Cadien, age 43, ploughman, "native of Crideville, bishopric of Bayeux," lived with wife Anne Forest, age 43, "native of l'Acadie," and Brigitte's sister.  François and Anne also had no children though they had been married since the early 1730s.  De La Roque noted that François "has been in the country five years," that he and Anne had "in live stock:  two oxen, three cows, four calves, one heifer, five pigs and three fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing of five arpents in extent."  Pierre Aucoin, age 44, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Cobeguit, lived with wife Élisabeth Breau, age 37, "native of l'Acadie" and sister of Antoine and Pierre of Pointe-à-la-Jeunesse, Île Royale, and Joseph and Charles of Rivière-du-Ouest.  With Pierre and Élisabeth were eight children:  Marie-Blanche, age 18; Madeleine, age 17; Pierre, fils, age 16; Élisabeth, age 13; _____, age 10; Charles, age 7; Véronique, age 5; and Jean-Baptiste, age 18 months.  De La Roque noted that Pierre "has been two years in the country," that "In stock" he and Élisabeth owned "one ox, one cow, four sows, one pig and six fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated like the preceding" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On the said land they have made a clearing of one arpent in extent."  Claude Trahan, age 58, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," probably Minas, recently a widower and brother of Jean of Baie-des-Espagnols, Île Royale, lived with nine children, all from his wife Marie-Louise Tillard:  Osite, age 25; Marguerite, age 23; Blanche, age 21; Madeleine, age 19; Auguste or Augustin, age 17; Anne, age 15; Fiacre, age 12; Élisabeth, age 10; and Rosalie, age 7.  De La Roque noted that Claude "has been in the country two years," that "In stock" he owned "four oxen, three cows, one heifer, two calves, one horse, five pigs, and two fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for the sowing of radishes."  François LaVache, age 55, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," lived with wife Anne-Marie, called Marie, Vincent, age 46, "native of l'Acadie."  They were Honoré's parents and lived with five younger children:  Alexis, age 21; Jean-Charles, age 12; Marguerite, age 10; Joseph, age 7; and Anne, age 4.  De La Roque noted that François "has been in the country two years," that "In stock" he and Marie owned "four oxen, eight cows, one bull, eight calves, two horses, four sows, three pigs and one hen," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for the sowing of eight bushels of wheat."  Joseph Trahan, age 38, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and Claude's youngest brother, lived with wife Anne Thériot, age 33, "native of l'Acadie," and five children:  Joseph-Thériot, age 16; Mathurin, age 8; Marie-Modeste, age 5; Jean-Baptiste, age 3; and Marguerite, age 3 months.  De La Roque noted that Joseph "has been in the country two years," that "In stock" he and Anne owned "four oxen, two cows, one bull and two pigs," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On the said land they have a clearing for the sowing of three bushels of wheat."  Claude Guédry, age 38, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," probably Mirliguèche, and brother of Marie of Baie-des-Espagnols, lived with wife Anne Lejeune (De La Roque called her a Terriaud), age 38, "native of l'Acadie" and daughter of Germain Lejeune of Baie-des-Espagnols.  With Claude and Anne were three sons:  Jean-Baptiste, age 5; Joseph-Marie, age 2; and Pierre-Janvier, age two months.  De La Roque noted that Claude "has been in the country two years," that "in stock" he and Anne owned "one cow, one calf, one bull, one sow and five pigs," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnventure.  On it they have made a clearing for the sowing of three bushels of wheat."  Joseph Lucas, age 29, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and evidently not kin to former soldier Jean Lucas dit Bergerac of Rivière-de-Peugiguit, lived with wife Marguerite Lejeune, age 24, "native of l'Acadie," and two children:  Marguerite-Thérèse, age 5; and Joseph-Marie, age 2.  De La Roque noted that Joseph "has been two years in the country," that he and Marguerite "have in stock one mare and three pigs," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for a garden."  Paul Trahan, age 49, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," probably Minas, and Claude's younger brother, lived with wife Marie Boudrot, age 49, "native of l'Acadie" and older sister of Marguerite of Baie-des-Espagnols.  With Paul and Marie were seven children:  Marie, age 16; Marguerite, age 15; Charles, age 12; Étienne, age 10; Brigitte, age 8; Élisabeth, age 6; and another Marie, age 3.  De La Roque noted that Paul "has been in the country two years," that "In stock" he and Marie owned "two oxen, one cow, one calf, three pigs and three fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for a garden."  René dit Renaud dit Potvin Roy, age 48 (actually 44), ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Port-Royal, lived with wife Marie-Josèphe Daigre, age 35, "native of l'Acadie," and four children:  Marie-Josèphe, age 8; Marguerite, age 4; Anne-Madeleine, age 28 months; and Jean-Baptiste, age 3 months.  De La Roque noted that René "has been in the country two years," that "In stock" he and Marie-Josèphe owned "one cow, one heifer, one calf, six pigs and two fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they  have made a clearing for a large garden."  Jean-Baptiste Trahan, age 47, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and Claude and Paul's younger brother, lived with wife Catherine-Josèphe Boudrot, age 47, "native of l'Acadie" and sister of Denis of Rivière-du-Nord-Est and Madeleine of Rivière-du-Moulin-à-Scie.  With Jean-Baptiste and Catherine were eight children:  Madeleine, age 16; Marie-Monique, age 14; Rose, age 12; Charles-Joseph, age 11; Radegonde, age 9; Pierre-Élie, age 7; Élisabeth, age 6; and Marguerite, age 26 months.  De La Roque noted that Jean-Baptiste "has been in the country two years," that "In stock" he and Catherine owned "two oxen, two cows, two calves, one horse, five pigs and fifteen fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing of two arpents in extent."  Joseph Daigre, age 56, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and brother of Pierre of Port-Toulouse, Île Royale, Amand of Rivière-du-Nord, and Jean of Rivière-des-Blancs, lived with wife Madeleine Gautrot, age 53, "native of l'Acadie" and sister of Anne of Port-Toulouse, Île Royale, and François of Anse-au-Comte-St.-Pierre.  Joseph and Marguerite were Marie-Josèphe's parents.  With them were five younger children:  Alain, age 28; Marguerite, age 26; Jean-Baptiste, age 19; Anastasie, age 17; and Simon-Joseph, age 13.  De La Roque noted that Joseph "has been two years in the country," that "in live stock" he and Madeleine owned two oxen, twelve pigs and nine fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  They have made a clearing on it of two arpents in extent."  Claude Trahan, fils, actually le jeune, age 34, "native of l'Acadie," lived with wife Anne LeBlanc, age 32, "native of l'Acadie," and three sons:  Jean-Baptiste, age 5; Joseph-Firmin, age 3; and Joseph, age 2.  Living with them also was Pierre Gautrot, age 58, "native of l'Acadie," Madeleine's brother and widower of Marguerite Lejeune.  Marguerite was Claude le jeune's mother, so Pierre was his stepfather.  De La Roque noted that Claude le jeune "has been two years in the country."  One suspects that Pierre Gautrot and his mother had come to the island with him.  De La Roque also noted that Claude le jeune and Anne owned "In stock, two oxen, one cow and four pigs," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure, and on it they have a clearing of two arpents."  Also living with Claude le jeune and Anne was Claude-André LeBlanc, age 56, "native of l'Acadie," widower of Madeleine Boudrot and Anne's father.  Claude-André lived with three younger children:  Madeleine, age 20; Geneviève, age 11; and Paul, age 9.  Jean-Baptiste Lejeune dit Briard, age 30, "native of l'Acadie" and son of Germain of Baie-des-Espagnols, lived with wife Marguerite Clémençeau dit Beaulieu, no age given but she was 35, "native of l'Acadie," actually Annapolis Royal.  With them were five children:  Joseph, age 9; Jean-Baptiste, fils, age 7; Marie, age 5; François-Olivier, age 3; and Victor, age 9 months.  De La Roque noted that Jean-Baptiste "has been in the country two years," that "in stock" he and Marguerite owned "one cow, one calf and four sows," that "The land on which they are settled is located as in the preceding cases" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure, and on it they have made a clearing for the sowing of two bushels of wheat."  Charles Benoist, or Benoit, age 58 (actually 39), ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," brother of Guillaume dit Perrochon of Rivière-aux-Habitants, and Marie and Augustin of Baie-des-Espagnols, Île Royale, lived with wife Marie-Madeleine, called Madeleine, Theriot, age 58 (actually 39), "native of l'Acadie" and Anne's sister.  With them were six children:  Marie, age 16; Anne, age 13; Françoise, age 11; Judith, age 8; Jean-Charles, age 6; and Pierre, age 10 months.  De La Roque noted that Charles "has been two years in the colony," that "in live stock" he and Madeleine owned "one ox, one cow, one calf and four pigs," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases" and "has been given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for sowing three bushels of wheat."  Abraham Benoist, or Benoit, age 42, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and Charles's older brother, lived with second wife Marie-Josèphe Lejeune, age 34, "native of l'Acadie" and Jean-Baptiste's sister.  Abraham had married her the year before.  With them were seven children, six from his first marriage to Angélique Vincent, Anne-Marie's sister:  Jean, age 18; Marguerite, age 16; Joseph, age 14; Marie-Madeleine, age 12; Pélagie, age 10; Marie, age 5; and a second Joseph, age 2 months.  De La Roque noted that Abraham "has been in the country two years," that "in stock" he and Marie-Josèphe owned "two oxen, two cows, two heifers, five sows and five fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing of two arpents."  Claude Benoist, or Benoit, age 31, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and Abraham and Charles's younger brother, lived with wife Élisabeth, or Isabelle, Thériot, age 27, "native of l'Acadie" and Marie-Madeleine's sister.  With them were six children:  Pélagie, called Lablanche, age 11; Grégoire, age 8; Anne, age 6; Daniel and Marie-Josèphe, age 4; and Marguerite, age 2 months.  De La Roque noted that Claude "has been in this country two years," that "in stock" he and Élisabeth owned "one horse and one sow," that "The land on which they are settled is situated in the Anse au Matelost.  It was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  They have made a clearing on it for the sowing of three bushels of wheat."189 

Next came Grande-Anse, now Pownal Bay, where De La Roque found 18 families, all recent arrivals:  Jean-Baptiste, called Jean, Landry, age 51 (actually 32), ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Grand-Pré, and brother of Anselme of Rivière-du-Moulin-à-Scie, lived with wife Marie-Blanche LeBlanc, age 24, "native of l'Acadie," also Grand-Pré, who he had married the year before.  With them were nephew Charles Landry, fils, age 19, of L'Assomption, Pigiguit, whose mother Marie LeBlanc was Marie-Blanche's older sister; and niece Théodose Boudrot, age 15.  De La Roque noted that Jean "has been in the country two years," that "in stock" he and Marie-Blanche owned "three oxen, five cows, two heifers, one horse and one ewe," that "The land on which they are settled is situated at the further end of the Grande Ance" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for the sowing of four bushels of wheat."  Honoré Landry, age 38, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Grand-Pré, and Jean's older brother, lived with wife Madeleine Gautrot, age 29, "native of l'Acadie," also Grand-Pré, and four children:  Anselme, age 9; Honoré, fils, age 5; Madeleine, age 2; and Joseph, age 8 days.  De La Roque noted that Honoré "has been on the island two years," that "in stock" he and Madeleine owned "seven oxen, two cows, one calf and four pigs," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for the sowing of six bushels of wheat."  Étienne Melançon, or Melanson, age 30 (actually 28), ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Grand-Pré, lived with wife Françoise Granger, age 24, "native of l'Acadie," and three children:  Joseph, age 4; LaBlanche, age 2; and Élisabeth, age 4 months.  De La Roque noted that Étienne "has been in the country two years," that "in live stock" he and Françoise owned "two oxen, three ewes, two heifers, two calves and five pigs," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for the sowing of six bushels of wheats."  Prospère Landry, age 26, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," lived with wife Anne-Josèphe, called Josette, Boudrot, age 24 (actually 26), "native of l'Acadie," probably Grand-Pré, younger half-sister of Marguerite of Baie-des-Espagnols, Île Royale, and Marie of Anse-au-Matelot and older sister of Françoise of Port-Lajoie.  With Prospère and Josette was their 9-week-old daughter Marguerite.  Also living with them was Prospère's brother Joseph, age 20.  De La Roque noted that Prospère "has been in the country two years," that "in stock" he and Josette owned "three oxen, three cows and two calves," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for the sowing of four bushels of wheat."  François Raimond, or Raymond, age 32 (actually 39), ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Annapolis Royal, lived with wife Cécile Landry, age 28, "native of l'Acadie," actually Grand-Pré, sister of Honoré and Jean.  With François and Cécile was their 2-year-old son Paul, and Catherine Boudrot, age 8, "native of l'Acadie," no relation given.  De La Roque noted that François "has been in the country two years," that "in stock" he and Cécile owned "two oxen, three cows, one calf, two ewes, two pigs and eight fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for the sowing of two bushels of wheat."  Pierre-Claude, Herrement, actually Arcement, age 58, ploughman, not a "native of l'Acadie," as De La Roque insisted, but likely a native of France, lived with wife Marie-Josèphe Thériot, age 52, "native of l'Acadie," probably Minas, and sister of Joseph and Marguerite of Rivière-du-Ouest.  With Pierre-Claude and Marie-Josèphe were three of their younger children:  Pierre, age 21; and François and Marie-Josèphe, age 17.  De La Roque noted that Pierre-Claude "has been in the country two years," that "in stock" he and Marie-Josèphe owned "two oxen, one heifer and one pig," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for the sowing of three bushels of wheat."  Amand Pitre, age 28, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and youngest brother of Cécile and Françoise at Baie-des-Espagnols, and Jean, Joseph, and Catherine on Rivière-de-l'Ouest, lived with wife Geneviève Arcement, age 28, "native of l'Acadie" and Pierre-Claude's oldest daughter.  With Amand and Geneviève were four children:  Basile, age 15, perhaps 5; Tranquille, age 4; Ambroise, age 3; and Anne, age 1.  De La Roque noted that Amand "has been one year in the country," that "in live stock" he and Geneviève owned "two oxen, three cows, one calf, two pigs and three fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for the sowing of three bushels of wheat."  Antoine LePrince, age 32, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and brother of spinster Marie-Madeleine of Anse-au-Matelot, lived with second wife Cécile Arcement, age 25, "native of l'Acadie" and Geneviève's sister.  Antoine had married Cécile the previous November, so they had no children of their own.  With them were four children from his first wife, Judith Boudrot:  Marie, perhaps Marie-Sophie, age 7; Firmin, age 6; Osite, age 5; and Madeleine, age 3.  De La Roque noted that Antoine "has been in the country two years," that "in live stock" he and Cécile owned "one cow and three pigs," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases" and "has been given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for the sowing of three bushels of wheat."  Emilliant, or Émilien, Ségoillot dit Sans Chagrin, age 35, "formerly sergeant in the company of Monsieur Benoist, native of Casthelineau, in Bourgogne," France, lived with Élisabeth-Blanche LaVache, age 17, "native of l'Acadie" and daughter of François of Anse-au-Matelot.  The old sergeant would marry his teenage fiancée on September 1.  They had no children.  De La Roque noted that the couple "have in live stock, one cow and three pigs," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases," that it "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure, and on it they have made no clearing."  Antoine Boudrot, age 60 years (actually 58), ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Minas, brother of Denis of Rivière-du-Nord-Est, Madeleine of Rivière-du-Moulin-à-Scie, and Catherine-Josèphe of Anse-au-Matelot, lived with wife Cécile Brassaud, age 57, "native of l'Acadie," actually Port-Royal, and five younger children:  Joseph, age 31; Anne, age 22; Prudent, age 18; Théodore, age 17; and Anaïse, age 13.  Also with them was Ignace Boudrot, age 4, "their nephew, orphan, without father and mother."  De La Roque noted that Antoine "has been in the country two years," that "in live stock" he and Cécile owned "two cows, two pigs and three fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated like the preceding" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for a garden."  Alexis Breaud, or Breau, age 30, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," probably Cobeguit, a widower, or so said De La Roque, actually was husband of Marie-Josèphe Guillot, who also would have been age 30 at the time.  With the putative "widower" were four daughters:  Madeleine, age 6; Anne, age 5; Marie-Osite, age 3; and Marie-Victoire, called Victoire, age 11 months.  De La Roque noted that Alexis "has been on the island one year," that he and his daughters "have in live stock, two oxen, one cow and two pigs," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case," and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing of one arpent square."  Jean Doiron, age 25 (actually 22), ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually L'Assomption, Pigiguit, youngest brother of Marie of Rivière-des-Blancs, lived with wife Anne Thibodeau, age 23, "native of l'Acadie," who he had married in January.  They had no children.  De La Roque noted that Jean "has been in the country two years," that "in live stock" he and Anne owned "two oxen, one cow and six pigs," that "The land on which they are settled is situated at the farther end of Grande Anse and was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing of one arpent."   Alexis Doiron, age 29, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually L'Assomption, Pigiguit, Jean's older brother, was widower of Marguerite Thibodeau, Jean's wife's sister.  Alexis lived with three sons:  Grégoire, age 8; Joseph, age 6; and Théodore, age 3.  Also living with them was Alexis's mother Marguerite Barrieau, age 58 (actually 63), "native of l'Acadie," actually Minas, and widow of Louis Doiron of L'Assomption, Pigiguit, her second husband.  She also was older sister of Nicolas of Port-Toulouse, Jacques of Île Madame, Pierre of Rivière-des-Blancs, and Antoine of Anse-à-Dubuisson.  De La Roque noted that her son Alexis "has been in the country two years," that he held "the following live stock:  two oxen, one horse and two pigs," that "The land on which he is settled is situated as in the preceding case" and "was given to him verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  He has made no clearing."  Jean Hébert, age 42, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Grand-Pré, lived with second wife Véronique Sire, or Cyr, age 23, "native of l'Acadie," also Grand-Pré, and Louis of Anse-au-Matelot's daughter, who Jean had married in January.  With him and his new wife were seven children from his first marriage to Marie-Madeleine Doiron:  Pierre, age 17; Marie, age 16; Marguerite, age 15; Anne, age 9; Rose or Rosalie, age 7; Joseph-Ignace, age 4; and Jean-Baptiste, age 3.  De La Roque noted that Jean "has been two years on the island," that he and Véronique held "in stock six oxen, six cows, two calves and one pig," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  They have made a clearing on it of one arpent square."  Victor Boudrot, age 24, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and Antoine's older son, lived with wife Catherine-Josèphe Hébert, age unrecorded, "native of l'Acadie," who he had married in January.  They had no children.  Living with them on "part of the homestead of Antoinne Boudrot their father" was Madeleine Boudrot, age 17, "native of l'Acadie" and "an orphan."   De La Roque said nothing of Victor and Catherine-Josèphe's livestock.  Olivier Daigre, age 34, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," lived with wife Angélique Doiron, age 32, "native of l'Acadie" and Louis and Marguerite's second daughter.  With Olivier and Angélique were eight children:  Marguerite, age 12; son ____, age 8; Marie-Osite, called Osite, age 7; Charles, age 6; Rose, age 5; Paul, age 3; Joseph, age 2; and Pierre, age 2 months.  De La Roque noted that Olivier "has been in the country two years," that he and Angélique "have the following live stock:  three oxen, three cows, four heifers, two calves, one mare and one sow," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for the sowing of three bushels of wheat in the coming spring."  Joseph Leprince, or Prince, age 38, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and Antoine's older brother, lived with wife Marie-Osite Melanson dit Pitre, age 23, "native of l'Acadie," and their 20-month-old son Joseph-Olivier.  De La Roque noted that Joseph "has been one year in the country," that "in stock" he and Marie-Osite owned "one cow, one calf, two sows, eight ducks and twelve fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for the sowing of six bushels of wheat."  Alexandre Chauvel, actually Alexandre dit Misgucess Chauvet dit LaGerne, age 32, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," probably Pigiguit, and member of the Acadian resistance, was the youngest brother of Marie-Charlotte Chauvet dit La Gerne of Baie-des-Espagnols.  Alexandre dit Misgucess lived with wife Catherine-Josèphe, called Josette, Prince, age 30, "native of l'Acadie" and Joseph's and Antoine's younger sister.  With Alexandre and Josette were three children:  Mathurin, age 5; Jean-Baptiste, age 3; and Marguerite, age 14 months.  De La Roque noted that Alexandre "has been in the country 26 months," that "in stock" he and Josette owned "one sow, two pigs and one hen," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for the sowing of six bushels of wheat."190 

At Grande-Ascension, near today's Vernon Bridge, De La Roque found 11 families, all recent arrivals, with the usual kinship networks:  Joseph dit Petit Jos Dugas, age 50, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and brother of Marguerite and Isabelle of Pointe-à-la-Jeunesse, Île Royale, and Claude and Françoise of Rivière-du-Nort-Est, lived with wife Anne-Marie Hébert, age 50, "native of l'Acadie" and sister of Charles l'aîné, Joseph, Ambroise, François, and Charles le jeune of Pointe-à-la-Jeunesse.  With Petit Jos and Anne-Marie were five of their younger children:  Marguerite, age 18; Françoise, age 13; Joseph, fils, age 10; Jean, age 8; and Anne, age 5.  De La Roque noted that Petit Jos "has been 15 months in the country," that his and Anne-Marie's "live stock consists of the following:  five oxen, three cows, seven wethers, three ewes, four pigs and five fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated east of the Rivière de la Grande Ascension," that "it was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for the sowing of two bushels of wheat during the coming spring."  François Henry, age 36, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and brother of Cécile and Martin of Pointe-à-la-Jeunesse, Jean dit Le Neveu of Rivière-de-l'Ouest, and Marie-Josèphe of Rivière-du-Moulin-à-Scie, lived with wife Marie Dugas, age 30, "native of l'Acadie," probably Cobeguit, and Petit Jos's daughter.  With François and Marie were five children:  Basile, age 11; Joseph, age 9; Marguerite-Josèphe, age 7; Élisabeth, age 4; and Victoire, age 18 months.  De La Roque noted that François "has been in the country 13 months," that "in stock" he and Marie owned "three oxen, two cows, four heifers, three ewes, one sow, three pigs and ten fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases.  It was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for the sowing of two bushels of wheat in the coming spring."  Ambroise Dugas, age 23, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," probably Cobeguit, and one of Petit Jos's son, lived with wife Marguerite Henry, age 23, "native of l'Acadie," and their 10-month-old son Ambroise, fils.  De La Roque noted that Ambroise "has been 13 months in the country," that "in stock" he and Marguerite owned "two oxen, two cows, two heifers, one mare, three wethers, five ewes, one sow, two pigs and two fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases.  It was give to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On the said land they have made a clearing for the sowing of one bushel of grain in the coming spring."  Pierre Dugas, age 20, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and one of Petit Jos's son, lived with wife Anne-Josèphe, called Josèphe, Hébert, probably Henry, age 21, "native of l'Acadie."  They had no children.  De La Roque noted that Pierre "has been in the country 13 months," that "In live stock" he and Josèphe "have only two cows," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases.  It was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure, and on it they have made a clearing for a garden."  Marie-Claire, called Claire, Dugas, age 46, "widow of the late Jean Hébert" and Petit Jos's sister, lived with eight Hébert children:  Françoise, age 21; Élisabeth, age 19; Pierre, age 17; Anne, age 15; Jean, fils, age 12; Hélène, age 10; Marie-Josèphe, age 8; and Victoire, age 5.  De La Roque noted that Jean "has[sic] been in the country one year," that "in stock" Claire and her children "have three oxen, one cow, one bull, three wethers, two sows and two pigs," but said nothing of their land.  Jean Lejeune, age 28, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," lived with wife Marguerite LeBlanc, age 32, "native of l'Acadie," actually Grand-Pré, and two children:  Rosalie, age 3; and Mathurin, age 1.  De La Roque noted that Jean "has been in the country two years," that "in stock" he and Marguerite owned "two oxen, one cow, one calf, two sows and one pig," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases.  It was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing of two arpents in extent."  François Guérin, age 34, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and brother of Jean-Baptiste and Dominique of Poine-à-la-Jeunesse, Marie, Marguerite, Françoise, and Pierre of Baie-de-Mordienne, Île Royale, and Charles of Rivière-de-l'Ouest, lived with wife Geneviève Mius d'Azy, age 32, "native of l'Acadie," probably Annapolis Royal, and sister of Charles-Benjamin of Pointe-à-la-Jeunesse and Marguerite of Port-Lajoie.  With François and Geneviève were two daughters:  Marguerite-Geneviève, age 5; and Marie-Rose, age 3.  De la Roque noted that François "has been two years on the Island," that "in stock" he and Geneviève "have four pigs and twelve fowls," that "The land on which they are settled, is situated on the west bank of the east river of the Grande Ascension" and "was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  They have made a clearing on it for the sowing of four bushels of wheat in the coming spring."  Éloi Lejeune, age 28, ploughman, Jean's brother, lived with wife Rosalie Mius d'Azy, age 27, "native of l'Acadie," actually Annapolis Royal, and Geneviève's sister.  With Éloi and Rosalie were three children:  Françoise, age 5; Jean-Baptiste, age 3; and Marie-Josèphe, age 11 months.  De La Roque noted that Éloi "has been two years in the country," that "of stock" he and Rosalie owned "one cow, one calf, three pigs and fifteen fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases.  It was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for the sowing of four bushels of wheat in the coming spring."  Paul Benoit, age 48, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and brother of Guillaume dit Perrochon of Rivière-aux-Habitants, Marie and Augustin of Baie-des-Espagnols, Île Royale, and Abraham, Charles, and Claude of Anse-au-Matelot, lived with second wife Marie-Josèphe Viger, age 43, "native of l'Acadie," actually Port-Royal, and sister of Agathe of Baie-des-Espagnols.  With Paul and Marie-Josèphe, who had married at Port-Lajoie only two years earlier, were nine children, the oldest from her first marriage to Martin Corporon, the others from his first marriage to Anne Trahan:  Jean-Charles Corporon, age 19; Françoise Benoit, age 17; Marie Benoit, age 15; Élisabeth Benoit, age 13; Antoine Benoit, age 11; Jean and Josette Benoit, age 9; Rose Benoit, age 7; and Scholastique Benoit, age 5.  De La Roque noted that Paul "has been in the country two years," that "In stock" he and Marie-Josèphe "have three oxen, four cows, one calf and six pigs," that "The land on which they are settled is situated on the west point of the Grande Ascension.  It was given to them by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On the said land they have made a clearing for the sowing of twelve bushels of grain during the coming spring."  Paul Benoit, fils, age 25, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," lived with wife Marie-Madeleine Doiron, age 19, "native of l'Acadie," and two children:  Joseph, age 3; and Agathe, age 2.  De La Roque noted that Paul, fils "has been 26 months in the country," that "in stock" he and Marie-Madeleine owned "one horse, three sows and three fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases.  It was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On the said land they have made a clearing for the sowing of six bushels of grain in the coming spring."  Pierre Carret, age 25, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and son of Ignace of Pointe-à-la-Jeunesse, lived with wife Anne Gautrot, age 26, "native of l'Acadie," actually Grand-Pré, and their year-old son Firmin.  De La Roque noted that Pierre "has been in the country three years," that "in stock" he and Anne owned "one cow, one calf, two sows and four pigs," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases.  It was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for garden only."191

Farther south, at Pointe-au-Bouleau, today's Birch Point, De La Roque found three more families, all recent arrivals, and all related:  Ambroise Guillot, age 24, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," probably Cobeguit, lived with wife Théotiste Daigre, age 24 (probably 22), "native of l'Acadie," probably Pigiguit, and their 5-month-old daughter Marguerite-Blanche.  Also living with them was Paul-Séverin Bertrand, age 15, "native of l'Acadie," perhaps a domestic servant.  De La Roque noted that Ambroise "has been in the country 26 months," that "in stock" he and Théotiste owned "one heifer," that "The land on which they are settled is situated on the Pointe au Boulleau.  It was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  They have made on it a clearing for the sowing of twelve bushels of grain in the coming spring."  François Daigre, age 48, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," Théotiste's father and brother of Pierre of Port-Toulouse, Île Royale, Amand of Rivière-du-Nord, Jean of Rivière-des-Blancs, and Joseph of Anse-au-Matelot, lived with wife Marie Boudrot, age 40, "native of l'Acadie" and sister of Petit Paul and Pierre of Rivière des Blancs and Charles of Anse-à-Dubuisson.  With François and Marie were six of their younger children:  Marguerite, age 18; Françoise-Marie, age 16; Anne, age 15; Hélène, age 13; Marie, age 11; and François, fils, age 9.  De La Roque noted that François "has been in the country 26 months," that "in stock" he and Marie owned "three oxen, one cow, two sows, one pig and two fowl," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases.  It was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  They have made a clearing on it for the sowing of twelve bushels of grain in the coming spring."  Alexis Daigre, age 24, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," probably Pigiguit, and François's older son, lived with wife Marguerite Doiron, age 19, "native of l'Acadie" and daughter of Louis-Mathieu of Pointe-Prime.  Alexis and Marguerite had married the previous January, so they had no children.  De La Roque noted that Alexis "has been in the country 26 months," that "In stock" he and Marguerite "have: one ox, one cow and two pigs," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases, and was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for the sowing of two bushels of grain the coming summer."199

De La Roque found only a single family at Anse-de-la-Boullotière, today's Newtown:  Pierre Henry, age 46, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and brother of Cécile and Martin of Pointe-à-la-Jeunesse, Île Royale, Jean dit Le Neveu of Rivière-de-l'Ouest, Marie-Josèphe of Rivière-du-Moulin-à-Scie, and François of Grande-Ascension, lived with wife Anne Aucoin, age 46, "native of l'Acadie," and nine children:  Pierre, fils, age 19; Paul, age 18; Antoine, age 16; Jeanne, age 14; Anastasie, age 12; Élisabeth, age 10; Barthélemy, age 7; Timothée, age 5; and Marie-Josette, age 17 months.  De La Roque noted that Pierre "has been in the country 14 months," that "In stock" he and Anne "have: two oxen, two cows, one heifer, one calf, four sows and five pigs," that "The land on which they are settled is situated on the Ance de la Boulottiere.  It was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure, and on it they have made a clearing for the sowing of twelve bushels of grain this coming spring."200

At Pointe-Prime, today's Eldon, De La Roque found 13 families, all recent arrivals, most of them kin to one another (half of the families, in fact, belonged to the ill-starred Doirons of Cobeguit and Minas):  François Doiron, age 38, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," probably Minas, brother of Marguerite of St.-Esprit, Île Royale, lived with wife Madeleine Tillard, age 35, "native of l'Acadie, and six children:  Osite-Josette, age 12; Madeleine-Angélique, age 10; Blanche, age 8; Ambroise, age 6; François, fils, age 4; and Marie-Josèphe, age 5 months.  De La Roque noted that François "has been in the country 26 months," that his and Madeleine's "live stock consists of one cow, one calf, one bull, one horse and one pig," that "The land on which they are settled is situated at Pointe Prime.  It was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for the sowing of twelve bushels of grain in the coming spring."  Noël Doiron, age 70 (actually 68), ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Minas, lived with wife Marie Henry, age 72, "native of l'Acadie."  They were François's parents.  With Noël and Marie was a 17-year-old grandson, Jean-Baptiste Doiron, "native of l'Acadie."  De La Roque noted that Noël "has been in the country 16 months," that "in stock," he and Marie owned "two cows with their calves," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases.  It was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for the sowing of twelve bushels of grain in the coming spring."  Joseph Doiron, age 36, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and another of Noël's son, lived with wife Marie, actually Marguerite, Tillard, age 38, "native of l'Acadie" and Madeleine's sister.  With Joseph and Marguerite were eight children:  Paul-Élie, age 17; Madeleine, age 14; Marie-Rose, age 12; Laurent, age 10; Joseph, age 8; Anastasie, age 6; Anne-Marie, age 3; and Grégoire, age 2 months.  De La Roque noted that Joseph "has been in the country 26 months," that he and Marguerite "have the following live stock:  two oxen, four cows, four calves, two mares, two pigs and five fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases.  It was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  They have made a clearing on it for the sowing of twenty-four bushels of grain during the coming spring."   Claude Leprince, age 24, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," brother of Marie-Madeleine of Anse-au-Matelot, and Joseph, Antoine, and Catherine-Josèphe of Grande-Anse, lived with wife Madeleine Doiron, age 23, "native of l'Acadie" and Louis-Mathieu's daughter.  She and Claude had no children.  De La Roque noted that Claude "has been 26 months in the country," that he and Madeleine "have in live stock:  two oxen, one cow, one calf and three pigs," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases.  It was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  They have made a clearing on it for the sowing of six bushels of grain in the coming spring."  Louis-Mathieu Doiron, age 48, ploughman, "native of Baston," actually Boston, and Noël's oldest son, lived with wife Madeleine Pitre, age 47, "native of Cap de Sable," sister of Cécile and Françoise of Baie-des-Espagnols, Île Royale, Jean, Joseph, and Catherine of Rivière-de-l'Ouest, and Amand of Grande-Anse.  Louis and Madeleine were the parents of Marguerite of Pointe-au-Bouleau.  With them were their 18-year-old son Baptiste-Olivier, and their 12-year-old niece Émilienne-Perpétué Doiron, an orphan.  De La Roque noted that Louis "has been 26 months in the country," that "In live stock" he and Madeleine "have: four oxen, three cows, two calves, three sows and two pigs," and that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases.  It was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  They have made on it, a clearing for the sowing of 16 bushels of grain in the coming spring."  Paul Doiron, age 43, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and another of Noël's son, lived with wife Marguerite Benoit, age 42, "native of l'Acadie," sister of Guillaume dit Perrochon of Rivière-aux-Habitants and Marie and Augustin of Baie-des-Espagnols and on Île Royale, Abraham, Charles, and Claude of Anse-au-Matelot, and Paul of Grande-Ascension.  With them were two children, "one son and one daughter," who De La Roque did name, and two orphans, both "native of l'Acadie":  Pierre-Paul Doiron, age 15, a nephew, and Pélagie Benoit, age 11, a niece.  De La Roque noted that Paul "has been in the country 26 months," that "in stock" he and Marguerite "possess: two oxen, three cows, one calf, one bull, one sow and one pig," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases.  It was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  They have made a clearing on it for the sowing of 16 bushels of grain in the coming spring."  Charles Doiron, age 24, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and Louis-Mathieu's older son, lived with wife Anne-Gertrude Benoit, age 19, "native of l'Acadie," Paul of Grande-Ascension's daughter by his first wife Anne Trahan and Marguerite's niece.  The young couple had no children.  De La Roque noted that Charles "has been in the country 26 months," that he and Anne-Gertrude "have in live stock one ox, two cows, two calves, one sow and one pig," that "The land on which they are settled is the same as that of their father," Louis-Mathieu, and "They have made on it a clearing for the sowing of eight bushels of grain in the coming spring."  Jean Arseneau, age 27, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," lived with wife Marie-Josèphe Doiron, age 26, "native of l'Acadie," and three children:  Alexis, age 6; Marguerite-Josèphe, age 3; and Marie-Blanche, age 2.  De La Roque noted that Jean "has been in the country two years," that "in stock" he and Marie-Josèphe owned "four oxen, one cow, three heifers, and three pigs," that "The land on which they are settled is situated east-south-east of the said Ance de la Pointe Prime, and was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  They have made on it a clearing for the sowing of eight bushels of wheat in the coming spring."  Jean-Baptiste Henry, age 44, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Grand-Pré, lived with wife Marie-Madeleine Mius d'Azy, age 42, and eight sons:  Joseph, age 19; Jean-Baptiste, fils, age 17; Paul, age 15; Louis, age 11; Basile, age 9; Charles, age 7; Clément, age 4; and Firmin, age 10 months.  Also living with them was Marie Boudrot, age 21, an orphan.  De La Roque noted that Jean-Baptiste "has been in the country two years," that "in stock" he and Marie-Madeleine owned "four oxen, one cow, two calves, one sow and two pigs," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases.  It was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for the sowing of thirteen bushels of wheat, and four bushels of oats in the coming spring."  Michel Pitre, age 46, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," probably Cap-Sable, and brother of Madeleine, lived with wife Marie-Madeleine Doiron, age 44, "native of l'Acadie" and another daughter of Noël.  With them were seven children:  Théotiste, age 21; François, age 19; Charles, age 17; Marie-Madeleine, age 16; Paul-Michel, age 14; Simon, age 13; and Euphrosine, age 8.  De La Roque noted that Michel "has been in the country two years," that "in stock" he and Marie-Madeleine owned "two oxen, one cow, and six pigs," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceing cases.  It was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for the sowing of ten bushels of wheat and eight bushels of oats in the coming spring."  Claude Arcement, age 26, "native of l'Acadie," actually Pigiguit, son of Pierre-Claude of Grande-Anse, lived with wife Angélique Doiron, age 24, "native of l'Acadie," and three children:  Susanne-Angélique, age 5; Théotiste-Hélène, age 3; and Firmin, age 2.  De La Roque noted that Claude "has been in the country two years," that "in stock" he and Angélique owned "two oxen, one cow, one calf and two pigs," and that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case.  It was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for the sowing of six bushels of wheat and six bushels of oats in the coming spring."  Herné, or Henri, Guillot, age 59, ploughman, "native of Doix, bishopric of Angers," France, a widower, lived with daughter Marie-Josèphe, age 29, and nephew Jean-Baptiste Guillot, age 31, "native of l'Acadie," actually Grand-Pré, older brother of Amboise of Pointe-au-Bouleau.  Living with Jean-Baptiste were three of his children by Marie-Madeleine Arcement, Claude's sister:  Charles-Olivier, age 6; Élisabeth, age 4; and Marie-Josèphe, age 2.  De La Roque said nothing of Henri's or Jean-Baptiste's time in the colony.  He did not that "in stock" they owned two cows and one calf," that "The land on which he," most likely Henri, "is settled is situated as in the precending case.  It was given to him verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure," which hinted at a recent arrival.  "On it," De La Roque continued, "they have made a clearing for the sowing of four bushels of wheat in the coming spring."  René Guillot, fils, age 26, "native of l'Acadie," actually Grand-Pré, Jean-Baptiste's brother, lived with wife Marie-Rose Daigre, age 20, "native of l'Acadie" and daughter of François of Pointe-au-Bouleau.   The young couple had no children.  De La Roque noted that René, fils "has been in the country two years," that "in live stock" he and Marie-Rose owned "one ox, one cow, one calf and six pigs," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case and was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for the sowing of six bushels of wheat and six bushels of oats in the coming spring."201

South of Pointe-Prime lay Anse-à-Pinnet, today's Pinette, where De La Roque counted 17 more families, all recent arrivals with the usual kinship patterns:  Olivier Boudrot, age 41, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and son of Denis of Rivière-du-Nord-Est, lived with wife Henriette Guérin, age 40, "native of l'Acadie" and sister of Jean-Baptiste and Dominique at Poine-à-la-Jeunesse, Marie, Marguerite, Françoise, and Pierre at Baie-de-Mordienne, Île Royale, and Charles of Rivière-de-l'Ouest.  With them were five children:  Marguerite-Josèphe, age 10; Madeleine-Josèphe, age 8; Anne-Marie, age 7; Basile, age 6; and Mathurin, age 3.  De La Roque noted that Olivier "has been in the country two years," that "in stock" he and Henriette owned "two oxen, four cows, two calves, one bull, one heifer, five pigs and twenty-three fowls or chickens," that "The land on which they are settled is situated at the farther end of Ance à Pinet to the south of the said ance.  It was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for a garden only."   Charles Boudrot, age 42, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," and Olivier's brother, lived with wife Cécile Thériot, age 45, "native of l'Acadie" and sister of Joseph and Marguerite of Rivière-du-Ouest and Marie-Josèphe of Grande-Anse.  With them were three children:  Charles-Olivier, age 16; François, age 14; and Cécile, age 6.  De La Roque noted that Charles "has been 14 months in the country," that "in stock" he and Cécile owned "four oxen, five cows, one calf, one horse, one ewe, three sows, two pigs and four fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case.  It was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for a large garden."  Jean-Antoine Apart, age 32, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Minas, lived with wife Marie-Josèphe Breau, no age given, and two children:  Marguerite-Josèphe, age 5; and Jean-Baptiste, age 2.  De La Roque noted that Jean "has been two years in the country," that "in stock" he and Marie-Josèphe owned "two oxen, one cow, one calf, one sow and six fowls," and that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases.  It was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for a garden only."  François Michel, fils, age 32, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Annapolis Royal, lived with wife Marie-Josèphe Bourg, age 34, "native of l'Acadie."  They had no children.  De La Roque noted that François "has been in the country 14 months," that he and Marie-Josèphe "have in live stock two oxen, one cow, one heifer, two sows, four pigs and four fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases.  It was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for the sowing of three bushels of wheat in the coming spring."  Jean Michel, age 27, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Annapolis Royal, and François's brother, lived with wife Martine Bourg, age 28, "native of l'Acadie," and two daughters:  Anne-Agathe, age 4; and Marguerite, age 2.  De La Roque noted that Jean "has been in the country 14 months," that "in stock" he and Martine owned "one ox, one cow, three sows and three pigs," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case.  It was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for the sowing of three bushels of grain in the coming spring."  François Michel, père, age 63, "native of l'Acadie," widower of Marie-Anne Léger and François, fils and Jean's father, lived with second wife Élisabeth Le Juge, age 65, "native of l'Acadie" and widow of Pierre Benoit le jeune, who he had married the previous November.  Living with them were seven children, the oldest from her first marriage, the others from his first marriage:  Anne Benoit, age 22; Marguerite Michel, age 19; Joseph Michel, age 17; Catherine Michel, age 16; Pierre Michel, age 14; Félicité Michel, age 11; and Françoise-Perpétué Michel, age 9.  De La Roque noted that François, père "has been in the country 14 months," that his and Élisabeth's "live stock consists of two oxen, one heifer, one sow, two pigs and one hen," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases.  It was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for the sowing of four bushels of grain next spring."  Ambroise Naquin, age 27, "native of l'Acadie," probably Cobeguit, lived with wife Isabelle Bourg, age 20, "native of l'Acadie," and their 2-year-old daughter Isabelle.  De La Roque noted that Ambroise "has been two years in the country," that "in stock" he and Isabelle owned "two oxen, two cows, one calf, one horse, one ewe, four pigs and two fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated on the south side of Ance à Pinet.  It was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for the sowing of a bushel and a half of grain."  Jacques Naquin, age 51, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Port-Royal, and Ambroise's father, was the "widower of the late Jeanne Melançon."  With him were six of his younger children:  Marguerite, age 25; Jacques, fils, age 24; Joseph, age 20; Élisabeth, age 19; Pierre, age 17; and Marianne, also called Anne-Marie, age 14.  Also with them was Pierre dit Pedro Melanson, age 80 (actually 82), "native of l'Acadie," actually Minas, widower of Marie Blanchard, brother of Cécile of Rivière-du-Nord, father of Cécile of Pointe-à-la-Jeunesse, Île Royale, and Françoise of Rivière-de-l'Ouest, and Jacques Naquin's father-in-law.  De La Roque noted that Jacques, "has been one year in the country," that "in stock" he and his children owned four oxen, two cows, one calf, one mare, seven ewes and four pgis," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case.  It was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for the sowing of two bushels of wheat in the coming spring."  François Naquin, age 48, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Port-Royal, and Jacques's younger brother, lived with wife Angélique Blanchard, age 45, "native of l'Acadie," and 10 children:  Jean-Baptiste, age 23; Angélique, age 21; François, fils, age 19; Anne, age 18; Charles, age 14; Joseph, age 12; Marianne-Anastasie, age 11; Ursule, age 7; Tarsille, age 4; and Marianne, age 2.  Also with them was Isaac Hébert, age 3, "his grand-son."  De La Roque noted that François "has been in the country two years," that "in live stock" he and Angélique owned "four oxen, two cows, three calves, three ewes and five pigs," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases.  It was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for the sowing of three bushels of wheat in the coming spring."   Pierre Dugas, age 43, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Cobeguit, lived with wife Élisabeth Bourg, age 40, "native of l'Acadie" and sister of Marie-Madeleine of Pointe-à-la-Jeunesse, Île Royale.  With them were eight children:  Marie, age 18; Jean, age 16; Marie-Josèphe, age 15; Élisabeth, age 13; Anaïse, age 11; Osite, age 10; Pierre, fils, age 6; and Prosper, age 1.  De La Roque noted that Pierre "has been on the island one year," said nothing of his and Élisabeth's livestock, but noted that "The land on which they are settled is situated on the south side of Ance à Pinet.  It was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  They have made a clearing on it for the sowing of two bushels of wheat in the coming spring."  Charles Pitre, age 32, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and brother of Cécile and Françoise of Baie-des-Espagnols, Île Royale, Jean, Joseph, and Catherine of Rivière-de-l'Ouest, Amand of Grande-Anse, and Michel and Madeleine of Pointe-Prime, lived with wife Anne Thibodeau, age 31, "native of l'Acadie" and niece of  Antoine and Joseph Thibodeau of Rivière-du-Moulin-à-Scie.  With them were three children:  Marie-Marthe, age 6; Osite, age 4; and Jean-Baptiste, age 1.  De La Roque noted that Charles "has been one year on the island," that "in stock" he and Anne owned "three oxen, five cows and four pigs," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases.  It was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for the sowing of four bushels of wheat in the coming spring."  Paul Henry, age 29, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and brother of brother of Cécile and Martin of Pointe-à-la-Jeunesse, Jean dit Le Neveu of Rivière-de-l'Ouest, Marie-Josèphe of Rivière-du-Moulin-à-Scie, François of Grande-Ascension, and Pierre of Anse-de-la-Boullotière, lived with wife Théotiste Thibodeau, age 27, "native of l'Acadie" and Anne's sister.  With them were three children:  Athanase, age 6; Madeleine-Josèphe, age 4; and Firmin, age 2.  De La Roque noted that Paul "has been on the island one year," that "In stock" he and Théotiste owned "two oxen, one cow, one ewe, one bull and five pigs," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding case.  It was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  They have made a clearing on it for the sowing of four bushels of wheat in the coming spring."  Alexandre Gautrot, age 34, "native of l'Acadie," lived with wife Marguerite Hébert, age 27, "native of l'Acadie," and four children:  François-Hilaire, age 7; Julienne, age 5; Alexandre, fils, age 3; and Marin, age 1.  Also with them was Victor Gautrot, age 13, "native of l'Acadie, his nephew."  De La Roque noted that Alexandre "has been one year on the island," that he and Marguerite "have in stock one cow and four pigs," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases.  It was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  They have made a clearing on it for the sowing of two bushels of wheat in the coming spring."  François Gautrot, père, age 74, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Port-Royal, Alexandre's father, lived with wife Louise Aucoin, age 72, "native of l'Acadie," actually Chignecto, and sister of Isabelle and Françoise of Rivière-de-l'Ouest, and Michel, père of Rivière-du-Nord-Est.  With the elderly couple was their 25-year-old daughter Marie-Madeleine, "native of l'Acadie."  De La Roque noted that François "has been in the country one year" and that he and Louise's "live stock consists of one cow and four pigs," but he said nothing of François's land.  François Gautrot, fils, age 28, "native of l'Acadie" and Alexandre's brother, lived with wife Marie LeBlanc, age 23, "native of l'Acadie," and two sons:  Jean-Baptiste, age 3; and Joseph le jeune, age 19 months.  With them also was Charles Gautrot, age 17, "orphan," "their nephew."  De La Roque noted that François, fils "has been on the island one year," that "In stock" he and Marie owned "two oxen, one cow and five fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated on the south side of Ance à Pinet.  It was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  They have made on it a clearing for the sowing of three bushels of wheat in the coming spring."  René dit Renauchon Aucoin, age 41, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," son of Michel, père of Rivière-du-Nord-Est and Louise's nephew, lived with wife Madeleine Michel, age 35, "native of l'Acadie" and daughter of François, père.  With Renauchon and Madeleine were six children:  Marie-Madeleine, age 14; Osite, age 12; Élisabeth, age 9; Anne-Lablanche, age 6; Marguerite-Josèphe, age 5; and François-Marin, age 8 months.  De La Roque noted that René "has been 14 months on the island," that "in live stock" he and Madeleine owned "two oxen, one heifer, three sows, four pigs and five fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases.  It was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing for the sowing of four bushels of wheat in the coming spring."  Pierre Gautrot, age 44, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and François, père's oldest son, lived with second wife Élisabeth Thériot, age 42, "native of l'Acadie," widow of ____ Landry and Pierre Melanson, and Cécile's younger sister.  Pierre and Élisabeth had only recently married, so they had no children of their own.  Living with them were 10 children, two from her first and second marriages, and the rest from his first marriage to Agnès LeBlanc, Marie's oldest sister:  Pierre Landry, age 20; Pierre Melanson, age 17; Anaïse or Agnès Gautrot, age 18; Théodore, called Théo, Gautrot, age 14; Basile Gautrot, age 11; Honoré Gautrot, age 9; Marie-Josèphe Gautrot, age 7; Rose Gautrot, age 5; and Benoit Gautrot, age 3.  De La Roque noted that Pierre "has been in the country 15 months," that he and Élisabeth "have in live stock: three oxen, two cows, two mares, one ewe, six pigs and three fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated as in the preceding cases.  It was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  They have made a clearing on it for the sowing of three bushels of wheat and two bushels of oats in the coming spring."202

De La Roque and his party then made their way around the southeast bulge of the island towards Pointe-de-l'Est, today's East Point, beyond which lay a wide channel of the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the western shore of Île Royale.  "Ance du Havre à Mathieu is situated on the south shore of the Isle Saint-Jean," De La Roque recorded, "three leagues," or a bit over eight and a half miles, "from the peninsula of Trois-Rivières," now Brudenell Point," and six from Pointe de l'Est.  It is formed by Cap à David lying to the south and Cap à la Soury to the north.  The distance between these points is estimated at one league.  The creek lies north and south and runs a half league inland to the west, having an almost uniform breadth throughout.  At its extreme furthermost end it branches into two harbours.  One of which is called Havre à Matthieu," today's Rollo Bay.  "It is void of any settler and lies to the north of the creek running west one league inland.  The width of this harbour is ascertained to be irregular, but it is estimated at an average of 200 toises," or a fourth of a mile.  "In the middle of the creek there is a channel twenty toises," or 130 feet, "in breadth, in which there is from eight to nine feet of water at low tide.  The lands surrounding the harbour are covered with hardwood of every description.  At the other extremity of the said creek lies havre la Fortune," today's Fortune Bay.  "It runs south-west to a depth of a league and a half inland.  Its breadth at the widest part is estimated to be frm 300 to 350 toises," or nearly half a mile, "whilst the channel has seven to eight feet of water on the bar at high tide.  The nature of the soil renders it profitable for cultivation, and the settlers who took refuge here at the time of the last war, praise it very highly.  The meadow lands are situated on the banks of these rivers.  They yield a sufficiently large quantity of hay to serve as fodder for such live stock as the settlers have in possession at present, but it is thought that if the area was extended a large number of head of cattle might be raised and fed.  All the surrounding lands are covered with different sorts of mixed timber, but the settlers have not yet discovered a quarry of any sort."203 

At Havre-de-la-Fortune De La Roque found six more families, only two of them recent arrivals from British Nova Scotia.  The other, long-established families, were more or less related:  Joseph Le Prieur, age 49, navigator, "native of Port Royal, in l'Acadie," lived with second wife Marguerite Olivier, age 29, "native of Beaubassin," and four children, all from his second marriage:  Emmanuel, age 9; Roch, age 7; Jean-Baptiste, age 5; and Marie, age 3.  De La Roque noted that Joseph "has been in the country 30 years," that "In stock" he and Marguerite "have the following: six oxen, six cows, two heifers, four calves, five ewes, five pigs, and twenty fowls; as well as one schooner of 26 tons burden, and another of 15 tons.  The land on which they are newly settled is situated on the right bank of the harbour of La Fortune.  Their only title is that of possession, and a verbal permission from Monsieur de Bonnventure, the King's commandant in the isle Saint-Jean.  They have made a large clearing and could have sown 28 bushels of seed if they had had it, but have only sown nine bushels and a half of wheat, half a bushel of rye, half bushel of barley, four and a half bushels of peas, two bushels of oats, and they could have sown another eleven bushels."  Christophe Delaune, age 47, ploughman, "native of the parish of Perier, bishopric of Avranche, Normandy," lived with wife Marguerite Caissie, age 25, "native of Beaubassin," and sister of sister of Jeanne of Port-Toulouse, Île Royale, Marie-Blanche and Rosalie of Rivière-du-Nord-Est, and Michel of Rivière-du-Moulin-à-Scie.  With Christophe and Marguerite were five children:  Pierre, age 13; Jean, age 9; Geneviève, age 7; Jacques, age 6; and Jean, age 30 months.  De La Roque noted that Christophe "has been in the country 23 years," that "In stock" he and Marguerite "have: four oxen, three cows, one calf, four ewes, four pigs and four fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is contiguous to that of Joseph Le Prieur" (who, strangely enough, would become Marguerite Caissie's second husband, and she would become his fourth and final wife).  "They," Christophe and Marguerite, "have made a large clearing on it where they have sown eight bushels of wheat, four bushels of oats, one bushel and a half of peas, half a bushel of barley, half a bushel of buck wheat and a piece of land sufficient for two bushels of sown seed with turnips, and they have sufficient land for the sowing of another eight bushels of seed."  Pierre Le Prieur l'aîné, age 27, "native of St. Pierre in the north part of the island" and Joseph's brother, lived with wife Judith Chiasson, age 39, "native of l'Acadie," actually Chignecto, "widow of the late Charles Lacroix dit Durel."  With Pierre and Judith were six children by her first marriage and two by her second:  Marguerite and Marie-Élisabeth Lacroix dit Durel, age 21; Anne Lacroix dit Durel, age 18; Judith Lacroix dit Durel, age 16; Charles Lacroix dit Durel, age 13; Marie-Anne Lacroix dit Durel, age 7; Pierre La Prieur, age 4; and Marie La Prieur, age 2.  De La Roque noted that "In stock" Pierre and Judith "have three oxen, two cows, and one heifer," that "The land on which they are settled is situated to the south-west of that of Joseph Le Prieur, his brother.  They have made a clearing where they were only able to sow six bushels of wheat, having no more.  Their land is sufficiently large to sow eighteen bushes of seed."  Joannis, or Jean-Baptiste, Laborde, age 34, ploughman, "native of the parish of la Bastide, bishopric of Bayonne," lived with wife Marie La Prieur, age 32, "native of St. Pierre in the north of this island" and Joseph and Pierre l'aîné's sister.  With Joannis and Marie were five children:  Guillaume, age 12; Charles-François, age 9; Marie, age 6; Marguerite, age 3; and Jean-Baptiste, fils, age 1.  De La Roque noted that Joannis "has been in the country 12 years," that "in live stock" he and Marie owned "four oxen, five cows, four calves, one wether and nine fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated on the left bank of the harbour of la Fortune.  They have made a clearing on it and sown ten bushels of wheat and half a bushel of peas."  Joseph LeBlanc, age 40, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Grand-Pré, and brother of Marie-Josèphe dite Josette of Rivière-aux-Habitants, Île Royale, lived with wife Marie-Josèphe Bourg, age 35, "native of l'Acadie" and brother of Pierre of Pointe-à-la-Jeunesse, Île Royale.  With Joseph and Marie-Josèphe were five sons:  Ambroise, age 14; Simon-Joseph, age 12; Joseph, fils, age 8; Bénoni, age 3; and Charles, age 4 months.  De La Roque noted that Joseph "has been in the country one year," that "In live stock" he and Marie-Josèphe "have four oxen, six cows, five calves, one horse, six pigs and fourteen fowls or chickens," that "The land on which they are settled was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure, the commandant of this island, to the south-west of the dwelling of Joannis Laborde.  They have made a clearing on it where they have sown four bushels of wheat."   Abraham Daigre, age 47, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie" and brother of Pierre of Port-Toulouse, Île Royale, Amand of Rivière-du-Nord, Jean of Rivière-des-Blancs, Joseph of Anse-au-Matelot, and François of Pointe-au-Bouleau, lived with wife Marie, also called Anne-Marie, Boudrot, age 44, "native of the parish of St. Charles, bishopric of Quebec," which was Grand-Pré.  With Abraham and Marie were nine children:  Marguerite, age 23; Aimable, age 21; Jean, age 20; Marie-Rosalie, age 16; Jean-Éloi, age 14; François-Marie, age 12; Pierre, age 10; Joseph, age 5; and Nicolas, age 2.  De La Roque noted that Abraham "has been in the country two years," that "In live stock" he and Marie "have two oxen, two cows, one calf, one ewe, three pigs and four fowls," and that "The land on which they are settled is situated on the right shore of the said harbour.  It was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure, commandant of Isle Saint-Jean.  They have made a clearing on which they have sown two bushels of wheat, two bushels of peas and one bushel of oats."204

De La Roque and his party then moved on, heading northeast up the coast.  "We left Havre de la Fortune on the 11th [of August]," he recorded, "and took the route for Pointe de l'Est, situated, it is stated, six leagues from the harbour [de la Fortune].  After having doubled the point of Havre à Mathieu, we passed a little to seaward of the harbour la Souris," today's Colville Bay, "and observed that it runs a league and a half inland to the north, throwing out an arm to the east.  The entrance to the harbour is practicable only for boats and wood boats of the capacity of three to four cords.  Next we noticed the little habors that run, the one to the west and the other to the north-west, which are practicable for boats alone.  In all this part of the country there is but little hay made.  The land seems to be of a nature suitable for cultivation, and is covered with all kinds of hard wood fit for the construction of small vessels and boats.  These two harbours lie a distance of one league apart and two leagues from the harbour de la Fortune.  After having made another two leagues, we found ourselves crossing Havre de l'Echorie.  Its entrance lies north and south, and is estimated at one hundred toises in length.  Inside the entrance the harbour divides into two arms, running east and west so that that on the starboard side on entering may have a league in length, by a quarter of a league of breadth, and that to the larboard three-quarters of a league.  There is a great deal of grass on the banks of the harbour.  The harbour is practicable only for boats.  It is considered that this harbour would only have been a large creek but for the sand dunes thrown up by the wind, which sand dunes separate it from the sea.  Next, after making another two leagues, we doubled Pointe de l'Est.  This point has been reduced to a wilderness by a fire which has passed through this section, and the settlers have established themselves at a distance of two leagues," not quite six miles, "from the point on the north side," at Tranchemontagne, near today's North Lake.  "The land on which the people have settled is of the best for cultivation.  Nevertheless they have sown no seed here, and the truth is that they lack seed to sow, and if the King does not make a gift or loan of seed so that they can sow it next spring they will find it impossible to maintain themselves, being to-day at the last stage of poverty through the great mortality among their livestock."205  

De La Roque now surveyed the island's north coast almost to its western extremity.  Beginning at Tranchemontagne, today's North Lake, a few miles west of Pointe de l'Est, and ending at distant Havre-de-Cascumpec, today's Cascumpec Bay, on the northwest coast of the island, De La Roque counted 103 more families while providing his superiors the most detailed descriptions of the island's coastal geography. 

Near Tranchmontagne, De La Roque found only four families, all part of the same extended family and all long-time residents of the colony:  Noël Pinet, age 70 (actually 68), ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Chignecto, and uncle of Charles, fils of Port-Toulouse, Île Royale, and brother of Marie-Brigitte of Rivière-de-Peugiguit, lived with wife Rose Henry, age 50 (actually 60, "native of l'Acadie" and sister of Madeleine of St.-Esprit, Antoine of Pointe-à-la-Jeunesse, and Catherine of Rivière-de-Miré, Île Royale, Germain of Port-Lajoie, and Jean dit le Vieux and Joseph dit Le Petit Homme of Rivière-de-l'Ouest.  With Noël and Rose were two of their younger children:  Charles, age 18; and Anne, age 13.  De La Roque noted that Noël "has been twelve years in the country," that "In live stock" he and Rose "have three oxen, two cows, one heifer, one mare, seven wethers and nine pigs," that "The land on which they are settled was granted to him by Messieurs Duchambon and Dubuisson.  They have made a clearing on it where they ordinarily sow forty bushels of grain yearly, and will sow that quantity next spring if they are given the seed."  Antoine Dechevery, or D'Etcheverry, age 40, fisherman and ploughman, "native of Bayonne," France, lived with wife Marie Pinet, age 30, "native of Canada" and one of Noël and Rose's daughters.  With Antoine and Marie were six children:  Denis, age 11; Antoine, fils, age 10; François, age 8; Pierre, age 6; Jean, age 4; and Marie, age 6 months.  De La Roque noted that Antoine "has been 25 years in the colony," that "In stock" he and Marie "have six oxen, one cow, one heifer, two calves, one mare, six ewes, four pigs and three hens," that "The land on which they are settled was given to them by Noël Pinet, their father.  They have made a clearing where they could sow 36 bushels of grain in the coming spring."  Jean-Baptiste Pinet, age 41, fisherman and ploughman, "native of Quebec" and Noël's oldest son, lived with wife Jeanne-Isabelle Pillot, actually Pilon, age 24, "native of La Rochelle," France, who he married at Chignecto in January 1746.  With Jean-Baptiste and Jeanne were three sons:  Charles, age 4; Basile, age 3; and Jean-Baptiste, fils, age 2.  De La Roque noted that "In stock" Jean-Baptiste and Jeanne "have: two oxen, one cow, one calf and four pigs," and that "The land on which they are settled is part of the homestead of their father.  They have made a clearing where they could sow twenty bushels of grain if it were given to them."  Pierre Pinet, age 24, ploughman, "native of Petit Degrat" and another of Noël's sons, lived with wife Geneviève Trahan, age 22, "native of l'Acadie," probably Pigiguit, daughter of Jean of Baie-des-Espagnols and sister of Brigitte of Baie-de-L'Indienne, Île Royale.  With Pierre and Geneviève were three sons:  Jean, age 3; Pierre, age 2; and Paul, age 6 weeks.  De La Roque noted that "They have in live stock two oxen, two cows, one calf, one wether and one pig," and that "They are settled on the homestead of Noël Pinet, their father.  They have made a clearing where they could sow thirty bushels of grain if they had it."206

"We left on the 13th and took the route for l'Etang du Noffrage," today's Naufrage, De La Roque recorded, "following the sea shore continually for the six leagues"--17 1/2 miles--"at which the distance from the Post at Pointe de l'Est to l'Etang du Noffrage is estimated.  In this distance we met with nothing worthy of notice.  The land is a desert owing to the occurrence of the fire, but a short distance inland the country is covered with hardwood and the soil was good for the production of all kinds of grain and roots; everything coming up in abundance.  Owing to the lack of seed grain the settler here," who he did not identify, "was unable to seed his land this year, but the small quantity of wheat which he was able to sow is amongst the finest in the island.  The ears are long, large and well filled.  The Etang du Noffrage runs a quarter of a league inland to the south-west.  The breadth averages 80 toises," or a bit over 500 feet.  "At the extremity of the étang, a long brook, which never dries up, discharges its water.  This brook is supplied from two large springs lying at a distance of two leagues and a half inland to the west south-west.  The brook contains sufficient water to run flour and saw mills, but as regards the latter they are considered useless, as there is no timber suitable for sawing, all the hardwood, growing in the surrounding district being good at the best for the building of boats."

De La Roque then continued westward along the island's north coast.  "We left on the 14th for St. Pierre du Nord," he recorded.  "We counted the distance between the two points as six leagues by the road.  We saw nothing on the way that calls for description.  The harbour of St. Pierre lies on the north coast of the Isle St. Jean.  It is well suited for the pursuit of cod fishing, the fish being as a rule more abundant here than at Ile Royale; but, in truth, of a quality much inferior to those of the latter island.  A market for the cod is found at Louisbourg, as well as with the merchants of that town, for shipment with the consignments they make to the islands of America.  The lands around St. Pierre are suitable for cultivation and the settlers successfully follow the occupations of fishing and of cultivating the soil.  The lands that have been seeded this year present one of the most beautiful scenes that anyone could desire to witness.  The entrance to the harbour is formed by sand dunes.  It is estimated that the entrance is 350 toises," nearly half a mile, "across, the sand dunes lying east and west.  The channel is navigable only for vessels having a draft of eight or nine feet, and at high tide the channel runs north and south with a depth everywhere of from 15 to 16 feet of water, and if it were not for the bar and shallows that have been thrown up by the different currrents, vessels of 300 tons burden could make their passage without any difficulty.  In order to enter the harbour it is necessary to follow the lines of the sand dunes at a distance of 100 toises, on the west side, afterwards passing at a distance of 20 or 30 toises at the utmost the fish-drying grounds of le Sieur Aubin.  It is believed that if an enbankment were constructed from the foot of the sand dune on the east side of the harbour to the border of the channel, sufficiently high to force the currents to flow into and out of the harbour, of St. Pierre as well as the main body of the river of the river to pass through the said channel from that point, the currents would be diverted from the flat ground, and become sufficiently rapid to clear away the bar which proves the greatest impediment to the navigation of the harbour.  The settlement at the harbour of St. Pierre is deemed to be one of considerable importance now, as much because of the trade connected with the fisheries, as of that which might be carried on in the interior of the Isle, were it, as it seems likely to be, well settled.  When one considers seriously all that might be accomplished to make this trade solid and durable, it becomes apparent that the cultivation of the land, and the raising of live stock of all descriptions must be regarded as the pivot on which the whole ought to turn.  It must be remembered that so long as the fishermen are obliged to procure all their fishing equipment, supplies and food from the merchants of Louisbourg, or other itinerant traders, they will, owing to the excessive prices they have to pay for what merchandise they require, and the moderate prices they receive for their fish, always find themselves conducting their fishery operations at a loss.  On the other hand if the settlers had the power of making from their own produce the bread, butter, meat, clothes and linen, to supply their principal wants, and the fishermen were obliged to procure only their salt, lines, hooks, etc., from the aforesaid merchants, they would be able to sell their fish at the lowest price, and reap a substantial profit."207

Here, in and around the island's oldest community, today's St. Peters Harbour, De La Roque counted 57 families, most of them long-time residents.  He found them not only at the harbor, but also along several tributaries and on the coast west of the harbor.  Only along the rivers above Port-Lajoie could one find more settlers on the island.226 

The first eight families De La Roque counted lived along the north bank of Rivière-St.-Pierre, across from the harbor.  All were long-time residents of the area and, typically, were all related:  Louis Beaulieu, age 54, ploughman, native of Calvados, France, lived with wife Marguerite Oudy, age 34, "native of l'Acadie," actually Chignecto, and seven children:  Pierre, age 19; Jean-Louis, age 13; Marie-Jeanne, age 11; Hélène, age 7; Marie-Louise, age 6; Marguerite, age 7; and Jacques, age 1.  De La Roque noted that Louiis and Marguerite "own the following live stock: --four oxen, three cows, two bulls, one sow, five pigs, one ram, twelve ewes and three fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated on the north bank of the river St. Pierre.  It was granted to them in 1736 by Messrs. Despiet de Pensens and Dubuisson.  The grant has been homologated by Messieurs de Brouillant and Le Normand.  It contains five arpents, eight perches, nine feet of front facing on the said river with a depth extending from the bank of said river to the dunes.  They have made on said grant a large piece of pasture land, with a clearing, on which they have sown twenty bushels of wheat, two bushels of peas, and there remains fallow land sufficient for the sowing of twenty-four bushels of seed which they have not seede for want of grain."  Jean-Baptiste, called Jean, Oudy, age 29, fisherman and ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Chignecto, Marguerite's younger brother, lived with wife Marie Blanchard dit Gentilhomme, age 23, "native of l'Acadie" and oldest daughter of François dit Gentilhomme of Malpèque, which De La Roque had not yet visited.  François dit Gentilhomme had come to British Nova Scotia in c1712 and was not kin to the Blanchards who had come to French Acadia in the early 1640s.   With Jean and Marie were their 10-month-old son Jean-Baptiste, fils and Marie's 9-year-old sister Rosalie.  De La Roque noted that Jean "has been in the country 22 years," that "in live stock" he and Marie owned "two cows, one mare, ten ewes, two sows, and eleven fowls or chickens," that "The land on which they are settled is situated on the north side of the river St. Pierre.  They have been there since the month of August last by the verbal permission of M. de Bonnaventure.  They have made a clearing on it where they have sown two bushels and a half of wheat, one bushel of peas and half a bushel of oats."  Jean Lacroix dit Canniche or Caniche, age 40, fisherman and ploughman, "native of Bayonne," France, lived with Cécile Oudy, age 39, "native of l'Acadie," actually Chignecto, and Marguerite and Jean's older half-sister.  With Jean and Cécile were five children, "three sons and two daughters," which, strangely, De La Roque did not name.  He did note that Jean "has been 26 years in the colony," that "In live stock" he and Cécile "have six oxen, four cows, one bull, fifteen ewes, one calf, six lambs, four pigs, two sows and five fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated on the north side of the river Saint-Pierre.  It contains, fronting on the said river ___ arpents ___ perches and ___ feet and in depth  extending [to] the back of the dunes.  They have made a clearing on which they have sown nine bushels of wheat and one bushel of peas and there remains a piece of fallow land sufficient for the sowing of nine bushels."  Martin Tchiparé, or D'Etcheverry, dit Savate, age 38, fisherman and ploughman, "native of Bayonne," lived with wife Marie-Josèphe Oudy, age 36, "native of l'Acadie," actually Chignecto, and Marguerite and Jean's full sister.  With Martin and Marie were six children:  Jacques-Martin, age 14; Marie-Anne, age 13; Cécile, age 11; Pierre, age 8; Madeleine, age 4; and Martin, fils, age 2.  Also living with the family was Guillaume Gallet, age 22, "domestic to the said Tchiparé."  De La Roque noted that Martin "has been 24 years in the colony," that "in live stock" he and Marie owned "five oxen, one cow, two heifers, one calf, five wethers, three ewes, two lambs, two pigs, three sows, eight geese, ten hens, together with one boat.  The land on which they are settled is situated on the north side of the river Saint-Pierre.  It was granted to them by deed but they were unable to produce the title to us having lost it.  They have made a clearing on which they have sown twelve bushels of wheat and a bushel and a half of peas and they still have sufficient fallow land for the sowing of nine bushels."   Claude Oudy, age 40, fisherman and ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Chignecto, his father's oldest son by first wife Cécile Blou, lived with wife Marie-Angélique, called Angélique, Pothier, age 29, also "native of Beaubassin" and sister of Charles of Rivière-du-Nord-Est.  With Claude and Angélique were eight children:  Claude, fils, age 12; Marie-Henriette, age 8; Cécile, age 6; Jean-Baptiste, age 5; Monique, age 4; Marie-Josèphe, age 3; Marie-Anne, age 2; and Marie-Madeleine, age 1 month.  De La Roque noted that Claude "has been in the country 30 years," that he and Angélique "have in live stock one ox, six wethers, two ewes, one pig, and fifty-six fowls or chickens," and that "The land on which they are settled is situated on the north of the river Saint-Pierre.  It was granted to them by Monsieurs de Pensens and Dubuisson, and homologated by Messieurs de Brouillant and Lenormand.  They have made a clearing on it in which they have sowed two bushels of wheat, and there remains fallow land in which they might sow twenty bushels."  The widow of Jacques Oudy, père, his second wife, Marguerite Saulnier, age 55, sister of Catherine of Anse-aux-Pirogues, lived with seven of her younger children:  Pierre, age 28; Anne, age 24; Joseph, age 20; Marie-Madeleine, called Madeleine, age 17; Étienne, age 16; and Cécile, age 12.  De La Roque noted that Marguerite "has been in the country 24 years," that "In live stock she had eight oxen, four sows, two bulls, two heifers, eight wethers, ten ewes, eight pigs, thirty geese and eight fowl," that "The land on which she is settled is situated on the north side of the river Saint-Pierre.  It was granted by Monsieurs de Pensens and Potier Dubuisson, and homologated by Messieurs de Brouillant and Le Normant under date the 20th July, 1736.  It contains 5 arpents, 6 perches facing on the said river with the depth including all to the dunes.  They have made a clearing on it where they have sown twenty-four bushels of wheat, six bushels of peas, six bushels of oats and one of linseed, and still have sufficient fallow land for another twenty-two bushels."  Jacques Oudy, fils, age 30, fisherman and ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," actually Chignecto, and Marguerite Saulnier's oldest son, lived with Marie-Madeleine, called Madeleine, Doucet, age 26, "native of l'Acadie," and their 9-month-old daughter Marie-Madeleine.  De La Roque noted that Jacques, fils "has been on the island 24 years," that "In stock" he and Madeleine owned two cows, four ewes, one sow and three pigs," that "The land on which they are settled is situated on the north of the river Saint-Pierre.  The only title they have is that of possession, and permission from Monsieur de Bonnaventure, the King's Commandant on the Isle.  On it they have made a clearing for the sowing of three bushels of wheat and one bushel of peas."  Jean-Baptiste Vescot, or Vécot, age 62, ploughman, "native of the parish of Saint Joachim, bishopric of Quebec" and father of François of Rivière-du-Nord-Est, lived with wife Marie Chiasson, no age given but she was 56, "native of Beaubassin."  Marie's mother was Marie Blou, older sister of Jacques Oudy, père's first wife Cécile Blou, so this couple, too, belonged to the Oudys' extended family.  With Jean-Baptiste and Marie were six children:  Angélique, age 24; Jean-Baptiste, fils, age 22; Anne, age 20; Pierre, age 16; Joseph, age 14; and Rosalie, age 8.  De La Roque noted that Jean-Baptiste "has been in the country 24 years," that "In live stock" he and Marie "have the following: eight oxen, eight cows, eight calves, one horse, one mare, thirty ewes or wethers, seventeen pigs, twenty-one geese, eleven turkeys and twelve fowls and also a flour mill situated between Saint Pierre and the Pointe de l'Est.  The land on which they are settled is situated to the north-east of the harbour of Saint-Pierre.  They have made a clearing on it where they have sown forty bushels of wheat, eleven bushels of oats, three bushels of peas and four bushels of rye, and there still remains fallow land sufficient for the sowing of thirty-two bushels.  They hold the said land under grant from Messieurs de Pensens and Dubuisson, under date of the 18th of July, 1736.  The said land contains five arpents frontage by a depth extending to the dunes, said to be ten arpents.  They enjoy another piece of land which is a sort of a marsh, where they make their hay, situated at Grand Etang in the north part of this isle, under a certificate of the late Monsieur Potier Dubuisson, dated the 22nd July, 1738, in which it is stated that half of this land is given to them and the other half to Jacques Oudy and that with the consent of Monsieur de Pensens."208

De La Roque moved around to the south side of Rivière-St.-Pierre, above the harbor, and found five families who, with one exception, had come to the island recently:  Pierre Bonnière, age 43, tailor and ploughman, "native of parish of Raquiel, bishopric of Rennes," France, lived with wife Madeleine-Josèphe Forest, age 35, "native of Cobequit, in the said Acadia" and sister of Brigitte of Anse-au-Matelot.  With them were six children:  Marie-Madeleine, age 19; Michel-Joseph, age 17; Jean-Jacques, age 16; Rose, age 14; Anne, age 11; and Charles, age 8.  De La Roque noted that Pierre "came from l'Acadie with his family to this isle two years ago," that he and Madeleine "have the following live stock: three oxen, two cows, one calf, one sow, four ewes, eleven fowls," and that "The land on which they are settled is situated half a league in the interior of the lands in the south part of the settlement of said Pierre du Nord.  It was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have only made a clearing for a garden.  The said Sr. Bonnière occupies another piece of land that he has purchased from Anne Daigre, widow of the late Étienne Poitevin [and wife of Mathurin Thénière] situated to the south of the farm of Sr. François Douville, at Pointe de St. Pierre.  They have made a clearing on it on which they have grown eight bushels of wheat."  Pierre Bonnière, fils, age 21, ploughman, "native of l'Acadie," probably Pigiguit, lived with wife Anne Granger, age 21, "native of l'Acadie."  Recently married, they had no children.  De La Roque noted that Pierre, fils "has been in the country two years," that "in stock" he and Anne owned "one ox, one cow and eight fowls," that "The land on which they are settled is situated to the south-west of the property of Pierre Bonnière, their father.  It was given to them verbally by Monsieur de Bonnaventure.  On it they have made a clearing on which they have sown five bushels of wheat; and they have fallow land besides sufficient for the sowing of another five bushels."  Mathurin Thenière, age 60, fisherman and ploughman, "native of Avranches, Normandy," lived with wife Anne Daigre, age 80 (actually 73), "native of l'Acadie," actually Port-Royal, and widow of Étienne Poitevin dit Parisien.  With them was "their grand-daughter" Anne Noyer, age 8, whose mother was Ursule Poitevin, one of Anne's daughters by her first husband.  De La Roque noted that Mathurin "has been in the country 10 years," that he and Anne owned "one cow with her calf," and that "The land on which they are settled is situated in the interior at half a league distance," about a mile and a half, "from the parish on the King's Highway to Grande Source," at the head of Rivière-du-Nord-Est.  &q